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Chapter 16
 

Chapter 16

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    Chapter 16 Chapter 16 Document Transcript

    • Chapter 16 Matter and Energy By Padua, Crisostomo and Rabago (pp. 366 – 399)1. The name given to the observation that when light is shone onto a piece of metal, a small current flows through the metal. a. The Photoelectric Effect b. The Quantum Theory c. Theory of Relativity2. Einstein realized that the only way to explain the photoelectric effect was to say that instead of being a wave, light was actually made up of lots of small packets of energy called __. a. neutrinos b. photons c. quanta3. An object which absorbs all radiant energy that is incident on it. a. blackbody b. quartz c. photons4. Plank proposed a revolutionary theory that vibrating atoms or molecules of hot objects radiate energy in definite amounts called __. a. photons b. quartz c. quanta5. What formula best define the amount of each bundles of energy? a. € = hf b. E = mc2 c. A = λN6. What is the smallest amount of energy that can either be absorbed or emitted by an infrared radiation with a frequency of 1.0x1015 cycles per second? a. 6.63 x10 -19 joules b. 3.66 x 10-19 joules c. 6.36 x 10-19 joules7. They are produced by the abrupt stopping of fast moving electron when it hits a heavy metal target. a. alpha rays b. X-rays c. gamma rays8. Albert Einstein postulated that energy has a mass equivalence. His postulation is more popularly known in the form: a. € = hf b. E = mc2 c. A = λN9. Atoms of the same element having different atomic mass. a. blackbody b. photons c. isotopes 10. The difference between the total mass of the individual nucleus and the atomic mass of carbon-12. a. binding energy b. mass defect c. mass equivalence11. Mev means a. Mega electrical volts b. million electron volt c. Mendeleev volt12. The energy needed to separate a nucleus into its individual nucleons. a. nuclear binding energy b. mass binding energy c. kinetic energy13. What is the energy equivalent of 1.50 x 10-28 kilograms? a. 5.31 x 10-11J b. 1.35 x 10-11 J c. 2.70 x 10-11 J14. 1 Mev is equivalent to ___ Joules. a. 1.68 x 10-13 b. 6.8 x 10-11 c. 1.60 x10-13 -1115. 3.5 x 10 Joules = ___Mev a. 420 b. 110 c. 22016. Radiation is present in our bodies in small amounts. Below are some of the substances except: a. Phosphorous-32 b. Potassium-40 c. Carbon-1217. An electromagnetic energy, in the form of particles or waves, which is given off when atoms undergo changes. a. radiation b. infrared c. ultraviolet rays18. Which is an example of non- ionizing radiation? a. radio waves b. X rays c. gamma rays19. All are examples of ionizing radiation except: a. Alpha b. Ultraviolet rays c. Beta20. The energies of non-ionizing radiation can only excite but cannot knock electrons out of an atom. a. True b. False21. This type of radiation has sufficiently high energy that can alter atoms or knock electrons away from atoms. a. Cosmic Radiation b. Ionizing Radiation c. Non-ionizing Radiation
    • 22. When electrons are knocked away from atoms an electrically charged particles called ___ are created. a. photons b. positrons c. ions23. Tritium, one of the materials present in fallout from nuclear explosives emits __ radiation. a. Alpha b. Beta c. Gamma24. This radiation can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper. a. Alpha b. Beta c. Gamma25. ___ rays can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. a. Neutron b. Gamma c. Beta26. A nuclear radiation, rarely detected at sea level but present at greater altitudes. a. Neutron b. Gamma c. Beta27. Henri Becquerel discovered accidentally a compound caused a completely sealed photographic plate to become exposed. What compound is this? a. Uranium b. Radium c. Plutonium28. Isotopes , without any external stimulus, will change themselves into isotopes of different elements by emitting particles. a. Stable b. Unstable c. Radioisotopes29. The process by which an isotope undergo change by emitting particles. a. Radiation b. Radioactive decay c. Radioactivity30. The spontaneous decay of unstable atomic nucleus so that it is transformed into a more stable form. a. Radioactive Disintegration b. Nuclear Radiation c. Radioactivity31. An alpha particle is the nucleus of a ___ atom. a. Hydrogen b. Helium c. Nitrogen32. Alpha Decay occurs principally with heavy elements such as: a. Uranium and Plutonium b. Uranium and Radium c. Plutonium and Barium33. An alpha decay consists of __ protons and __ neutrons. a. 2,3 b. 3,2 c. 2,234. The emission of an electron from the nucleus. a. Alpha decay b. Beta decay c. Electron Capture35. A Beta decay has practically ___ mass and a charge of ___. a. 0,-1 b. 2,+1 c. 0,+136. The process in which a nucleus absorbs an electron from the K-shell or the lowest orbit of an atom. a. Alpha decay b. Beta decay c. Electron Capture37. A process which completes with electron capture. a. Positron emission b. Compton Scattering c. Radiation Activity38. A particle of the same mass as an electron but with positive charge. a. Neutron b. Positron c. ions39. It is emitted during spontaneous fission when parent nucleus splits into two lighter nuclei. a. Neutron b. Electron c. Protons40. Decay by any processes may leave the nucleus in an energetically excited state, immediately relieved by emission of EM radiation known as ___ rays. a. Alpha b. Gamma c. Beta41. The time it takes for half of the nuclei of a radioisotope to decay. a. Carbon dating b. Radioactive dating c. Half Life42. When charged particles are slowed down very rapidly, they emit energy in the form of X- rays. This is known as a. Photoelectric effect b. Bremsstrahlung c. Compton Scattering43. Gamma radiations interact with matter indirectly. They will have to interact first with atomic particles. Which is not a gamma ray interaction? a. Pair Production b. Bremsstrahlung c. Photoelectric effect44. In this gamma ray interaction, the entire energy of the gamma ray is transferred to an orbital electron which is ejected from its parent atom. a. Photoelectric effect b. Pair Production c. Compton Scattering
    • 45. This gamma ray interaction occurs when only part of the energy of the photon is transferred to an orbital electron. a. Pair Production b. Compton Scattering c. Neutron Capture46. This happens in an intense electric field close to a charged particle, where an energetic photon may be converted into a positron-electron pair. a. Neutron Capture b. Pair Production c. Photoelectric effect47. This refer to the rate of radioactive decay of a given sample. a. Radiation Activity b. Absorbed Dose c. Dose Equivalent48. The old unit for radiation activity is ___. a. Curie(Ci) b. Bequerel (Bq) c. dps49. The activity of a given sample can be determined by using the formula: a. absorbed dose x quality factor b. G x Q x N c. A = λN50. This is a measure of the biological effect of radiation. a. Dose equivalent b. Absorbed Dose c. Radiation Activity51. This refer to the energy deposition in any medium by any type of ionizing radiation. a. Neutron capture b. Radiation Activity c. Absorbed Dose52. The old unit for Absorbed Dose was rad, meaning.. a. rapid absorbed dose b. radiation absorbed dose c. random absorbed dose53. The SI unit for Absorbed Dose is gray(Gy) which is defined as an energy deposition of ___. a. 1 J/kg b. 1 kg/J c. 1Gy = 10 rads54. Rem is the old unit for dose equivalent, which means a. radiation equivalent in man b. roentgen equivalent in man c. radiation equivalent meter55. Which is not true of Dose Equivalent? a. The SI unit is sievert(Sv). b. Dose equivalent = absorbed dose c. G x Q x N56. If a man works in an area for 2 hours and receives a dose equivalent of 4 mSv, what is the dose equivalent rate? a. 4 mSv/h b. 2 mSv/h c. 8 mSv/h57. If a man is permitted to receive a dose rate of 1 mSv in a week, for how many hours may he work in an area where the dose equivalent rate is 50 mSv/h? a. 25 b. 100 c. 5058. There are three principal methods used to control radiation exposure. Which one is not applicable? a. Distance b. Shielding c. AmountConsider the following nuclear reactions: W a. 0n1 + 92U235 92U 236 97 37Rb + 55Cs 137 + 0n1 + 0n1 3 3 4 1 1 b. 1H + 1H 2He + 0n + 0n + EnergyWhich represents…59. Nuclear fission60. Nuclear fusion
    • 61. The process by which a nucleus target is split into two smaller nuclei upon bombardment. a. nuclear fusion b. nuclear fission c. nuclear reactor62. Which among the following is true of nuclear fission? a. It releases tremendous amount of energy. b. The energy is in order of about 200 Mev per uranium nucleus. c. It is the process by which the stars, including our own sun, “cook up” their tremendous energy releases.63. Another nuclear reaction in which two nuclei combine to form a single nucleus. a. nuclear fusion b. nuclear reactor c. nuclear fission64. In order to bring protons and neutrons close enough for fusion to happen what temperature is needed? a. moderate b. very low c. very high65. He and his co-workers built the first nuclear reactor or atomic pile. a. Otto Hann b. Enrico Fermi c. Fritz Strassman66. Fission of U-235 atom can take place when uranium is divided into discrete parcels and placed underneath about 400 tons of a form of carbon called ____. a. graphite b. graviton c. isotopes67. This part of nuclear reactor slows down neutrons that are normal too fast to be absorbed by fissionable isotopes. a. reactor b. moderator c. breeder68. Another kind of fission nuclear reactor used to create plutonium for nuclear weapons. a. moderator b. reactor c. breeder reactor69. This kind of bomb derives its explosive force from the release of atomic energy through the process of splitting of the nuclei of a heavy chemical element. a. atomic bomb b. hydrogen bomb c. neutron bomb70. The idea of this bomb is that fusion will generate a neuron flux of billions of radioactive particles that will in turn generate doses of radiation. Thus it is termed as a “clean bomb”. a. hydrogen bomb b. neutron bomb c. atomic bomb71. The most destructive weapon developed by man. Its massive destructive energy is derived from the joining together of hydrogen isotopes. a. hydrogen bomb b. atomic bomb c. nuclear bomb72. On the basis of the quark model all the elementary particles are formed by just three except: a. leptons b. quarks c. gravitons73. The sub atomic particles are divided into two groups: the hadrons, to which protons and neutrons belong, and the ___, to which electrons belong. a. quarks b. antiquarks c. leptons74. The sub atomic particle hadron is divided into this two groups: a. protons, neutrons b. baryons, mesons c. quarks, antiquarks75. One of the four basic forces of nature which causes subatomic particles to shoot out of the atomic nuclei during the radioactive decay of such unstable elements as uranium. a. electromagnetism b. weak nuclear force c. strong nuclear force76. The kind of force that binds protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus. a. strong nuclear force b. gravitational force c. weak nuclear force77. The theory which states that the electroweak force can merge with the strong nuclear force. a. Superstring theory b. The theory of Supersymmetry c. Grand Unified Theory78. The Theory of Supersymmetry attempts to unite bosons and fermions. Fermions are associated with particles of matter while bosons are associated with ____. a. particles of matter likewise b. forces of nature c. energies of nature79. _____ requires the existence of a new particle called gravitino together with graviton. a. Superstring c. Supersymmetry c. Supergravity80. This theory says that the final building blocks of nature consist of very small vibrating strings. a. Superstring Theory b. The Theory of Supersymmetry c. Grand Unified Theory