2-3 mls of 4% lignocaine; sprayed from oropharynx down to and through vocal cords with an atomizer
Place 5 ml of 4% lidocaine into a nebulizer, flow oxygen through the nebulizer and channel the nebulized lidocaine through a face mask.
High risk of systemic toxicity.
Invasive- GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE BLOCK
easily accessed as they transverse the palatoglossal folds .
A 25g needle is inserted into the membrane near the floor of the mouth at the anterior tonsillar pillar 0.5 cm lateral to the base of the tongue.
advanced slightly (0.25-0.5 cm).
2 ml of 1% Lidocaine can be injected.
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE BLOCK.
Sensory innervation .
Above vocal cord: internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve (from inferior ganglion of vagus)
Below vocal cord: recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Vagus nerve branching into Superior Laryngeal and Recurrent Laryngeal nerve .
Note the insertion of Superior Laryngeal Nerve into ThyroHyoid Membrane .
Tracheal anatomy depicting Superior Laryngeal Nerve with the internal and external branch.
superior laryngeal nerve block-noninvasive.
Less common procedure.
Patient is asked to open the mouth widely, and the tongue is grasped using a guaze pad or tongue blade.
A right angle forcep (e.g., Jackson-Krause) is covered with anesthetic-soaked guaze and is slid over the lateral tongue and down into the pyriform sinuses bilaterally.
Cotton swabs are held in place for 5 minutes.
superior laryngeal nerve-invasive.
Pressing the contralateral greater cornu of hyoid bone, laryngeal structure to be displaced towards the side to be blocked.
22 or 23 guage - 25 mm needle is "walked off" the cornu of the hyoid bone in an anterior caudad direction, aiming in the direction of the thyroid ligament, until it can be passed through the ligament.
At a depth of 1-2 cm, 2 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine is injected into the space between the thyrohyoid membrane and the pharyngeal mucosa.
The block is repeated on the other side
Exercise caution - not to insert the needle into the thyroid cartilage, since injection of local anesthetic at the level of vocal cords may cause edema and airway obstruction.
If air is aspirated, laryngeal mucosa has been pierced, and the needle needs to be retrieved.
If blood is aspirated (superior laryngeal artery or vein), the needle needs to be redirected more anteriorly. Pressure should be applied to avoid hematoma formation.
place index and third fingers of the non-dominant hand in the space between the thyroid and cricoid cartilages .
The trachea can be held in place by placing the thumb and ring finger on either side of the thyroid cartilage. The midline should then be identified .
Placement of fingers to identify the midline of the cricothyroid membrane .
A 10 ml syringe containing lidocaine is mounted on a 22-guage, 35 mm plastic catheter over a needle, and is introduced into the trachea.
The catheter is advanced into the lumen, midline thru the cricothyroid membrane, at an angle of 45 degrees, in a caudal direction.
Placement of the needle for the Transtracheal block.
Immediately after the introduction of the catheter into the trachea, a loss of airway resistance and aspiration of air confirms placement, and the needle is removed from the catheter.
The patient is then asked to take a deep breath and then asked to exhale forcefully.
At the end of the expiratory effort, 3-4 ml 2% lidocaine solution is rapidly injected into the trachea.
This will usually cause patient to first inhale to catch his or her breath and then forcefully cough, spreading the lidocaine over the trachea, making distal airway anesthesia more predictable.
Transtracheal spread of local anesthetic with coughing.
Systemic toxicity .
Vascular injury .
Structural injuries .
Open up the airway.
Devices to Aid Intubation.
Olympus bite block.
Ovassapian airway .
2.Intubation via endoscopy mask.
Patil mask .
Intubating oral airways.
Prevent trauma to the fiberscope from the patients teeth.
[ expensive piece of equipment]
Guide to the fiberscope to position it in midline towards the glottic opening.
Olympus bite block.
Large internal diameter: possible to use variety of sizes of endotracheal tube.
Short length: comfortable for use in an awake patient.
olympus bite block.
Not a useful guide for the fiberscope.
Endotracheal tube to Y piece connector must be removed, while mounting:
Chances of tube dislodgement while removing bite block.
Longer piece serves as a better guide to the fiberscope.
Longer piece: increases likelihood of tube dislodgement.
Not comfortable to an awake patient.
Resembles the williams airway in length and curvature: similar problems.
Dorsal openings allowing it to be removed without sliding over the tube.
Fiberscopy via an oral airway.
Adapter through which the fiberoptic laryngoscope and endotracheal tube may be introduced.
Mask permits ventilation of the patient during the intubation process.
Patil mask :
Patient positioning for fiberoptic intubation..
classical sniffing position :
Places the epiglottis against the posterior pharyngeal wall, causing difficulty in maneuvering the fiberscope under the epiglottis.
The chin lift and jaw thrust maneuvers, move the soft tissues and lifts the epiglottis from the posterior pharyngeal wall improving the view through the fiberscope.
3.Setup the fiberoptic scope. “ A place for everything and everything in its place."
Place the bronchoscope and its cart on the left side of the patient .
Connect the light source.
Focus is adjusted.
Suction tubing is connected.
three way connected to the working channel,through which oxygen or lignocaine can be administered.
Lubricate the fiberoptic shaft with a small amount of silicone gel. Dab a bit of defogging solution on the shaft tip.
Choose an appropriate endotracheal tube.
Small tubes (6.0-6.5 mm for female patients and 7.0 mm for male patients) advance more easily.
Slide the endotracheal tube up the full length of the shaft and gently secured to the end of the bronchoscope handle.
Smear a little lubricant on the cuff and distal end of the endotracheal tube.
Fiberscope with endotracheal tube mounted .
Fiberscope with laryngeal mask airway mounted.
Line up the fiberoptic shaft . Know where that tip points before it disappears from view!
Stand on a lift so that the fiberoptic bronchoscope shaft will be straight when you hold it above the patient.
The head of the fiberscope is held in the right hand, with the right thumb on the control lever.
With your left hand, hold the bronchoscope shaft at a point 15 to 20 cm from the shaft tip. Position the shaft above the middle of the patient’s mouth or nose at 90 degrees to the horizontal.
Introducing the fiberscope
-The fiberscope is introduced through the nasal or oral route.
-scope is passed behind the soft palate and the tongue, epiglottis can be identified – advance scope & go under epiglottis to view vocal cords and glottis
View of the epiglottis through the fiberscope.
View through the fiberscope: glottic aperture
Happy sight of glottic aperture in a fiberscope.
- The patient is then asked to take a deep breath and the bronchoscope is passed through the cords.
-If this precipitates coughing, additional lidocaine can be sprayed through the working channel of the bronchoscope .
After passing through the vocal cords the fiberscope is advanced until the tracheal rings come into view. The carina should be easily identifiable in the distance.
When the tip of the fiberscope is at the carina, the next step is to pass the endotracheal tube.
left hand to loosen the endotracheal tube connector from the bronchoscope handle.
grasp the endotracheal tube at its midpoint and rotate it 90 degrees counterclockwise so the Murphy eye is anterior.
This maneuver prevents the tube tip from hanging up on the right arytenoid.
Advance the endotracheal tube into the trachea over the bronchoscope shaft until the 22-cm or 23-cm mark on the tube is at the teeth.
Confirm position of ETT before withdrawing the scope completely
Withdraw the fiberoptic shaft and secure the endotracheal tube.
If the fiberscope passes through the vocal cords, but the endotracheal tube does not pass, the tube may be getting caught on the arytenoid cartilages. Rotating the endotracheal tube ninety degrees counterclockwise directs the tip into the trachea.
fiberoptic shaft falls posteriorly into the interarytenoid fissure
Causes of Failure of Fibreoptic Intubation.
Lack of Experience
Secretions and Blood
Inadequate Topical Anesthesia
Decreased Space Between Epiglottis and Posterior Pharyngeal Wall.
Causes of Failure
Distorted Airway Anatomy
Inability to Advance the ETT
Inability to Remove the Fiberscope
The fibrescope must always be kept as straight as possible to maintain control over the tip - if it is allowed to become slack, tip control is lost.
Never advance the scope without being able to see through the scope where you are going - failure to obey this rule results in bleeding, an obscured field, and failure.
If you can't see pull back.
In awake patients always use a bite block or airway, otherwise teeth will inflict irreversible damage upon your fiberscope!
As always ventilation trumps intubation - and problems, withdraw, ventilate the patient, and ask for senior assistance.
related to iatrogenic factors, anatomy, and diseases of the patient, or ETT and bronchoscope design.
Adverse reactions to sedation. Respiratory depression