Seminar -II
Pestigation in Agriculture
HS GADAD
ID. NO 5492
Outline
o Introduction
o History of pestigation
o Factors to be considered before pestigation
o Selected insecticides for ...
Introduction
History of pestigation
1958 – 1st
application of fertilizer-Brayan and Thomas
1963-Herbicides applied through irrigation s...
Factors to be considered before pestigation
• Pesticides
• Site situation
• Soil & Land characters
• Types of irrigation s...
Decide pesticide - protect crop from potential problem
Read label – chemigation
Water solubility
Persistency
Pesticides
Common
Name
Product
Name
Rate
(Formulation)
Permethrin Ambush 2EC 6.4-12.8 oz/acre
Pounce 1.5 G 6.7-13.3 lbs/acre
Pounce 2...
Chlorpyrifos Lorsban 15G 6-8 / acre
Lorsban 4EC 1-2 pts/acre
Zeta-cypermethrin Mustang Max 2.72-4.0 oz/acre
Methyl parathi...
New generation Insecticide recommended for Pestigation
Insecticide Trade Name Rate/Acre Effect to crops Insects
Acetamipri...
Site situation
• Do not chemigate with pesticides if the irrigation
system will cause offtarget spray or drift on adjacent...
Soil & Land characters
Single field – different type of soils thus movement of water or pesticide differ –
soils
Eg.,
Coar...
Types of irrigation systems
Apply pesticide water mixture uniformly
Application rate should not exceeded intake rate of so...
• An irrigation system should be able to apply water at various
application depths. Most of the pesticides only work when
...
• Winds can cause irrigation water droplets to drift. Strong
winds will also cause uneven application of water and
chemica...
Pestigation equipment
 A chemical supply tank
• Constructed – corrosion resistant materials or plastic
• Agitation – tank...
 A calibration tube
• located in the chemical line between the chemical supply tank
• It is used to measure output of the...
1.The chemical in the supply tank and in the irrigation pipeline
could flow or be siphoned back into the water source when...
2.The chemigation system could continue to
inject chemical into the irrigation pipe line
when the irrigation system shuts ...
Chemical injection system anti-pollution devices
Device- Filter
Location – between pump & tank
Purpose – remove sediment –...
Irrigation Antipollution Devices
Device - Main line irrigation check valve
Location - Between well and chemical injection ...
Device – Low pressure cutoff
Location – Main irrigation pipe line
Purpose - Shut off power to chemical injector
when water...
Pestigation equipment layout
Pestigation Calibration
• Is the measurement and adjustment of the chemical injection
and the irrigation systems to insure...
Calibration Procedures
Area in acre to be treated
Total amount of chemical required
Time required to treat the area
Chemic...
Calibration procedure fordrip irrigation system
 Determine the effective wetting zone
width of wet zone X No of emitters
...
Calibration procedure – sprinkler irrigation
Determine the area to be treated in acres
Area of the circle = pir2
Determine...
Method of application of pestigation
Drip irrigation
Sprinkler irrigation
Surface irrigation
Drip irrigation
• Drip irrigation, also known as trickle
irrigation or micro irrigation or localized
irrigation
• It is an...
• Most effective and widely used pesticide delivery
irrigation system among all other methods
o Systemic insecticides suit...
Types of Drip Irrigation
Surface drip irrigation
Sub surface drip irrigation
Placed on the soil Buried below soil surface
Components of drip irrigation
Pump
Head unit
Central distribution system
A pesticide tank
A filter
PVC main supply line
Su...
Effect of drip irrigation with pesticide for pest control
Systemic insecticides suited – drip chemigation
Compatible with ...
Case study - I
Treatment
Rate
(kg ai/ha)
% of fruit damaged
15 DAT 30DAT
Untreated − 18.8 46.7
Chlorantraniliprole
(2 applications)
0.049...
Casestudy-III
Efficacy of chlorantraniliprole applied through drip irrigation and
Indoxacarb applied through foliar spray ...
Sprinkler irrigation – Over head irrigation
Distributes water – form of rain like droplets
1st
sprinkler irrigation known ...
Components of sprinkler irrigation
Pumping unit
Main line
Submains
Laterals
Rotate type – wide lands
Sprinklers
Fixed type...
Different types of sprinkler irrigation system
Center pivot irrigation
Self – propelled linear move
Solid set
Hand move la...
Effect of sprinkler irrigation with pesticide for pest
management
Contact insecticides – suitable
(Felsot, 2001)
Properly ...
Treatments Kg AI/ha Pre-
treatment
2DAT 7DAT
No of
larvae/plot
No of
larvae/plot
%
Reduction
No of
larvae/plot
%
Reduction...
Treatments Dosage
kg (AI)/ha
No. larvae per plant
Aerial Chemigated
Fenvelarate 0.17 0.8 0.7
Chlorpyrifos 1.12 1.2 0.2
unt...
Surface Irrigation water
Oldest method
Pesticide mixed with surface irrigation
water
Limited potential
Non-uniform
Leveled...
Advantages
• Provides uniform distribution of chemicals when the irrigation
system’s nozzling package is properly selected...
• May increase pesticide activity and effectiveness for some
compounds
• Reduce the labour cost
• Reduce mechanical damage...
Limitations and Risks
•Uniform chemical application depends on uniform water distribution
from the irrigation system
•Appl...
• Farm managers/operators must know the calibration procedure
• Extra investment must be made for pestigation system and f...
Conclusion
Pestigation-H S Gadad
Pestigation-H S Gadad
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  • 1 ounce = 29 gms, 1 pounds= 470 ml,
  • Pestigation-H S Gadad

    1. 1. Seminar -II Pestigation in Agriculture HS GADAD ID. NO 5492
    2. 2. Outline o Introduction o History of pestigation o Factors to be considered before pestigation o Selected insecticides for Pestigation o Calibration procedures o Method of application of pestigation o Advantages and dis advantages o conclusion
    3. 3. Introduction
    4. 4. History of pestigation 1958 – 1st application of fertilizer-Brayan and Thomas 1963-Herbicides applied through irrigation system – P.E. Heikes 1969-M. Harrison – application of fungicides – potato diseases – early blight 1976 – Hantsbarger and Pilcher – insecticide mixed with irrigation water – limited accuracy 1st trial – field corn
    5. 5. Factors to be considered before pestigation • Pesticides • Site situation • Soil & Land characters • Types of irrigation systems • Weather
    6. 6. Decide pesticide - protect crop from potential problem Read label – chemigation Water solubility Persistency Pesticides
    7. 7. Common Name Product Name Rate (Formulation) Permethrin Ambush 2EC 6.4-12.8 oz/acre Pounce 1.5 G 6.7-13.3 lbs/acre Pounce 25WP 6.4 - 12.8 oz/acre Esfenvalerate Asana XL 7.8-9.6 oz/acre Cyfluthrin Baythroid 2 EC 1.6-2.8 oz/acre Bifenthrin Capture 1.15G 3.5-8.7 lb product/acre Capture 2EC 2.1-6.4 oz/acre Lambda- Cyhalothrin Warrior 1 EC 2.56-3.84 oz/acre Selected pesticides for Pestigation
    8. 8. Chlorpyrifos Lorsban 15G 6-8 / acre Lorsban 4EC 1-2 pts/acre Zeta-cypermethrin Mustang Max 2.72-4.0 oz/acre Methyl parathion Penncap-M 2 pts/acre 3-4 pts/acre Gamma- cyhalothrin Proaxis 2.56-3.84 oz/acre Carbofuran Furadan 4F 1.5-2 pts/acre Contd, (Robert Wright, 2006)
    9. 9. New generation Insecticide recommended for Pestigation Insecticide Trade Name Rate/Acre Effect to crops Insects Acetamiprid Assail 30SG 1.5 - 4.0 oz 1.0 - 1.7 oz Cotton , potato, tabacco, lawn, ornamental gardens Suking pests, leaf feeding insects Assail 70WP 1.0 - 1.7 oz Flonicamid Decis 1.5EC 1.5 - 2.4 oz Vegtable and nursery gardens Most of sucking pests, flea beetle Imidacloprid Provado 1.6F 0.96 pts Vegtables crops, nursery gardens,Cotton , potato, tabacco, potato White grub, flea beetles, leaf hopper, whitefly Calarado potato beetle Admire 70WG 0.4 – 0.6 oz / 1000 ft row Thiamothoxam Actara 25WG 3 oz Corn, sweet corn, potato, strawberry, vegetable gardens ECB, SWCB, all sucking pests, defoliators Spinosad Spin Tor 25 SC 2.8 pts Agricultural crops Sucking & defoliating insects (Felsot, 2001)
    10. 10. Site situation • Do not chemigate with pesticides if the irrigation system will cause offtarget spray or drift on adjacent homes or occupied buildings, surface water sources, wetlands, neighboring crops, or roadways.
    11. 11. Soil & Land characters Single field – different type of soils thus movement of water or pesticide differ – soils Eg., Coarse texture soil high infiltration rates leaching more Fine textured soil & clay soils low infiltration rates leaching less Land characters Field condition – uniform Hilly areas – variation in elevation – uneven distribution sloping areas water stagnation crop injury
    12. 12. Types of irrigation systems Apply pesticide water mixture uniformly Application rate should not exceeded intake rate of soil Exceeded Not provide adequate distribution leaching water stagnation, runoff ground water adjacent surface water
    13. 13. • An irrigation system should be able to apply water at various application depths. Most of the pesticides only work when applied with a very light application depth of water (.15 to .25 inches) • If an irrigation system is three or more years old, evaluate the water distribution pattern with an infield catch can test before using for pestigation. (Palumbo, 1995)
    14. 14. • Winds can cause irrigation water droplets to drift. Strong winds will also cause uneven application of water and chemicals • Do not chemigate if winds are strong enough to cause drift onto non-target areas Weather
    15. 15. Pestigation equipment  A chemical supply tank • Constructed – corrosion resistant materials or plastic • Agitation – tank mixes, dry flowables, wettable powders  A chemical injection pump Piston pumps – used nitrogen fertilizers Diaphragm pumps - pesticides
    16. 16.  A calibration tube • located in the chemical line between the chemical supply tank • It is used to measure output of the injection unit during calibration • graduated in units of volume (pints, ounces, milliliters, etc.)  Safety and antipollution devices • Pestigation can potentially pollute the irrigation water source if not protected with the proper functioning safety devices.
    17. 17. 1.The chemical in the supply tank and in the irrigation pipeline could flow or be siphoned back into the water source when the irrigation system shuts down
    18. 18. 2.The chemigation system could continue to inject chemical into the irrigation pipe line when the irrigation system shuts down. This causes the chemical solution to flow back into the water source or spill onto ground 3. The chemigation system could shut down while the irrigation system continues to operate and force water back into the chemical supply tank. This would cause the tank to overflow and spill onto the ground
    19. 19. Chemical injection system anti-pollution devices Device- Filter Location – between pump & tank Purpose – remove sediment – clog pump Device - Check valve Location – point of irrigation line Purpose – prevent backword flow water Device-closed solenoid valve Location – between pesticide tank and injection pump Purpose - Prevent tank from emptying unless injector is working
    20. 20. Irrigation Antipollution Devices Device - Main line irrigation check valve Location - Between well and chemical injection point Purpose -Prevent back flow of pesticide into water source Device - Vacuum relief valve Location – Between check valve and well Purpose – Prevent vacuum when pump shuts off; reduces chance of back flow
    21. 21. Device – Low pressure cutoff Location – Main irrigation pipe line Purpose - Shut off power to chemical injector when water pressure is low (Werner, 1990)
    22. 22. Pestigation equipment layout
    23. 23. Pestigation Calibration • Is the measurement and adjustment of the chemical injection and the irrigation systems to insure that an accurate amount of chemical is being both injected and applied • Calibration is NOT a cost of application. Costs ARE often incurred, when you do not calibrate because:  Applying too little or too much chemical is a waste of money;  Applying too much chemical may cause crop damage contaminate ground or surface water; safety hazard,
    24. 24. Calibration Procedures Area in acre to be treated Total amount of chemical required Time required to treat the area Chemical injection rate per hour Calibration of the chemical injection pump (Werner, 1993)
    25. 25. Calibration procedure fordrip irrigation system  Determine the effective wetting zone width of wet zone X No of emitters  Determine the total amount of chemical required to treat the area Total A to be treated X rate* *As directed on the product label
    26. 26. Calibration procedure – sprinkler irrigation Determine the area to be treated in acres Area of the circle = pir2 Determine the total amount of chemical required to treat the area Total amount of chemical required = acre treated x application rate/acre Time required to treat area in hours Revolution time = Circumferance (feet) / travel speed (ft/min) Travel speed = distance traveled / elapsed time Circumferance = 2pir Chemical injection rate Chemical injection rate in l/hr = total chemical needed / hrs per revolution (Werner, 1993)
    27. 27. Method of application of pestigation Drip irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Surface irrigation
    28. 28. Drip irrigation • Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation • It is an irrigation method that saves water and pesticides by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters • It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant
    29. 29. • Most effective and widely used pesticide delivery irrigation system among all other methods o Systemic insecticides suited – drip chemigation o Compatible with IPM practices
    30. 30. Types of Drip Irrigation Surface drip irrigation Sub surface drip irrigation Placed on the soil Buried below soil surface
    31. 31. Components of drip irrigation Pump Head unit Central distribution system A pesticide tank A filter PVC main supply line Sub mains Plastic drippers or emitters
    32. 32. Effect of drip irrigation with pesticide for pest control Systemic insecticides suited – drip chemigation Compatible with IPM practices Neonicotinoid class – Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Acetamprid – suitable Imidacloprid effective against aphids – throughout the season (Felsot, 2001)
    33. 33. Case study - I
    34. 34. Treatment Rate (kg ai/ha) % of fruit damaged 15 DAT 30DAT Untreated − 18.8 46.7 Chlorantraniliprole (2 applications) 0.049 0.0 8.3 Chlorantraniliprole (2 applications) 0.074 1.3 1.7 Chlorantraniliprole (1 application) 0.099 0.0 5.0 Efficacy of chlorantraniliprole applied through drip chemigation for the control of Helicoverpa larvae on tomatoes The 0.049 and 0.074 kg ai/ha treatments were applied twice each and the 0.099 kg ai/ha was applied once. Fruit were evaluated for % damage on 15 DAT and 30 DAT Case study - II
    35. 35. Casestudy-III Efficacy of chlorantraniliprole applied through drip irrigation and Indoxacarb applied through foliar spray for the control of lepidopterous larvae on tomatoes Treatment* Rate (kg ai/ha) % of fruit damaged 10 Aug 22 Aug Untreated − 9.6 a 8.3 a Chlorantraniliprole (x 5 injections) 0.049 1.2 b 1.2 a Chlorantraniliprole (x 5 injections) 0.074 0.8 b 2.8 a Indoxacarb (x 5 foliar sprays) 0.073 3.9 b 2.2 a
    36. 36. Sprinkler irrigation – Over head irrigation Distributes water – form of rain like droplets 1st sprinkler irrigation known – 1946 gain popular – 1980 in india hill areas- for plantation crops Saves irrigation water - 25- 50% > surface irrigation
    37. 37. Components of sprinkler irrigation Pumping unit Main line Submains Laterals Rotate type – wide lands Sprinklers Fixed type –small lawns & gardens Super net sprinkler
    38. 38. Different types of sprinkler irrigation system Center pivot irrigation Self – propelled linear move Solid set Hand move lateral Side roll lateral Two – line lateral Hose drag traveler
    39. 39. Effect of sprinkler irrigation with pesticide for pest management Contact insecticides – suitable (Felsot, 2001) Properly designed, calibrated , operated – uniform distribution of chemical water mixture Emulsifiers than oil mixed insecticide – not effective – foliage feeding insects (Young et al, 1981) Two application of fenvelarate (0. 17kg/ha) & Chlorpyriphos (0.84, 1.12kg/ha) - 98 & 75% southern corn borer, 92 & 97% European corn borer (Michels et al, 1983)
    40. 40. Treatments Kg AI/ha Pre- treatment 2DAT 7DAT No of larvae/plot No of larvae/plot % Reduction No of larvae/plot % Reduction Cypermethrin .06 24.8 0.5 98.4 0.7 94.4 Esfenvalerate .06 24.8 0.5 98.4 0.8 93.6 Methomyl .028 26.3 3.5 89.5 2.3 82.7 Thiodicarb .067 30.0 3.5 90.8 0.3 98.0 chlorpyrifos .056 23.5 14.5 51.5 2.2 81.4 Untreated - 22.8 29.0 - 17.5 - Effects of various insecticides applied via chemigation on velvetbean caterpillar populations infesting soybean (Channdler and Sumner, 1993)
    41. 41. Treatments Dosage kg (AI)/ha No. larvae per plant Aerial Chemigated Fenvelarate 0.17 0.8 0.7 Chlorpyrifos 1.12 1.2 0.2 untreated -- 1.8 1.5 Comparison of two insecticides applied aerially and through sprinkler irrigation for control of European corn borer larvae (Thomas et al., 1992)
    42. 42. Surface Irrigation water Oldest method Pesticide mixed with surface irrigation water Limited potential Non-uniform Leveled land – slope < 2-3% (Booher, 1974)
    43. 43. Advantages • Provides uniform distribution of chemicals when the irrigation system’s nozzling package is properly selected and maintained • Offers more flexibility in timing the chemical application, especially when the field is wet for a tractor or an aircraft is unavailable
    44. 44. • May increase pesticide activity and effectiveness for some compounds • Reduce the labour cost • Reduce mechanical damage to plants caused by ground sprayer wheels • Reduce the risk of soil compaction caused by ground application methods. (Threadgill, 1985)
    45. 45. Limitations and Risks •Uniform chemical application depends on uniform water distribution from the irrigation system •Application time is longer than most other chemical application methods •Most pesticide compounds are not approved for application with irrigation water • Potential risk exists while pestigation
    46. 46. • Farm managers/operators must know the calibration procedure • Extra investment must be made for pestigation system and for safety equipments • Unnecessary irrigation-Using an irrigation system to apply chemicals may apply moisture to the crop at a time when it is not required or when the soil is already too wet
    47. 47. Conclusion
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