Current issues in motivationCross-cultural challengesAlthough most current motivation theories were developed in U.S. and validated with americanworkers, the ways how to motivate employees are different in many countries and depends on theircultural characteristics.Managers should understand deeply cultural characteristics before they design and launch anymotivational program.Despite these cross-cultural differences in motivation, there are some cross-cultural consistenciessuch as the desire for interesting work, growth, achievement, and responsibility.Motivating unique groups of workersThe employees have different needs, personalities, skills, abitilities, interest, apitude, and varywidely in what they want from their jobs. Hence, motivating unique groups of workers has neverbeen an easy task. 1) Motivating a diverse workforce : To motivate employees with such diverse needs, managers should use flexible work arrangement such as: y compressed workweek y flextime y job sharing y telecomuting 2) Motivating Professionals Characteristics of professionals : y Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. y Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer. y Have a need to regularly update their knowledge. y Barely define their workweek as 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. five days per week. Motivating programs for professionals : y Job challenge y Organizational support of their works. y Work itself 3) Motivating contingent workers For that small set of indivuduals who prefer the freedom of their temporary status, the lack of stability may not be an issue. But for the temporary employees are not temporary by choice, these are the answers how to motivate them : y An opportunity to become a permanent employee y Opportunity for training y Equity in compensation and benefits 4) Motivating low-skilled, minimum wage employees To motivate minimum-wage employees, managers should use : y Recognition programs y Sincere appreciation
Designing Approriate Rewards Programs: 1) Open-book management: This method will help employees think like an owner by showing them the effect of their decisions and actions have on financial results. Employees, therefore, start to see the connection between thier efforts , level of performance and operational results. 2) Employee Recognition Programs: It has personal attention and expressing interest, approval and appreciattion for the job well done. 3) Pay-for-performance: It is variable compensation plan that pays employees on the basis of some performance measure. 4) Stock Option Programs: Stock option programs are known as financial methods that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price.