Explaining GOALS, AIMS ANDExplaining GOALS, AIMS ANDOBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES……bbyyGabriela S. Gaione CatepónGabriela S. Gaione Catepón
“By the end of this 45’- session futurecolleagues will have interacted in order to…1. Explain the differencesbetween a goal/aim and anobjective in the field of EFL-acknowledging the fact of theconfusing and polysemic natureof the terms2. Understand how to formulateexplicit objectives3. Formulate the objectives for asecondary school class usingthe given prompts
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/medical-school/tips/aims_objectives.html#difference• Learning Objectives are statements that describe what alearner will be able to do as a result of learning.• They are sometimes called learning outcomes.• Learning Objectives are also statements that describe what alearner will be able to do as a result of teaching, the addedvalue of teaching.• Personal note: they generally are short term objectives- class-week- month•What are Learning Objectives?
Aims are general statements concerning the overall goals, ends orintentions of teaching.Objectives are the individual stages that learners must achieve on theway in order to reach these goals.• Aims are general, objectives are specific.• There are more objectives than aims.
The Differencebetween goals and objectiveshttp://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/edtec540/objectives/difference.html• Goals are generally broad• Objectives are generally narrow.• Goals are general intentions• Objectives are precise• Goals are usually intangible• Objectives are tangible.• Goals are abstract• Objectives are concrete.
“Not all the lessons we teach can be planned inthe same way(…) The objectives of a lessoncan be functional or structural, lexical orphonological, or a combination of these”(Oliveri:1996)Tips for Teachers- Alejandra Oliveri 1996
• Susan Halliwell author of “Teaching English in the Primary Classroom”• GOALS – General –• Concerned with content or attitude• Content – concerned with elements of language and the way itis used• They can address- one or a combination of the following• Structures- e.g. The Present Continuous, Negatives, I amworking very hard, I don’t give up• Topics and Situations—e.g. The family/ at the supermarket• Functions-e.g. Expressing likes- giving and asking for somedirections• Attitude• Concerned with the kind of learning experiences that we set upand the relationship and atmosphere and the languageclassroom- Example aspects such as• Risk taking• Confidence• General goodwillPersonal note: There is a shift in the balance of the importance of Contentand Attitudinal Goals – while in Primary School the teachers are orshould be more concerned with Attitude Goals and less concerned withContent up to some extent!