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Temperament, Parental Styles and Metacognitions as Predictors of Ruminative Brooding and Worry G. Caselli 1,2 , C. Manfred...
Introduction <ul><li>Recurrent, rigid and negative thinking style has been found to be a core dysfunctional component in d...
Ruminative Brooding and Worry <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negativ...
<ul><li>Which predictors may be relevant in the development and maintenance of ruminative brooding and worry? </li></ul><u...
Key Literature <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm avoidance and negative emotions ( Starcevic, Uhlenhuth, Fall...
Study 1 <ul><li>Aim: to explore the relative contribution of temperament and parental styles to ruminative brooding and wo...
Results Alpha Mean Score SD BDI TPQ-NS TPQ-HA TPQ-RD PBI-C PBI-O RRS-B PSWQ Anxiety  (BAI) .88 8.65 8.23 .53** .05 .31** -...
Results In the final equation Anxiety, Depression and Parental Overprotection are predictors of both brooding and worry, R...
Discussion <ul><li>With respect to temperament, reward dependence significantly predicted ruminative brooding, whilst harm...
Study 2 <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High worriers would show higher scores on parental overprotection and metacogn...
Results (1) <ul><li>Individuals high on worry reported significantly higher levels  anxiety  [U=741.000,  p <.0005],  pare...
Results (2) r 2 F Change B t p Step 1 .29 50.60 .00 BAI: Anxiety  .54 7.10 .00 Step 2 .36 11.40 .00 BAI: Anxiety  .51 6.90...
Discussion <ul><li>Positive beliefs about worry and negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and dange...
Conclusions <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm avoidance  may predispose to a form of passive problem-solving ...
Implications for Reducing Vulnerability to Emotional Distress <ul><li>Assessment of family environmental factors, temperam...
Limitations <ul><li>Absence of  behavioral or neurological demonstration of temperament to corroborate data from self-repo...
Future Research <ul><li>Employ longitudinal designs </li></ul><ul><li>Employ direct measures of parental styles </li></ul>...
Thank you for your attention! Contact details Dr. Gabriele Caselli Cognitive Psychotherapy School Studi Cognitivi, Modena,...
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Gabriele Caselli: Temperament, Parental Styles and Metacognitions as predictors of Ruminative Brooding and Worry

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Presentazione Congresso Europeo Terapia Cognitiva Comportamentale EABCT, 2010, Milano

www.gabrielecaselli.it

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  • Transcript of "Gabriele Caselli: Temperament, Parental Styles and Metacognitions as predictors of Ruminative Brooding and Worry"

    1. 1. Temperament, Parental Styles and Metacognitions as Predictors of Ruminative Brooding and Worry G. Caselli 1,2 , C. Manfredi 2 , D. Rebecchi 2,3 , F. Rovetto 4 , G.M. Ruggiero 2 , S. Sassaroli 2 , M.M. Spada 1 1 London South Bank University, London, UK 2 Studi Cognitivi, Cognitive Psychotherapy School, Milano, Italy 3 Servizio Psicologia Clinica, Dipartimento Salute Mentale, Ausl Modena, Italy 4 University of Pavia
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Recurrent, rigid and negative thinking style has been found to be a core dysfunctional component in different forms of psychopathology (Watkins, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminative brooding represents a perseverative thinking style that occurs in the absence of immediate environmental demands and is focused on personal depressive symptoms and their consequences (Martin & Tesser, 1996; Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Worry has been conceptualized as a chain of thoughts and images on possible negative outcomes in the future and represents an attempt to engage in mental problem-solving (Borkovec, 1994) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Ruminative Brooding and Worry <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perseverance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of cognitive resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal/Imaginal content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence in problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated emotions (anxiety vs depression) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Which predictors may be relevant in the development and maintenance of ruminative brooding and worry? </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament : the genetically-based component of personality which is responsible for individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation (Cloninger, 1986; Rothbart, & Bates, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Parental styles : the educational strategies employed by parents use in child rearing </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitions : I nformation individuals hold about their own cognition and internal states (Wells, 2008) </li></ul>Understanding Brooding and Worry
    5. 5. Key Literature <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm avoidance and negative emotions ( Starcevic, Uhlenhuth, Fallon, & Pathak, 1996, Celikel et al., 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence (reward dependence) and depressive symptoms (Elovainio et al., 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental rejection and children’s worrying (Muris, Meesters, Merckelbach, & Hülsenbeck, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruminative or overcontrolling parental styles and the tendency to ruminate in response to negative mood (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wolfson, Mumme, & Guskin, 1995; Spasojevic & Alloy, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive beliefs and levels of worry (Wells, 2008; Wells & Carter 2001; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive beliefs and levels of rumination (Papageorgiou & Wells, 2001; Roelofs et al., 2007) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Study 1 <ul><li>Aim: to explore the relative contribution of temperament and parental styles to ruminative brooding and worry </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: 307 individuals (162 females) who were recruited from the general population through leaflets and advertisements in work environments and public places (33.9 years, SD = 13.1, range = 18-57) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: Temperament (TPQ), Parental styles (PBI), Ruminative brooding (RRS-B), Worry (PSWQ) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Results Alpha Mean Score SD BDI TPQ-NS TPQ-HA TPQ-RD PBI-C PBI-O RRS-B PSWQ Anxiety (BAI) .88 8.65 8.23 .53** .05 .31** -.02 -.13* .20** .45** .43** Depression (BDI) .84 7.07 6.43 - .01 .39** -.11 -.15** .19** .49** .42** Novelty Seeking (TPQ-NS) .76 16.27 5.36 - - -.28** .05 .04 -.08 .05 -.13* Harm Avoidance (TPQ-HA) .88 15.08 6.38 - - - .04 -.10 .21** .33** .49** Reward Dependence (TPQ-RD) .76 19.01 4.24 - - - - .16** .02 .16** .09 Parental Care (PBI-C) .89 48.58 12.85 - - - - - -.44** -.10 -.12 Parental Overprotection (PBI-O) .89 28.00 12.86 - - - - - - .24** .28** Ruminative Brooding (RRS-B) .90 9.71 3.23 - - - - - - - .57** Worry (PSWQ) .91 42.45 12.35 - - - - - - - -
    8. 8. Results In the final equation Anxiety, Depression and Parental Overprotection are predictors of both brooding and worry, Reward Dependence predicts Ruminative Brooding and Harm Avoidance predicts worry Ruminative Brooding Worry Β t p β t p   Step 3   Anxiety .22 3.93 .00 .23 4.09 .00   Depression .34 5.80 .00 .15 2.54 .00   Novelty Seeking - - - -.05 -.94 .35   Harm Avoidance .10 1.83 .07 .33 6.05 . 00   Reward Dependence .19 4.07 .00 - - -   Parental Overprotection .11 2.23 .02 .13 2.64 . 01   r 2 .36 .37   F Change 4.95 .02 6.94 .01  
    9. 9. Discussion <ul><li>With respect to temperament, reward dependence significantly predicted ruminative brooding, whilst harm avoidance uniquely predicted worry </li></ul><ul><li>Both ruminative brooding and worry shared perceived parental overprotection as the only significant predictor among parental styles </li></ul><ul><li>The predictive impact of both parental overprotection and dimensions of temperament on ruminative brooding and worry was independent of negative affect </li></ul>
    10. 10. Study 2 <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High worriers would show higher scores on parental overprotection and metacognitions than low worriers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitions would predict category membership as a high worrier independently of anxiety and parental styles; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitions would predict levels of worry independently of anxiety and parental styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55 High-worriers (PSWQ > 55), 37 female, mean age = 32.7 (SD=12.4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67 No-worriers (PSWQ< 33), 26 female, mean age = 32.8 (SD = 13.3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials: Anxiety (BAI), Parental Style (PBI), Metacognitions (MCQ-30), Worry (PSWQ) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Results (1) <ul><li>Individuals high on worry reported significantly higher levels anxiety [U=741.000, p <.0005], parental overprotection [U=1150.500, p <.0005], positive beliefs about worry [U=779.000, p <.0005], and negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger [U=1010.000, p <.0005]. </li></ul><ul><li>Binary Logistic Regression Equation predicting Worry Category Membership </li></ul>The overall statistics for the final equation were as follows: Χ² =81.0, df =5, p <.0005, with 87.7% of cases correctly classified B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Gender 1.86 .62 4.50 1 .00 6.42 BAI: Anxiety .01 .05 4.51 1 .10 1.08 PBI: Control .05 .02 9.35 1 .01 1.05 MCQ-30-1: Positive Beliefs about Worry .37 .09 4.51 1 .00 1.45 MCQ-30-2: Negative Beliefs about Thoughts .34 .11 3.81 1 .00 1.41 Constant -12.90 2.60 9.35 1 .00 .00
    12. 12. Results (2) r 2 F Change B t p Step 1 .29 50.60 .00 BAI: Anxiety .54 7.10 .00 Step 2 .36 11.40 .00 BAI: Anxiety .51 6.90 .00 PBI: Control .25 3.40 .00 Step 3 .53 88.50 .00 BAI: Anxiety .29 3.60 .00 PBI: Control .20 3.10 .00 MCQ-30-1: Positive Beliefs about Worry .41 5.40 .00 MCQ-30-2: Negative Beliefs about Thoughts .30 3.40 .00 MCQ-30-3: Cognitive Confidence .06 .90 .40 MCQ-30-4: Beliefs about the Need to Control Thoughts .24 3.00 .00 MCQ-30-5: Cognitive Confidence .03 .50 .64
    13. 13. Discussion <ul><li>Positive beliefs about worry and negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger predicted category membership as a high worrier independently of anxiety and parental overprotection </li></ul><ul><li>These same metacognitions in addition to beliefs about the need to control thoughts predicted levels of worry independently of anxiety and parental overprotection </li></ul>
    14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harm avoidance may predispose to a form of passive problem-solving strategic approach that does not require an active engagement with the environment (worry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward dependence may lead to difficulties in goal disengagement even when facing loss or a frustrating event, contributing to the enhancement of “moody pondering” on one’s own problems (brooding) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental overprotection may hinder children’s exploration experiences preventing the learning of action-oriented coping strategies and consequently fostering abstract and inactive responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive beliefs about worry may increase the use of worrying as a coping strategy, leading, in some cases, to overuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative beliefs about worry and the need to control thoughts may increase levels of distress, leading to engage in further and counterproductive attempts to control worry </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Implications for Reducing Vulnerability to Emotional Distress <ul><li>Assessment of family environmental factors, temperament and metacognitions may help to identify individuals at risk of developing perseverative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions may focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promoting more concrete strategies to cope with stressful situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parent training oriented to modifying the tendency towards overprotection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restructuring metacognitions and gaining control over the worry process </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Limitations <ul><li>Absence of behavioral or neurological demonstration of temperament to corroborate data from self-report instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Social desiderability, self-report biases, context effects and poor recall may have contributed to errors in self-report. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of parental styles are retrospective, so they refer only to the individual perception of parental rearing behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Sample in this studies was almost entirely Caucasian and was taken from one geographic region </li></ul>
    17. 17. Future Research <ul><li>Employ longitudinal designs </li></ul><ul><li>Employ direct measures of parental styles </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the mediating role of the direct change in parental overprotection and metacognitions in reducing the tendency to engage in ruminative brooding and worry </li></ul>
    18. 18. Thank you for your attention! Contact details Dr. Gabriele Caselli Cognitive Psychotherapy School Studi Cognitivi, Modena, Italy London South Bank University, London, UK [email_address] [email_address]
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