from the Globe to the West End


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  • The translation of Seneca and the reading of Aristotle's Poetics were major influences. Many critics and playwrights, such as Ben Jonson, insisted on observing the classical unities of action, time and place (the action should be one whole and take place in one day and in one place). However, it was romantic tragedy, which Shakespeare wrote in Richard II , Macbeth , Hamlet , and King Lear , which prevailed. Romantic tragedy disregarded the unities (as in the use of subplots), mixed tragedy and comedy, and emphasized action, spectacle, and--increasingly--sensation. Shakespeare violated the unities in these ways and also in mixing poetry and prose and using the device of a play-within-a-play, as in Hamlet . The Elizabethans and their Jacobean successsors acted on stage the violence that the Greek dramatists reported. The Elizabethan and later the Jacobean playwright had a diverse audience to please, ranging from Queen Elizabeth and King James I and their courtiers to the lowest classes.
  • Scenes of bloodshed were staged with maximum realism. Some of Shakespeare's most violent plays were by far his most popular during his lifetime. Hamlet's father is poisoned with a potion so potent that it immediately causes bubbling scabs on his body; King Duncan is lured to Macbeth's castle to be slaughtered in his bed, and so on
  • Shakespeare's Globe was the most popular English theater of its time, frequented by people from all walks of Elizabethan life. From 1599 until 1640, everyone from lords and ladies to apprentices and paupers filled the galleries and yard to experience the Bard's tragedies, comedies, and histories. Today we understand The Globe's significance as a physical center for literature, history, and social interaction.
  • from the Globe to the West End

    1. 1. From the Globe to the West End Liceo “P. Virgilio Marone Avellino C1 FSE 2010-2246
    2. 3. <ul><li>Country unified, trade and commerce flourished </li></ul><ul><li>Age of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding with confidence and reflecting in it the drama of the period </li></ul><ul><li>England became a dominant force under Elizabeth I (1558-1603) </li></ul><ul><li>London largest city in Europe. Population 200,000 1559. Doubles again in 50 years. </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>The Theatres in London were not on the “better” side of the River Thames </li></ul><ul><li>The were located on the Bishop of Canterbury’s Land </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by brothels, pubs and gaming houses </li></ul><ul><li>Bear baiting, cock fights and tournaments were held in the same space where the original theatre was performed </li></ul>
    4. 6. <ul><li>In the early days, Elizabethan theatre space was located in courtyards and the larger homes of noble patrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to advances many playwrights were able to write very different plays than the more formal Greek examples </li></ul>
    5. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabethan theatre was able to be more expansive and include many more actors and actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No hesitancy to show murder and bloodshed on stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 8. <ul><li>No longer state or church supported </li></ul><ul><li>6 days a week (NO Sundays) </li></ul><ul><li>In the afternoon,(2-5)No lights </li></ul><ul><li>Changed plays often to keep the people coming </li></ul><ul><li>They announced what kind of play was showing with flags: Black-Tragedy, White-comedy, Red-History </li></ul><ul><li>One play could be performed up to ten times in a season </li></ul><ul><li>New plays in constant demand </li></ul>
    7. 9. <ul><li>“ The Theatre ” first permanent theatre space built in England </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed in amphitheatre style: open air </li></ul><ul><li>Built by James Burbage, father of an actor </li></ul>
    8. 10. <ul><li>One of the most famous Elizabethan theatres surrounded on three sides by seating “ galleries ” </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare ’ s troupe performed here. He was part owner in the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>The acting company had about 25 actors, all male </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the actors were share holders in the theatre. </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>Stage was 43 feet wide </li></ul><ul><li>Extended 1/2 way into the yard (about 27 1/2ft) </li></ul><ul><li>3 stories of galleries </li></ul><ul><li>4 separately divided gentlemen ’ s rooms </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>The Globe held about 3000 people </li></ul><ul><li>1c admission for standing room </li></ul><ul><li>Higher price for gallery seating </li></ul><ul><li>Private boxes for the nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Sold refreshments </li></ul><ul><li>No restroom, no intermission </li></ul><ul><li>“ Box Office ” </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>The Globe theatre was burned to the ground in 1613 </li></ul><ul><li>Fire started when a prop cannon exploded during the first night performance of Henry VIII. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt on the same site. </li></ul><ul><li>Was demolished in 1644 when theatres were closed. </li></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>Paid by the play </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare averaged two a year </li></ul><ul><li>Often plays of specific playwright written exclusively for one theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>No copyright laws; use of sides </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spencer were all Elizabethan playwrights </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Born April 1564 at Stratford – upon-Avon </li></ul><ul><li>Father John Shakespeare was a glove maker and trader </li></ul><ul><li>Married Anne Hathaway 1582.She was 26. He was 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Three children: Susanna, Twins: Judith & Hamnet </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote 37 plays, poems and sonnet (154) </li></ul><ul><li>Plays are divided into Histories, Tragedies, Comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1616 </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>Shakespeare was a member of the Lord Chamberlain ’ s Men. </li></ul><ul><li>Became King ’ s Men when James I became king in 1603. </li></ul><ul><li>Company was given royal patent. </li></ul><ul><li>Performed at court 12 times a year. </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>History Plays: </li></ul><ul><li>Henry IV Parts1&2, Henry V , Henry VI Parts1,2 &3,Richard II and III etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedies: Romeo & Juliet, Caesar, Hamlet, Macbeth etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Comedies:12 th Night, Much Ado About Nothing, Taming of the Shrew, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>John Heminge & Henry Condell “ First Folio ” </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Many of Shakespeare ’ s plays have been adapted into other forms </li></ul><ul><li>They are some of the most quoted plays of all time still very popular today </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><li>Greatest actor of the time period </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare wrote parts for him: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Anthony and others </li></ul><ul><li>Father built “ The Theatre ’ </li></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>Educated at Cambridge </li></ul><ul><li>Atheist, homosexual, tavern brawler </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the darker side of the Elizabethan period </li></ul><ul><li>Died in a tavern fight at 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous play “ The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus ” </li></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>Most influential after Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Had strong convictions about what audiences should like </li></ul><ul><li>Arrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temper </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned 2 times </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous works: Volpone, The Alchemist, The Devil Is an Ass </li></ul><ul><li>1 st ” poet Laureate of England </li></ul>
    20. 22. Restoration theatre
    21. 23. <ul><li>The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwell period in England. </li></ul><ul><li>When Charles II was restored to power he re-opened the theatres in England.(1660) Noted for its Comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Cynical View, witty dialogue, sophisticated sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>“ Virtuous ” characters no matter the situation. “ Honor ” depended on wit not reputation </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. </li></ul><ul><li>William Congreve(1670-1729) Love for love, The way of the World </li></ul><ul><li>William Wycherley(1640_1715) The Country wife </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Goldsmith: She stoops to Conquer </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration was first to use women in female roles </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1700(Queen Anne) there was a revival of classical style and morality. The change was slow at first but by 1730 (George I) the hero/heroine was becoming more virtuous. </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Carbone Paola </li></ul><ul><li>Celano Miriam </li></ul><ul><li>Colucci Maria Rita </li></ul><ul><li>De Luca Vittorio </li></ul><ul><li>De Mattia Michela </li></ul><ul><li>Dente Antonella </li></ul><ul><li>Fruncillo Gerardina </li></ul><ul><li>Giliberti Marta </li></ul><ul><li>Guerriero Adriana </li></ul><ul><li>Infante Mariana </li></ul><ul><li>Mamone Capria Stefano </li></ul><ul><li>Manzo Roberta </li></ul><ul><li>Palumbo Edoardo </li></ul><ul><li>Troisi Chiara </li></ul><ul><li>Tulino Rossella </li></ul>