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Lecture01
 

Lecture01

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    Lecture01 Lecture01 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 20 January 2005
    • Organizational
      • Class Website
      • www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~ece195/2005/
      • Class Time and Place
      Please note that the room numbers are different for Mondays and Thursdays. Room 3220 SC 12:30-1:20 Thursday Room 4511 SC   4:30-5:20 Monday
    • Confusion of Terms Berkeley Mote ZigBee Directed Diffusion Localization Rumor Routing Crossbow MAC Protocols Self-Organizing Networks Tiny-OS Tiny-DB Power Management RSSI ISM Band RFID Smart Dust ?
    • Mote
      • “Tiny piece of anything”
      • Low-power (RF) transceiver
      • Microcontroller
      • Operating system
      Crossbow mote with battery
    • Mote
      • Transceiver 400 MHz and up
        • Line-of-sight
        • Short range
        • Unlicensed operation
      • Microcontroller
        • ATmega 128 - 16 MHz, 128KB Flash, 4 KB RAM
        • Low power, sleep modes
      • TinyOS
        • Makes programming much, much easier
    • Operating Systems
      • MSDOS, Windows, Linux, TinyOS
      • NOT the interface, but
      • The program that manages all other software and the hardware resources
      • Provide services to other programs “applications” (encapsulate common tasks)
        • For example, a simple task such as writing a few bytes to a disk without an OS is a significant task
      • Isolate programmer from hardware
    • Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Mote Antenna Communications barrier
    • Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Watershed
    • How Did We Get Here?
      • Advances wireless technology
        • MEMS, VLSI
        • Bandwidth explosion
      • Changes in regulation
      • Cultural changes
        • Wireless devices are everywhere and people are receptive to new applications
        • The concept of networks are ingrained in culture
        • Open source
      • Computer Science
        • Operating system theory, network theory
        • Inexpensive compilers
    • Wireless Revolution Boston central telephone station at 40 Pearl Street after the blizzard of 1881
    • Wireless Revolution TI REGENCY TR-1, 1955, $450 (today) 1 st Transistor, 1947 Sony TR-610, 1958 Integrated Circuit, 1963 1 st Integrated Circuit, ~1958 Today ~$5
    • Wireless Revolution Size reduction of cellular telephones
    • Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
    • Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
    • Small Sensors ~ 5 mm Sensor uses electrochemical and photonic properties to perform bioanalysis
    • RF MEMS MEMS Filters: Qs of 98,000 in vacuum, very small Conventional LC Filters - Qs of 100-200, significant board space
    • Transceiver
    • Computer Revolution 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch ~14 mW ~ 64 W ~ $35 ~ $6K (today) 512 KB Flash 160 KB Floppies 128 KB RAM 16-256 KB RAM 4 MHz 4.77 MHz MICAZ Mote (2005) Original IBM PC (1981)
    • Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet +
    • Next Time: Telemetry vs. Sensor Networks