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Lecture01
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Lecture01

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  • 1. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 20 January 2005
  • 2. Organizational <ul><li>Class Website </li></ul><ul><li>www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~ece195/2005/ </li></ul><ul><li>Class Time and Place </li></ul>Please note that the room numbers are different for Mondays and Thursdays. Room 3220 SC 12:30-1:20 Thursday Room 4511 SC   4:30-5:20 Monday
  • 3. Confusion of Terms Berkeley Mote ZigBee Directed Diffusion Localization Rumor Routing Crossbow MAC Protocols Self-Organizing Networks Tiny-OS Tiny-DB Power Management RSSI ISM Band RFID Smart Dust ?
  • 4. Mote <ul><li>“Tiny piece of anything” </li></ul><ul><li>Low-power (RF) transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul>Crossbow mote with battery
  • 5. Mote <ul><li>Transceiver 400 MHz and up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line-of-sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlicensed operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATmega 128 - 16 MHz, 128KB Flash, 4 KB RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power, sleep modes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TinyOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes programming much, much easier </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Operating Systems <ul><li>MSDOS, Windows, Linux, TinyOS </li></ul><ul><li>NOT the interface, but </li></ul><ul><li>The program that manages all other software and the hardware resources </li></ul><ul><li>Provide services to other programs “applications” (encapsulate common tasks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a simple task such as writing a few bytes to a disk without an OS is a significant task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isolate programmer from hardware </li></ul>
  • 7. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Mote Antenna Communications barrier
  • 8. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Watershed
  • 9. How Did We Get Here? <ul><li>Advances wireless technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMS, VLSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless devices are everywhere and people are receptive to new applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of networks are ingrained in culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system theory, network theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive compilers </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Wireless Revolution Boston central telephone station at 40 Pearl Street after the blizzard of 1881
  • 11. Wireless Revolution TI REGENCY TR-1, 1955, $450 (today) 1 st Transistor, 1947 Sony TR-610, 1958 Integrated Circuit, 1963 1 st Integrated Circuit, ~1958 Today ~$5
  • 12. Wireless Revolution Size reduction of cellular telephones
  • 13. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
  • 14. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
  • 15. Small Sensors ~ 5 mm Sensor uses electrochemical and photonic properties to perform bioanalysis
  • 16. RF MEMS MEMS Filters: Qs of 98,000 in vacuum, very small Conventional LC Filters - Qs of 100-200, significant board space
  • 17. Transceiver
  • 18. Computer Revolution 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch ~14 mW ~ 64 W ~ $35 ~ $6K (today) 512 KB Flash 160 KB Floppies 128 KB RAM 16-256 KB RAM 4 MHz 4.77 MHz MICAZ Mote (2005) Original IBM PC (1981)
  • 19. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet +
  • 20. Next Time: Telemetry vs. Sensor Networks

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