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Week6 filesystem
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Week6 filesystem


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  • 1. File System.
  • 2. We’re Windows user at one point
  • 3. Remember C:/Program Files?
  • 4. Right. Let’s forget that.
  • 5. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr / /sbi /dev /boot n /bin /proc /etc /lib /home
  • 6. Looks like a mess
  • 7. But you can’t make an omelette without breaking any eggs
  • 8. So let me explain
  • 9. the file system is the organs of operating system
  • 10. To understand filesystem means you understand how tooperate & “heal” the operating system
  • 11. But it’s up to you, actually,You can still use Linux without knowing File System.
  • 12. So back to this again.
  • 13. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /usr / /sbi /dev /boot n /bin /proc /etc /lib /home
  • 14. Can we makesomething out of that?
  • 15. /srv /media/mnt /var /tmp /opt /sbi / /dev /boot n /usr /bin /etc /proc /lib /home
  • 16. It’s a mess. But not really.
  • 17. Let’s take it one by one.
  • 18. /•Every single file and directory startsfrom the root directory.•Only root user has write privilegeunder this directory.•Please note that /root is root user’shome directory, which is not sameas /.
  • 19. /bin •Contains binary executables. •Common linux commands you need to use in single-user modes are located under this directory. •Commands used by all the users of the system are located here.
  • 20. /sbin•Just like /bin, /sbin also containsbinary executables.•But, the linux commands locatedunder this directory are usedtypically by system aministrator, forsystem maintenance purpose.•For example: iptables, reboot,fdisk, ifconfig, swapon
  • 21. /etc•Contains configuration filesrequired by all programs.•This also contains startup andshutdown shell scripts used tostart/stop individual programs.•For example: /etc/resolv.conf,/etc/logrotate.conf
  • 22. /proc•Contains information about systemprocess.•This is a pseudo filesystemcontains information about runningprocess. For example: /proc/{pid}directory contains information aboutthe process with that particular pid.
  • 23. /var•var stands for variable files.•Content of the files that areexpected to grow can be foundunder this directory.•This includes — system log files(/var/log); packages and databasefiles (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail);print queues (/var/spool); lock files
  • 24. /tmp•Directory that contains temporaryfiles created by system and users.•Files under this directory aredeleted when system is rebooted.
  • 25. /usr•Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, andsource-code for second level programs.•/usr/bin contains binary files for user programs. Ifyou can’t find a user binary under /bin, look under/usr/bin. For example: at, awk, cc, less, scp•/usr/sbin contains binary files for systemadministrators. If you can’t find a system binaryunder /sbin, look under /usr/sbin. For example: atd,cron, sshd, useradd, userdel•/usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin•/usr/local contains users programs that you installfrom source. For example, when you install apachefrom source, it goes under /usr/local/apache2
  • 26. /home•Home directories for all users tostore their personal files.•For example: /home/john,/home/nikita
  • 27. /boot•Contains boot loader related files.•Kernel initrd, vmlinux, grub files arelocated under /boot•For example: initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic, vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic
  • 28. /lib •Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin •Library filenames are either ld* or lib*.so.* •For example:,
  • 29. /opt•opt stands for optional.•Contains add-on applications fromindividual vendors.•add-on applications should beinstalled under either /opt/ or /opt/sub-directory.
  • 30. /mnt•Temporary mount directory wheresysadmins can mount filesystems.
  • 31. /media•Temporary mount directory forremovable devices.•For examples, /media/cdrom forCD-ROM; /media/floppy for floppydrives; /media/cdrecorder for CDwriter
  • 32. /srv•srv stands for service.•Contains server specific servicesrelated data.•For example, /srv/cvs containsCVS related data.
  • 33. There’s a guy who famously said
  • 34. " A lot of us have beenworking for ten years toget rid of the traditional file system”
  • 35. His name is Steve Jobs
  • 36. Whether you like it or not,File System still exist.
  • 37. Thank you.