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    5 5 Presentation Transcript

      • Iron Ore and Steel
      • A.) Mining Iron Ore
      • 1.) Drill and blast
      • Hematite (Fe 2 0 3 )
      • Magnetite (Fe 3 0 4 )
      • 2.) Shovel into a truck and bring to mill
      • 3.) Crush into a powder
      • 4.) Add clay and roll into balls, harden in kiln
      • 5.) Ship to steel mill
    • http://www.cleveland-cliffs.com/MiningOperations&Technology/ Open Pit Mining
    • Blasting Hauling
    • Crushing Secondary Mill Primary Mill
    • Separating Iron Concentrate from Impurities Settling Tank Magnetic Separation
    • Removing Water Rolling into Pellets
    • Hardening in Kiln Pellet Stockpile
      • B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore
      • 1.) Melt Iron Ore in a Blast Furnace with Limestone and coke.
      • 2.) Coke is almost pure carbon made from coal.
      • 3.) Limestone is a flux, it helps remove impurities such as sand from the iron.
      • 4.) Blowing hot air (1100 0 F) past the coke causes a reaction that creates high enough temperatures (3000 0 F) to melt the iron.
    • B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
    • B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
      • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
      • 1.) heating pig iron (4%C) in a Converter burns off Carbon to 2% or less.
      • a.) Electric Arc Furnace
      • b.) Oxygen Lance Furnace
      • 2.) scrap steel and alloying elements are added to the pot .
      • 3.) test steel composition.
      • 4.) steel is cast into ingots or or continuous pours.
    • Iron Ore and Steel Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
      • Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant showing scrap being charged into the BOF vessel. A ladle full of hot metal is seen to the right. John Stubbles photo
    • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
      • A ladle of molten steel leaving for the ladle metallurgical facility or the caster. John Stubbles photo
    • BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA) 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
    • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
      • Section through the BOF vessel during oxygen blowing. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA)
    • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
    • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron - Electric Arc Furnace Figure by Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation
      • D.) Rolling Mill
      Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
      • D.) Rolling Mill
      • 1.) Slabs are rolled into sheets (<1/4”)
      • or plates (>1/4”).
      • 2.) Blooms are made into Billets .
      • 3.) Billets are rolled into bars and shapes.
      • 4.) Bars can be drawn into wire .
      • 5.) Effects of rolling.
      • a.) Anisotropic properties.
      • b.) Cold rolling hardens steel more than hot rolling .
      • E.) Nomenclature
      • 10--Plain Carbon
      • 11-- Free Machining
      • 13--High Manganese
      • 2---Nickel Steels
      • Etc.
    • http://www.geneva.com/tour.html http://www.geneva.com/tour.html
      • G.) References
      • 1.) AISI Website http://www.steel.org/learning
      • 2.) John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
      • 3.) John Stubbles, Steel Industry Consultant
      • 4.) By Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation
      • F.) Forging
      • 1.) Open-Die Drop-Forging
    • CAST IRON
    • A.) Gray Cast Iron
      • 1.) Composition (in addition to Fe):
        • 4% Carbon ( + ) in the form of graphite flakes that form tiny cracks.
        • 1-3% Silicon (Si)
        • Trace amounts of Mn and P
      • 2.)Classified by Tensile Strength
        • ASTM 20 means  u = 20 ksi
      A.) Gray Cast Iron
      • 3.) Advantages
        • soft, easy to machine
        • good damping
        • inexpensive
      A.) Gray Cast Iron
    • B.) White Cast Iron
      • 1.) Composition (in addition to Fe):
        • 2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + ) C in combined form (iron carbide)
        • 1-3% Silicon (Si)
      • 2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L
        • Example/ 60:40:18
        • 3.) Advantages
        • hard (BHN > 400) - good wear resistance
        • ( grinding mills etc.) good damping
        • high compressive strength ( 200,000 psi)
      B.) White Cast Iron
        • 4.) Disadvantages
        • Brittle
        • Difficult to machine
      B.) White Cast Iron
    • C.) Ductile Iron
      • 1.) Composition: Carbon is in nodular (round) form instead of free flakes or iron carbide):
        • 2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + )
        • 0.80% Mn
        • 1.8-2.8% Si
        • 2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L
        • Example/ 60:40:18
    • C.) Ductile Iron
      • 1.) Nodule Photo
        • 3.) Advantages
        • High Tensile Strength (50-100ksi)
        • (40-150 ksi Compressive Strength)
        • High Ductility (2-15%)
        • 3.) Disadvantages
        • Higher Cost than Gray Cast Iron
      C.) Ductile Iron