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  • 1. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 20 January 2005
  • 2. Organizational
    • Class Website
    • www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~ece195/2005/
    • Class Time and Place
    Please note that the room numbers are different for Mondays and Thursdays. Room 3220 SC 12:30-1:20 Thursday Room 4511 SC   4:30-5:20 Monday
  • 3. Confusion of Terms Berkeley Mote ZigBee Directed Diffusion Localization Rumor Routing Crossbow MAC Protocols Self-Organizing Networks Tiny-OS Tiny-DB Power Management RSSI ISM Band RFID Smart Dust ?
  • 4. Mote
    • “Tiny piece of anything”
    • Low-power (RF) transceiver
    • Microcontroller
    • Operating system
    Crossbow mote with battery
  • 5. Mote
    • Transceiver 400 MHz and up
      • Line-of-sight
      • Short range
      • Unlicensed operation
    • Microcontroller
      • ATmega 128 - 16 MHz, 128KB Flash, 4 KB RAM
      • Low power, sleep modes
    • TinyOS
      • Makes programming much, much easier
  • 6. Operating Systems
    • MSDOS, Windows, Linux, TinyOS
    • NOT the interface, but
    • The program that manages all other software and the hardware resources
    • Provide services to other programs “applications” (encapsulate common tasks)
      • For example, a simple task such as writing a few bytes to a disk without an OS is a significant task
    • Isolate programmer from hardware
  • 7. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Mote Antenna Communications barrier
  • 8. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet Sensor field Watershed
  • 9. How Did We Get Here?
    • Advances wireless technology
      • MEMS, VLSI
      • Bandwidth explosion
    • Changes in regulation
    • Cultural changes
      • Wireless devices are everywhere and people are receptive to new applications
      • The concept of networks are ingrained in culture
      • Open source
    • Computer Science
      • Operating system theory, network theory
      • Inexpensive compilers
  • 10. Wireless Revolution Boston central telephone station at 40 Pearl Street after the blizzard of 1881
  • 11. Wireless Revolution TI REGENCY TR-1, 1955, $450 (today) 1 st Transistor, 1947 Sony TR-610, 1958 Integrated Circuit, 1963 1 st Integrated Circuit, ~1958 Today ~$5
  • 12. Wireless Revolution Size reduction of cellular telephones
  • 13. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
  • 14. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) ~ 1mm
  • 15. Small Sensors ~ 5 mm Sensor uses electrochemical and photonic properties to perform bioanalysis
  • 16. RF MEMS MEMS Filters: Qs of 98,000 in vacuum, very small Conventional LC Filters - Qs of 100-200, significant board space
  • 17. Transceiver
  • 18. Computer Revolution 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch ~14 mW ~ 64 W ~ $35 ~ $6K (today) 512 KB Flash 160 KB Floppies 128 KB RAM 16-256 KB RAM 4 MHz 4.77 MHz MICAZ Mote (2005) Original IBM PC (1981)
  • 19. Sensor Network Gateway Server Internet +
  • 20. Next Time: Telemetry vs. Sensor Networks