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Gabriele Caselli - Metacognitive processes in desire thinking

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Oral presentation at the First International Conference of Metacognitive Therapy (Manchester, 2011). Symposium Addiction

Oral presentation at the First International Conference of Metacognitive Therapy (Manchester, 2011). Symposium Addiction

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • Hi Gabrielle,

    I am doing a Masters project with Dr Peter Fisher at University of Liverpool. Unfortunately, due to the embargo on article reach the university is unable to access one of your articles. It is imperative I have a look and understand this better, as my research is looking at desire thinking, impulsivity and metacognitions to consider the better predictor of alcohol abuse/use. I would appreciate if you could send my the article titled:Desire thinking across the Continuum, my e-mail address is ps0u91fd@liv.ac.uk I thank you for you help in this matter, John Dee
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  • Hello Gabrielle Caselli, nice to read your article about metacognitive. I was studied at Programs Doctor Education of universitas negeri Surabaya indonesia. My plan of disertation, about metacognition in math subject. i get difficult to read more about your article becouse my browse very bad. If you dont mind to send me your article by my email. zahralpmp@yahoo.com. thankyou for your kinds.
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  • external and internal triggers lead to the activation of automatic associations that contain information about a desired target or activity When these associations intrude into awareness they are perceived as spontaneous and induce craving (Bywaters, Andrade & Turpin, 2004; Witvliet & Vrana, 1995). The escalation and persistence of craving is dependent on the activation of a process of cognitive elaboration termed ‘desire thinking’ ( Green, Rogers & Elliman, 2000; Kavanagh, May & Andrade, 2009; Tiffany & Drobes, 1990 ).
  • IP : construction of mental images of the desired target or of its context of consumption VP:repetitive self-talk regarding the need to achieve the desired target and self-motivated statements
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    • 1. The Role of Metacognitive Processes in Desire Thinking Gabriele Caselli 1,2 , Marcantonio M. Spada 1,3 1 London South Bank University, London, UK 2 Studi Cognitivi, Cognitive Psychotherapy School, Milano, Italy 3 North East London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK 1 st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON METACOGNITIVE THERAPY MANCHESTER, UK
    • 2. Introduction
      • Craving has been conceptualized as a powerful subjective experience that motivates individuals to seek out and achieve a craved target, or practice a craved activity, in order to reach its desired effects (Marlatt, 1987)
      • This construct has been central to analyses of addictive behaviour and relapse for decades (Skinner & Aubin, 2010)
      • The experience of craving is qualitatively similar across a range of targets, including alcohol, food, soft drinks and tobacco (e.g. Castellani & Rugle, 1995; Field et al., 2008; May et al., 2004; Moreno et al., 2009)
      • A variety of approaches have been put forward for conceptualizing craving
        • Conditioning models
        • Cognitive models
    • 3. Introduction
      • The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire (EI-Theory; May et al., 2004)
        • Craving may be the result of the combination of automatic (conditioned) and voluntary cognitive process (desire thinking).
      • The Self-Regulatory Executive Function Theory (S-REF Theory, Wells & Matthews, 1994)
        • Metacognitions are responsible for psychological disturbance by maintaining maladaptive attentional, behavioural and cognitive coping strategies
    • 4. Desire Thinking
      • DT is a voluntary cognitive process involving the elaboration of a desired target (Caselli & Spada, submitted)
        • I anticipate the sensations I would feel practicing the desired activity
        • I imagine how I would feel like when engaging in the desired activity
      • The target of DT may be an activity, an object, or a state (Kavangh et al., 2009)
      • In the short-term DT helps to manage negative internal state by shifting attention, but in medium-term it brings to an escalation of craving as the desired target is perseveratively imagined but not achieved.
    • 5. Open Issue The Application of S-REF to Desire Thinking and Craving
      • DT may be a maladaptive cognitive control strategy (such as worry or rumination)
      • According to S-REF Theory it would be part of the CAS mode that sustains the experience of craving
      • Participants with addiction and impulse control disorders would possess both positive and negative metacognitions about desire thinking
      • No knowledge on subjective goals of desire thinking and the attentional focus during desire thinking.
    • 6. AIMS
      • To investigate:
        • the presence and content of desire thinking during a desire experience;
        • the presence of metacognitive beliefs in desire thinking;
        • the goal of desire thinking;
        • attentional focus during desire thinking;
        • the impact of desire thinking on craving.
    • 7. Participants & Materials
      • The sample comprised of 24 participants (10 men and 14 women) seeking outpatient treatment for desire related problems from the local Mental Health Service of Modena, Italy
      • Primary diagnosis :
        • 6 Alcohol Abuse
        • 6 Bulimia Nervosa
        • 6 Pathological Gambling
        • 6 Smoking Dependence
      • Metacognitive profile (Wells & Matthews, 1994): adapted to focus specifically on cognitive experiences associated with a craving episode
    • 8. Results Triggers and Contents of Desire Thinking
      • Trigger of Desire Thinking
        • negative emotions and thoughts (14 p)
        • external target-related cue (9 p)
      • Content of Desire Thinking
        • Imaginal Prefiguration (Kavanagh et al., 2009)
          • “ Imagining stopping the car to order a drink at the local bar”
          • “ Imagining coming back home and all the chocolate bars that I have on my desk”
        • Verbal Perseveration (Caselli & Spada, 2010)
          • “ Thinking what I can do to play ”
          • “ Repeating to myself I need a cigarette ”
    • 9. Results Positive Metacognitive Beliefs about DT
      • Positive Metacognitive Beliefs concerned the usefulness of desire thinking in:
        • controlling negative thoughts and emotion (17 p);
        • increasing positive sensations in the form of excitement and motivation (11 p);
        • increasing executive control over behaviour (6 p);
        • helping to plan how to reach goals (4 p)
    • 10. Results Negative Metacognitive Beliefs about DT
      • Negative Metacognitive Beliefs concerned:
        • the damage to executive control over behaviour that may be caused by engaging in desire thinking (16 p);
        • the uncontrollability of desire thinking (10 p);
        • the negative impact of desire thinking on self-image (4 p)
        • the negative impact of desire thinking on cognitive performance (6 p).
    • 11. Results Goals and Attentional Focus
      • The goal of desire thinking
        • reduce negative emotions and thoughts (14 p)
        • achieve gratification and positive sensations (9 p)
      • How did they know if the goal had been achieved?
        • They did not know (24 p)
      • How did DT process has been interrupted?
        • by achieving the desired target (18 p)
        • by some external distracting event (5 p)
      • Attentional focus during craving episode
        • was continuously shifting between internal state (monitoring and self-awareness) and external context (looking for target-related stimula)
    • 12. Discussion Metacognitions in Desire Thinking External target related cues Negative internal states PMDT Desire Thinking & Attentional Shift Craving & Deprivation NMDT Uncontrolled Behaviour
    • 13. Clinical Perspectives
      • Helping patients to discontinue desire thinking should become a therapeutic aim
      • Using metacognitive profile for case formulation and socialization of useful information about desire thinking, metacognitive beliefs and metacognitive plans.
      • Verbal Reattribution of metacognitive beliefs about desire thinking
      • Introducing and developing techniques to directly treat desire thinking and attentional shifting.
    • 14. Thank you for your attention! Contact details Dr. Gabriele Caselli Cognitive Psychotherapy School Studi Cognitivi, Modena, Italy London South Bank University, London, UK [email_address] [email_address]