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5

  1. 1. <ul><li>Iron Ore and Steel </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>A.) Mining Iron Ore </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Drill and blast </li></ul><ul><li>Hematite (Fe 2 0 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetite (Fe 3 0 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Shovel into a truck and bring to mill </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Crush into a powder </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Add clay and roll into balls, harden in kiln </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Ship to steel mill </li></ul>
  3. 3. http://www.cleveland-cliffs.com/MiningOperations&Technology/ Open Pit Mining
  4. 4. Blasting Hauling
  5. 5. Crushing Secondary Mill Primary Mill
  6. 6. Separating Iron Concentrate from Impurities Settling Tank Magnetic Separation
  7. 7. Removing Water Rolling into Pellets
  8. 8. Hardening in Kiln Pellet Stockpile
  9. 9. <ul><li>B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Melt Iron Ore in a Blast Furnace with Limestone and coke. </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Coke is almost pure carbon made from coal. </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Limestone is a flux, it helps remove impurities such as sand from the iron. </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Blowing hot air (1100 0 F) past the coke causes a reaction that creates high enough temperatures (3000 0 F) to melt the iron. </li></ul>
  10. 10. B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
  11. 11. B.) Making Pig Iron from Iron Ore Figure prepared by John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc.
  12. 12. <ul><li>C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron </li></ul><ul><li>1.) heating pig iron (4%C) in a Converter burns off Carbon to 2% or less. </li></ul><ul><li>a.) Electric Arc Furnace </li></ul><ul><li>b.) Oxygen Lance Furnace </li></ul><ul><li>2.) scrap steel and alloying elements are added to the pot . </li></ul><ul><li>3.) test steel composition. </li></ul><ul><li>4.) steel is cast into ingots or or continuous pours. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Iron Ore and Steel Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  14. 14. <ul><li>Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant showing scrap being charged into the BOF vessel. A ladle full of hot metal is seen to the right. John Stubbles photo </li></ul>
  15. 15. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron <ul><li>A ladle of molten steel leaving for the ladle metallurgical facility or the caster. John Stubbles photo </li></ul>
  16. 16. BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions BOF Vessel in Its Operating Positions. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA) 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  17. 17. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron <ul><li>Section through the BOF vessel during oxygen blowing. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA) </li></ul>
  18. 18. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  19. 19. C.) Making Steel from Pig Iron - Electric Arc Furnace Figure by Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation
  20. 20. <ul><li>D.) Rolling Mill </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Figure from AISI website: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm
  21. 21. <ul><li>D.) Rolling Mill </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Slabs are rolled into sheets (<1/4”) </li></ul><ul><li>or plates (>1/4”). </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Blooms are made into Billets . </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Billets are rolled into bars and shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Bars can be drawn into wire . </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Effects of rolling. </li></ul><ul><li>a.) Anisotropic properties. </li></ul><ul><li>b.) Cold rolling hardens steel more than hot rolling . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>E.) Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>10--Plain Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>11-- Free Machining </li></ul><ul><li>13--High Manganese </li></ul><ul><li>2---Nickel Steels </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. http://www.geneva.com/tour.html http://www.geneva.com/tour.html
  24. 24. <ul><li>G.) References </li></ul><ul><li>1.) AISI Website http://www.steel.org/learning </li></ul><ul><li>2.) John A. Ricketts, Ispat Inland, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>3.) John Stubbles, Steel Industry Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>4.) By Jeremy A. T. Jones, Nupro Corporation </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>F.) Forging </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Open-Die Drop-Forging </li></ul>
  26. 26. CAST IRON
  27. 27. A.) Gray Cast Iron <ul><li>1.) Composition (in addition to Fe): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% Carbon ( + ) in the form of graphite flakes that form tiny cracks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3% Silicon (Si) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace amounts of Mn and P </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>2.)Classified by Tensile Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM 20 means  u = 20 ksi </li></ul></ul>A.) Gray Cast Iron
  29. 29. <ul><li>3.) Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soft, easy to machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good damping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inexpensive </li></ul></ul>A.) Gray Cast Iron
  30. 30. B.) White Cast Iron <ul><li>1.) Composition (in addition to Fe): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + ) C in combined form (iron carbide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3% Silicon (Si) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example/ 60:40:18 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>3.) Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard (BHN > 400) - good wear resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( grinding mills etc.) good damping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high compressive strength ( 200,000 psi) </li></ul></ul>B.) White Cast Iron
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>4.) Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brittle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to machine </li></ul></ul>B.) White Cast Iron
  33. 33. C.) Ductile Iron <ul><li>1.) Composition: Carbon is in nodular (round) form instead of free flakes or iron carbide): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3.5% Carbon ( + ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.80% Mn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.8-2.8% Si </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.)Classified by  u ,  y , and %L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example/ 60:40:18 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. C.) Ductile Iron <ul><li>1.) Nodule Photo </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>3.) Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Tensile Strength (50-100ksi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(40-150 ksi Compressive Strength) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Ductility (2-15%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.) Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Cost than Gray Cast Iron </li></ul></ul>C.) Ductile Iron

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