External Patterns Regional Patterns Social Class Gender Urbanization Age Migration Style Network
It is connected with an It tend to promote increase in social stratification. linguistic diversity as well as uniformity. Urbanization Incoming migrants from rural areas often discard marked The net result is dialect forms as part of the dialect levelling Migration process of acommodation.
» Phonological variables:A. Postvocalic /r/: shows a geographically as well as socially significant distribution.B. ing: Alveolar /n/ nasal /ŋ/ : It is a well-kown marker of social status over most of the English-speaking world.C. /h/ alternation between /h/ and lack of /h/: the lower a a person’s social status, the more likely he or she is to drop hs.» Grammatical variable:• The variable concerns the use of non-standard third person singular present tense verb form without –s e.g he go.
Style Formal Informal The intersection of social and stylistic continua is one of the most important findings of quantitive sociolinguistics Working claas. Style can range from formal to informal depending on social context, relationship of the participants, social class, sex, age, physical environment, and topic.
Gender Men Women Women tend to use higher-status variants more frequently than men. There also strong correlations between patterns of social stratification and gender. Women tend to hypercorrect more than men, especially in the lower middle class. In the Victorian era “speaking properly” became associated with being female.
Age o The youngest speakers between the ages of 7 and 16 use more standard forms than the young adults between the ages of 16 and 20.o The Age distribution of a variable may be an important clue to ongoing change in a community.
Social Network Dense Network Multiplex NetworkIs one in which the people Is one in which the whoma given speaker individuals who interact kown and interacts whit are tied to one another in also know each other. other ways. It takes into account different socializing habits of individuals and their degree of involvement in the local community.
It is one of the main agents of inequality. This process converts one variety into a standard by fixing and regulating its spelling, grammar. Etc. It is not an inherent , but rather and acquired or deliberately and artificially imposed characteristic. Standard languages do not arise via “natural” course of linguistic evolution or suddenly spring into existence . They are created by concsious and deliberate planning, which may spam centuries.