Hand techniques Etching, intaglio, linocut, screen print, woodcut, lithography
EtchingDefinition: Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into theunprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (theoriginal process—in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on othertypes of material). As an intaglio method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, themost important technique for old master prints, and remains widely used today.EtchingEtching is one of the oldest known forms of print making and datesback to around 500 years ago, The process of etching consists ofusing sheets of metal, usually made of copper or zinc, and acidused to etch the print onto the metal. When creating this type ofprint the artist can use complicated methods to create differenteffects, but always relies on acid to etch the plate .Etching is usually a complicated method. The more detailed theetching is the more time consuming and expensive it becomes.Etching is a dated method and was more popular in historic times.There are now different types of making print which is easier andless time consuming which has made etching more dated. Etching by Jacques Bellange, Gardener with basket c1612
IntaglioIntaglio is a family of printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into asurface, known as the matrix or plate. Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as asurface, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, dry point, aquatint ormezzotint. Collographs may also be printed as intaglio plates.HistoryIntaglio was invented in Germany around the 1430’s well after the woodcutprint, although intaglio is similar to woodcut it is the method of engraving and makingprints. Intaglio uses the art of engraving which had been used by goldsmiths todecorate metalwork such as; armour and musical instruments.ProcessThe process of etching consists of a plate being covered in resin or an acid-resistantwax, once you have prepared the plate you will then use a etching needle to etch theimage into the ground, revealing the plate underneath. The plate is the dipped into acid.The acid bites into the plate where it was exposed from etching.Intaglio is a dated process of print making, this would usually be used to whensomeone is creating a fine piece of detailed art work, this is usually a very timeconsuming process.
LinocutLinocut is a printmaking technique, a variant of woodcut in which a sheet oflinoleum (sometimes mounted on a wooden block) is used for the relief surface.A design is cut into the linoleum surface with a sharp knife, V-shaped chisel orgouge, with the raised areas representing a reversal (mirror image) of the partsProcessprinted.to showLino printing is the process where the printing is cut intolinoleum(Floor covering). The lino is then inked and a pieceof paper is placed over it, once this part is completed it isthen run through a printing press or pressure is applied byhand to transfer the ink to the paper.Linocut may be used to make simple pictures as the moredetailed the linocut is the more difficult it would be to cut out.People may use the method of lino cut when they arecreating a large amount of the same picture for example;Christmas cards. People may find it easier to cut one pictureand use it various times rather then re-drawing the samepicture as it saves time, it also gives a more neat a preciselook.
Screen Print Screen Printing is a form of print media which uses a woven mesh to support asink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer inkor other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller is then placed on the area forcing the ink out,the ink is forced through the mesh onto the printing surface. It is also known assilkscreen, serigraphy, and serigraph printing.Coating and printing processCoating and printing processes involve theapplication of a thin film of functional material to asubstrate, such as paper, fabric, film, foil or sheetstock. This article discusses what is frequentlytermed roll-to-roll or web-based coating. A roll ofsubstrate, when wound through the coatingmachine, is typically called a web.
WoodcutWoodcut occasionally known as xylography—is a relief printing artistic technique inprintmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with theprinting parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed,typically with gouges. The areas to show white are cut away with a knife or chisel,leaving the characters or image to show in black at the original surface level.ProcessA plank of wood with a flat parallel is usually selected. Originally wood wasonly available to cut along the grain or cut across it. The plank of wood isthen cut along the grain, the grain will have hard and soft areas related to thegrowth of the tree, this makes it less predictable to cut into. The direction ofthe grain plays an important part in the type of mark that can be made forexample cutting across the grain causes a splintered edge to the line.
lithographyLithography is a method for printing using a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metalplate with a completely smooth surface. Invented in 1796 by Bavarian author AloisSenefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works, lithography can be usedto print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable materialLithography was originally used as an image drawn into a coating of wax or an oilysubstance applied to a plate of lithographic stone as the medium to transfer ink to ablank paper sheet, and so produce a printed page. In modern lithography, the image ismade of a polymer coating applied to a flexible aluminium plate.As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, where a plate iseither engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink; andwoodblock printing, and letterpress printing, in which ink is applied to the raised surfacesof letters or images.
Mechanical techniques Letterpress, Gravure
LetterpressLetter press is the form of print which is used with a tool called the ‘type highbed’, this tool is reversed, raised surface is inked and then pressed into a sheetof paper to obtain a positive right-reading image.Letter press is most commonly used when writingout in hand, this makes it easier and moreefficient when re-creating the same piece of workvarious times. People may use Letter press whencreating invites, as they still want the invite tolook personal they would like it to look handwritten, with letter press they are able to achievethis look and also have a less time consumingway of creating something which has to be donea number of times.People that choose to use letter press maychoose it because it is quite a simple way ofcreating something which also looks detailed dueto the imprints, they may also choose it as it is aquick and easy way of creating something and isrelatively cheap.
GravureDefinition: With gravure printing an image is etched on the surface of a metal plate,the etched area is filled with ink, then the plate is rotated on a cylinder that transfers theimage to the paper or other material.The process of gravure printing, is where theimage printed consists of depressions orrecesses on the surface of the printing plate.The process is the reverse of reliefprinting, this is where the image is raisedfrom the surface of the plate. The printerforms the image by cutting into the plate byhand or by using acids or other chemicals toetch the plate along the lines of the desiredimage. The printer then covers the plate withink and wipes the ink from the highersurface, leaving the depressions, or intaglioareas, filled with ink. Paper pressed to theplate then absorbs ink from the depressedareas.
Digital Print Photocopying, laser printing, inkjet, desktop publishing(DTP), Digital screen printing
PhotocopyingA photocopier is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visualimages quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology calledxerography, a dry process using heat. (Copiers can also use other technologies suchas ink jet.Photocopying is a recently developed way of copyingpieces of work. By using a self-service photocopiermachine people are able to take a single piece of work andcopy it into many more pieces, this has become the mostpopular way of creating copies of work, the reason it hasbecome so popular is because it is a simple machinewhich does all the work, the machine scans the piece ofwork then prints out the number of copies needed. Onmost machines people need to type in the number ofcopies and the machine does the rest of the work. It ismore efficient and creates it in a small amount of time.
Laser Printinglaser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high qualitytext and graphics on plain paper. As with digital photocopiers and multifunctionprinters (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing processA laser printer is a printer powered by an electrically charged rotating drum coated withselenium, this is more commonly used in modern printers. This printers use a processcalled photoconductivity which removes charge from the areas exposed to light. Dry inkparticles are then electrostratically picked up by the drums charged area. The drum thenprints the image onto paper by direct contact and heat, this fuses the ink onto the paper.
Ink JetInk jet printer is a printer which works through spraying iornized ink at a sheet ofpaper, by using magnetized plats in the ink’s path direct the ink onto the paper indesired shapes.Alike laser printers, ink-jet printers can also produce high quality print. A typical ink-jet printer provides a resolution of 300 dots per inch.The benefits of having an ink jet printer is that the price of having the ink-jet is lowerthan that of laser printer. Although they may be cheaper, they are also considerablyslower.Another drawback of ink-jet printers is that they require a special type of ink that isapt to smudge on inexpensive copier paper.Because ink-jet printers require smaller mechanical parts than laser printers, theyare especially popular as portable printers.
Desktop publishing(DTP)Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout softwareon a personal computer.Desktop publishing is a term used to describe the development of a specific type ofsoftware. Its about using that software to join and rearrange text and images as well ascreating digital files.Before the innovation of desktop publishing software, the tasks involved in desktoppublishing were done manually, by a variety of people and involved both graphic designand prepress tasks is the use of the computer confusion about create visual publishingDesktop publishing which sometimes leads to and software to what desktopis and how ideas and information. Desktop publishing documents may be fordisplays of it is donedesktop or commercial printing or electronic distribution including PDF, slideshows, email newsletters, and the Web.