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  • 1.
    • Iron Ore and Steel
  • 2.
    • A.) Mining Iron Ore
    • 1.) Drill and blast
    • Hematite (Fe 2 0 3 )
    • Magnetite (Fe 3 0 4 )
    • 2.) Shovel into a truck and bring to mill
    • 3.) Crush into a powder
    • 4.) Add clay and roll into balls, harden in kiln
    • 5.) Ship to steel mill
  • 3. http://www.cleveland-cliffs.com/MiningOperations&Technology/ Open Pit Mining
  • 4. Blasting Hauling
  • 5. Crushing Secondary Mill Primary Mill
  • 6. Separating Iron Concentrate from Impurities Settling Tank Magnetic Separation
  • 7. Removing Water Rolling into Pellets
  • 8. Hardening in Kiln Pellet Stockpile
  • 9.
    • B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore
    • 1.) Melt Iron Ore in a Blast Furnace with Limestone and coke.
    • 2.) Coke is almost pure carbon made from coal.
    • 3.) Limestone is a flux, it helps remove impurities such as sand from the iron.
    • 4.) Blowing hot air (1100 0 F) past the coke causes a reaction that creates high enough temperatures (3000 0 F) to melt the iron.
  • 10. B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
  • 11. B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
  • 12.
    • C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
    • 1.) heating pig iron (4%C) in a Converter burns off Carbon to 2% or less.
    • a.) Electric Arc Furnace
    • b.) Oxygen Lance Furnace
    • 2.) scrap steel and alloying elements are added to the pot .
    • 3.) test steel composition.
    • 4.) steel is cast into ingots or or continuous pours.
  • 13. Iron Ore and Steel Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  • 14.
    • Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant showing scrap being charged into the BOF vessel. A ladle full of hot metal is seen to the right. John Stubbles photo
  • 15. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
    • A ladle of molten steel leaving for the ladle metallurgical facility or the caster. John Stubbles photo
  • 16. BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA) 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  • 17. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron
    • Section through the BOF vessel during oxygen blowing. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA)
  • 18. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  • 19. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron - Electric Arc Furnace Figure by Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation
  • 20.
    • D.) Rolling Mill
    Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  • 21.
    • D.) Rolling Mill
    • 1.) Slabs are rolled into sheets (<1/4”)
    • or plates (>1/4”).
    • 2.) Blooms are made into Billets .
    • 3.) Billets are rolled into bars and shapes.
    • 4.) Bars can be drawn into wire .
    • 5.) Effects of rolling.
    • a.) Anisotropic properties.
    • b.) Cold rolling hardens steel more than hot rolling .
  • 22.
    • E.) Nomenclature
    • 10--Plain Carbon
    • 11-- Free Machining
    • 13--High Manganese
    • 2---Nickel Steels
    • Etc.
  • 23. http://www.geneva.com/tour.html http://www.geneva.com/tour.html
  • 24.
    • G.) References
    • 1.) AISI Website http://www.steel.org/learning
    • 2.) John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
    • 3.) John Stubbles, Steel Industry Consultant
    • 4.) By Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation
  • 25.
    • F.) Forging
    • 1.) Open-Die Drop-Forging
  • 26. CAST IRON
  • 27. A.) Gray Cast Iron
    • 1.) Composition (in addition to Fe):
      • 4% Carbon ( + ) in the form of graphite flakes that form tiny cracks.
      • 1-3% Silicon (Si)
      • Trace amounts of Mn and P
  • 28.
    • 2.)Classified by Tensile Strength
      • ASTM 20 means  u = 20 ksi
    A.) Gray Cast Iron
  • 29.
    • 3.) Advantages
      • soft, easy to machine
      • good damping
      • inexpensive
    A.) Gray Cast Iron
  • 30. B.) White Cast Iron
    • 1.) Composition (in addition to Fe):
      • 2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + ) C in combined form (iron carbide)
      • 1-3% Silicon (Si)
    • 2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L
      • Example/ 60:40:18
  • 31.
      • 3.) Advantages
      • hard (BHN > 400) - good wear resistance
      • ( grinding mills etc.) good damping
      • high compressive strength ( 200,000 psi)
    B.) White Cast Iron
  • 32.
      • 4.) Disadvantages
      • Brittle
      • Difficult to machine
    B.) White Cast Iron
  • 33. C.) Ductile Iron
    • 1.) Composition: Carbon is in nodular (round) form instead of free flakes or iron carbide):
      • 2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + )
      • 0.80% Mn
      • 1.8-2.8% Si
      • 2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L
      • Example/ 60:40:18
  • 34. C.) Ductile Iron
    • 1.) Nodule Photo
  • 35.
      • 3.) Advantages
      • High Tensile Strength (50-100ksi)
      • (40-150 ksi Compressive Strength)
      • High Ductility (2-15%)
      • 3.) Disadvantages
      • Higher Cost than Gray Cast Iron
    C.) Ductile Iron