Perceived Parental Criticism, Self-Criticism and Depression: An Exploratory Research


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Presentazione al 41° Congresso EABCT, Reykjavik 2011 - Simposio: Cognitive Processes in Depression

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Perceived Parental Criticism, Self-Criticism and Depression: An Exploratory Research

  1. 1. Perceived Parental Criticism, Self-Criticism and Depression: An Exploratory Research<br />Gabriele Caselli1,2, Federica Pescini1, Martina Rossi1, Giovanni M. Ruggiero1 & Sandra Sassaroli1<br />1StudiCognitivi, Cognitive Psychotherapy School, Italy<br />2 London South Bank University, UK<br />
  2. 2. Depression and Self-discrepancyTheory(SDT, Higgins, 1987)<br />SDT assumes that experiences of discrepancy between selves (Actual Self vs Ideal/ Ought/ Feared Self) give rise to specific negative emotions (e.g. depression) (Higgins, 1987, 1999)<br />Depression may result from the comparison between standards or goals (ideal/ought) and everyday life experiences <br />
  3. 3. The Cognitive Response to Self-discrepancy<br />All individuals are motivated to move towards a condition where the actual self matches up to the ideal and/or ought self.<br />All individuals experience congruency and/or discrepancies in everyday life<br />Not all individuals cognitively react to self-discrepancy with a mode of processing that may generate or maintain depressive symptoms in the long period (Roelofs et al., 2007)<br />Maladaptive mode of processing (e.g. Internalized Self-Criticism)<br />
  4. 4. Internalized Self-Criticism(Thompson & Zuroff, 2004)<br />Internalized Self-Criticism (ISC) is characterized by a negative view of self in comparison with internal personal standards.<br />Individuals with high levels of ISC used to focus on a negative view of self as lacking as a reaction to:<br />Success  denial of successful experiences by further raising the standards<br />Failure  global self-punishment that generate a sense of worthlessness<br />ISC may maintain global and negative self-judgment that in turn may lead to the perseveration of depressive symptoms, especially when they are rigid and chronic , and also maladaptive behavioural patterns<br />
  5. 5. The development of Self-Criticism:The role of Perceived Parental Criticism <br />Early experiences influence personal schemas about self, others and personal relationships (Rose & Abramson, 1992)<br />A parental style characterized by low care, high standards and frequent criticism appears to be associated to anxiety, depressive symptoms and negative self-schemata (Gibb, 2002)<br />PPC may lead to a cognitive vulnerability to critics made by others<br />Children may learn to relate to themselves on the same way parents used to relate to them (Brewin et al., 1996)<br />
  6. 6. Other negative cognitive processes<br />Ruminative brooding: perseverative, negative and recyclic thinking style focused on personal problems, negative sensations and thoughts and their consequences, usually aimed at finding an explanation for them (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991)<br />Concern over Mistakes: the central feature of maladaptive evaluative concerns and the core component of maladaptive perfectionism (Flett & Hewitt, 2002)<br />
  7. 7. AIMS<br />To explore the contribution of Perceived Criticism in predicting Self-Criticism independently from Concern over Mistakes and Ruminative Brooding<br />To explore the predictive role of self-criticism on depressive symptoms independently from other negative cognitive styles<br />
  8. 8. Methods<br />Participants: 194 individuals (138 females) recruited from the general population (mean = 35.9 years; SD = 9.6; range = 18-67)<br />Measures: Parental Criticism (PCI), Ruminative Brooding (RRS-B), Concern over Mistakes (MPS-CM), Internalized Self-Criticism (LOSCS-ISC), Depression (BDI)<br />Significant correlations between all measures (from .28 to .54)<br />Procedures: Participants were recruited between e-mail contacts; they were requested to visit online questionnaires and were asked to forward the questionnaire web address to their e-mail contacts.<br />
  9. 9. Results<br />R2 = .08**<br />Perceived Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />.28**<br />
  10. 10. .51**<br />.39**<br />Results<br />R2 = .30**<br />Concern over Mistakes<br />Perceived<br />Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />.08<br />
  11. 11. Results<br />R2 = .28**<br />Perceived<br />Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />.12<br />.37**<br />.41**<br />Ruminative Brooding<br />
  12. 12. Results<br />R2 = .33**<br />Concern over Mistakes<br />.44**<br />.39**<br />Perceived<br />Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />.02<br />.20**<br />.41**<br />Ruminative Brooding<br />
  13. 13. R2 = .29**<br />Concern over Mistakes<br />.06<br />.44**<br />.39**<br />Results<br />Perceived<br />Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />Depression<br />.41**<br />.02<br />.47**<br />.20**<br />.41**<br />Ruminative Brooding<br />.13<br />.06<br />
  14. 14. .44**<br />.39**<br />.41**<br />.47**<br />.20**<br />.41**<br />Results<br />Concern over Mistakes<br />Perceived<br />Parental Criticism<br />Internalized Self-Criticism<br />Depression<br />Ruminative Brooding<br />Chi-Square = 7.44 (p = .06), CFI = .99, GFI = .98, RMSEA = .08, p of close fit = .17<br />
  15. 15. Discussion<br />Concern over Mistakes and Ruminative Brooding mediate the relationship between Perceived Criticism and Self-Criticism in a non-clinical population<br />PPC could develop severe high standards and fear for mistakes and their possible consequences: self-criticism may result as strategy used in order to correct oneself and avoid the possibility to make mistakes and to be criticizes by others.<br />PPC could develop a passive cognitive control strategy employed to analyze all negative external and internal events through a self-focused attention that may in turn sustain an internal and generalized locus of control and attribution of responsibility for failures (Self-Criticism).<br />Internalized Self-Criticism predicts depressive symptoms over and above Concern over Mistakes and Ruminative Brooding in a non-clinical population<br />
  16. 16. Clinical Implications<br />The core role of assessing and addressing internalized self-criticism as a dysfunctional and automatic cognitive habit employed to cope with both success and failure experiences. This may be helpful to prevent and treat depressive symptoms<br />The need to consider more than one cognitive process in the case formulation and during the treatment of depressive symptoms, even from a developmental point of view.<br />Suggestions to move beyond treatment protocols focused on the most probable dysfunctional process, towards modular protocols that may cover both core and elective topics selected on the basis of a more detailed case formulation.<br />
  17. 17. Limitations<br />Findings have a limited relevance respective to psychopathology because of the employment of a non-clinical population<br />Social desirability and self-report biases, context effects and poor recall may have contributed to mistakes and distortions in self-reporting.<br />Sample in this study was almost entirely Caucasian and has been collected from only one geographic region<br />
  18. 18. Future Research<br />Extend the findings to clinical samples<br />Evaluate the interaction between selected variables in a wider population<br />Evaluate the mediating role of Self-Criticism, Ruminative Brooding and Concern over Mistakes direct changes during psychological interventions in the reduction of depressive symptoms during prospective studies<br />
  19. 19. Thank you for your attention!<br />Contact details<br />Dr. Gabriele Caselli<br />Cognitive Psychotherapy School Studi Cognitivi, Modena, ItalyLondon South Bank University, London, UK<br /><br /><br />