7 Ways to Get Your Students Talking in the EFL Classroom Noel Houck Cal Poly Donna Tatsuki KCUFS
Poll 1Which of the following is your main concern: Producing intelligible speech Using conventional expressions Speaking for special purposes Engaging in conversations Giving presentations Other
7 Ways to Get Students Speaking 1. Say Something – Anything! Repeat it 2. Say Something – Anything! Memorize and produce it 3. Say Something Meaningful – but keep it short 4. Say Something Meaningful – to other students 5. Say Something Meaningful – but say it accurately. 6. Say Something Meaningful – but say it fluently. 7. Say Something Meaningful – to an L2 speaker.
Embed Activities in aPre-Post Activity Sequence Pre Activity Preparation Vocabulary Grammar focus (if F on F) Activate schema Post Activity Reporting Turn in activity sheet Teacher or peer feedback
1. Say Something – Anything! Repeat it!Goal: Students become used to producing chunks of language Repeat in chorus *Backwards build up Repeat after Teacher Left side, right side Unison Sing Songs, Recite poems, Perform chants Read aloud Unison Sequentially
Example: Backwards Build up Tonight. Dinner tonight. For dinner tonight. Go for dinner tonight. Want to go for dinner tonight. You want to go for dinner tonight. Do you want to go for dinner tonight? Where do you want to go for dinner tonight?How about the new Thai restaurant?I hear it is expensive.No problem. My treat.
2. Say Something – Anything Memorize it!Goal: Students produce longer chunks of language *Read and look up *Talking circle Recitations Poems Slogans Jokes
Read and Look Up (Bresnihan) Example: Dialogues (Rainy Weather)Situation: You walk into a Situation: You are standing in a store,store to get out of the rain, waiting for it to stop raining so hard.and you see your partner Your partner comes into the store. A B1. What a day! It looks like it’s never 2. a. It looks like it will never stop, doesn’t going to stop raining. it?3. a. No, the forecast this morning said b.Yeah, I’ve never seen so much rain. we’ll have at least 3 more days of it. Does it rain like this all the time here? b. Around this time of year it does. Sometimes you think it will never 4. a. I’m glad to hear that. It’d be awful if it stop. went on day after day.5. a. Really? It doesn’t rain much where b. Boy, I don’t see how you stand it. We you come from, huh? never have anything like this at home. b. Really? It rained like this all the 6. a. Nope.You get more rain in a week here time there, huh? than we get in a year at home. b.Yeah. And I forgot my umbrella, too.
Ex: Talking Circle – Survey Activities(Bresnihan) Find someone who… --likes windsurfing --has been to Hawaii --was born in January Ask someone… --What is your favorite color? --What did you eat for breakfast? --What is your ideal vacation?
3. Say Something Meaningful – but keep it shortGoal: Students respond to meaningful questions *Short answers to personal questions *Short answers to common conversational questions *Short answers to story Short suggestions during story
Short Answers to Teacher Questions Example Questions Yes-No Questions 1. Is Srisucha wearing a red sweater? 2. Do you have a dog? 3. Have you ever eaten sushi? Wh-Questions 1. What’s Srisucha wearing? 2. Who in the class wears glasses? 3. What did you have for dinner last night? 4. What countries have you visited?
Short Answers (Wong & Waring, 2010) Teacher Questions - Student Answers1. Q: How was your weekend? A: Great. Thanks.2. Q: What did you do? A: Oh, I went to a party.3. Q: Who did you go with? A: A couple of my friends.4. Q: Where was the party? A: Just around the corner.5. Q: How long has Jack been sick? A: A couple of months.6. Q: Is he really going to lose his job? A: I think so.7. Q: When did he find out? A: Yesterday.
Answer Questions on a Story: Dog Story(Byrne, 1967)
4. Say Something Meaningful - to other people (pair/group activities)Goal: Students interact with classmates to make decisions and solve problems Definition of Task Types of Tasks *Jigsaw *Info Gap (one picture) Problem solving Decision making Opinion giving
Example: Information Gap -The Kite(Yorkey, 1985)
Example: Tricky Info Gap City Tour A & B(Anderson & Lynch, 1988)
Example: Picture Order Story(Anderson & Lynch, 1988)
Poll #2 Which of these techniques do you already use? Repetition Memorization Meaning focused Meaning with a focus on form Fluency
5. Say Something Meaningful But say it right!Goal: Produce accurate speech (with a Focus on Form) *Picture Description *Picture Comparison Jigsaw *Picture Strip Jigsaw *Form-Focused Story Questions *Dictocomp
Example: Picture Description Present Progressive and Present Perfect
Example: Picture Comparison Jigsaw(Granger & Plumb, 1981) A B
Example: Picture Strip JigsawStick Figures A (Palmer et al.) ●
Example: Picture Strip Jigsaw Stick Figures B (Palmer et al.)●
Form-Focused Story Questions1. What happened on the princess s birthday?2. Describe the princess s living situation.3. What happened to the ball one day?4. Where was the frog? What was the frog doing?
Example: Dictocomp – San Francisco 1848 to 1880 was a time when San Francisco grew rapidly. In 1848 its growth was stimulated by gold, which was discovered nearby. Soon afterwards, it became home to many Chinese, who were hired to build the railroad. The growth in population that had begun with the Gold Rush continued. By the 1880s San Francisco had been transformed from a small mining town into a major city that was respected for its economic and social life..
6. Say Something Meaningful But say it fluentlyGoal: Produce a text with a minimum of pauses, false starts, etc. *Taking turns naturally *Strip story jigsaw *60-second conversation *Conversation jigsaw Prepared speech *4-3-2 (opportunities to repeat a story or short speech)
Example: Taking Turns Naturally(Carroll, 2011) Conversing about food preferences –example of a spontaneously produced, naturally timed conversation : A: I like pepperoni pizza. B: Oh, I love pepperoni pizza! C: I like ramen. What do you like? B: I like octopus sushi. C: Oh, me too! A: Eeew! Yuck!
Example: 60-second conversation Sample Topics – for Japan (may vary according to on where you are): skiing typhoons karaoke comic books baseball sushi cell phones Adele
Fluency Jigsaw – Sunny Weather (Palmer et al., 1985)Situation A: Walking to Situation B: You are walking toschool, you see your partner. school. Your partner catches upYou hurry to catch up. with you.1. Sure is a great day, isn’t it? 2. a. I don’t know what you mean. This3. a. Yeah, really. I don’t like weather is beautiful! b.Yeah. Makes you want to be going to class on a day like outside, doesn’t it? this. 4. a. Oh, sitting under a tree with a b. Oh, I’d say it’s at least good book. seventy-five, maybe eighty b. Me neither. I keep looking out the degrees. window and daydreaming.5. a. What do you think about? 6. a. Oh, just about all the things I’d b. Well, I’d like to, but I really rather be doing. think I’d better go to class? b. Not me. I just get sleepy.
7. Say Something Meaningful to an L2 SpeakerGoal: Interact with speakers of the target language Interviews (in and out of class) Experiential tasks outside of class Model United Nations Simulations Project work (data collection)
Selected References (Pictures) Anderson, A., & Lynch, T.(1988). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tai City Tour, Jumbled Picture Story Bygate, M. (1987). Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press. – Jigsaw with faces Byrne, Donn. (1967). Progressive Picture Compositions. Harlow: Longman Carroll, D. (2011). Talking naturally. In N. Houck & D. Tatsuki (Eds.) Teaching natural conversation. Arlington, VA: TESOL. Granger, C., & Plumb, J. (1981). Play games with English, 2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinmann. (photocopiable) – the memory pictures Granger, C., & Plumb, J. (1981). Play games with English, 2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinmann. (photocopiable) – the memory pictures Heaton, J. (1975). Composition Through Pictures. Longman. Heaton, J. (1976). Beginning Composition Through Pictures. Longman. Hill, A.L. (1960). Picture Composition Book. Longman. Palmer, A.., Rodgers, T., & Olsen, J. W-B., (1985). Back & Forth Hayward, CA: Alemany Press. (photocopiable) – Rainy weather, Stick Pictures Yorkey, R. (1985). Talk-a-Tivities. Addison Wesley. – Kite picture, strip story
Selected References (General) Carroll, D. (2011). Taking turns and talking naturally: Teaching conversational turn-taking. Pragmatics: Teaching Natural conversation. Alexandria VA: TESOL. DeKeyser, Robert (Ed.). Practicing in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology. Cambridge University Press, 2007. Doughty, K., & Williams, J. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Gattegno, C. (1976).The Common Sense of Teaching Foreign Languages. New York: Educational Solutions. Ilson, R. (1962). The dictocomp: A specialized technique for controlling speech and writing in language learning. Language Learning, 12(4), 299-301. Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. (1983). Natural approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Maurice, K. (1983). The fluency workshop.TESOL Newsletter, 17, 429. Nation, I.S.P. (1989). Improving speaking fluency. System 3, 377-384. Pica, T., Kanagy, R., & Falodun, J. (1993). Choosing and using communication tasks for second language acquisition. In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 9–34). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 97–114). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Toth, P.D. (2008).Teacher- and learner-led discourse in task-based grammar instruction: Providing procedural assistance for L2 morphosyntactic development. Language Learning 58(2), 237-283. West, M. P. (1941). Learning to read in a foreign language. London: Longman. White, J. . Getting the learners attention: a typographical input enhancement study. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Gattegno, C. (1976).The Common Sense of Teaching Foreign Languages. New York: Educational Solutions. Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. London: Longman.
Frog and Princess StoryThe Frog and the PrincessOnce upon a time there was a king. He had a beautiful young daughter. For her birthday, the king gave her a golden ball that she played with every day. The king and his daughter lived near a dark forest. There was a deep well near the castle. Sometimes the princess would sit by the well and play with her ball. One day, the princess threw her golden ball in the air, but it did not fall into her hands. It fell into the well. Splash! The well was deep and the princess was sure she would never see her ball again. So she cried and cried and could not stop.“What is the matter?” said a voice behind her. The girl looked around, and she saw a frog. He was in a well, his head sticking out of the water.“Oh, it’s you,” said the girl. “My ball fell into the well.”“I can help,” said the frog. “I can get your ball. What will you give me if I do?”“Whatever you want,” said the princess. “I’ll give you my beautiful gold ring. I’ll give you flowers from my garden.”“I do not want your beautiful gold ring or flowers from your garden,” said the frog. But I would like to live with you and be your friend.”He continued, “I would like to eat from your dish and drink from your cup. I would like to sleep on your bed. If I get the ball, will you promise me all this, Princess?”“Oh, yes,” said the princess. “I’ll promise.” But she thought, “Silly frog! I could never live with him!”When the frog heard her promise, he went down into the well. He soon came up with the golden ball in his mouth. He put it at her feet.She was happy when she saw her ball. She picked it up and ran away.“Wait,” cried the frog. “Wait for me! Take me with you!”But she did not listen. She just ran home. She soon forgot the poor frog.That night the princess was eating dinner when – plop-plop, plop-plop – something came climbing up the steps. When it reached the door, it knocked. It cried out in a loud voice.Daughter of the king, open the door for me.”The princess ran to the door. There was the frog, wet and green and cold! She slammed the door in his face.The king saw that she was afraid.My daughter, what are you afraid of?” he askedIt’s a fat, old frog,” said the princess.And what does he want from you,” asked the king.The princess explained what had happened, how her ball had fallen into the well and the frog had brought it back to her; how she had promised him he could be her friend; how she said he could eat from her dish and drink from her cup. But she never thought he would leave his well. She said she had even promised that he could sleep in her bed!