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  • 1. The Changing Importance of Alternative Energy Sources:AIM: Examine the changing importance of other energy sources.Renewable/Sustainable Sources of Energy: 1. Biogas Energy & Biomass 3. Tidal Energy & Wave 5. Geothermal Energy Energy Energy 2. Wind Energy 4. Hydro Electric Power*Task #1: Use the map on page 44 of Study Guide to locate the places in the world with the highest potential foryour assigned energy source. Make notes on where these sources are located and there potential (try to bespecific e.g.- China 10 million tones Oil Equivalent)  (If your source is not listed use the guidelines below)  WIND POWER: 2006 - $17.9 billion. 2010 - $60.8 billion  Tidal Energy & Wave Energy = Year 2006 - 15.6 million, Year 2016 – 69.3 million  Solar = Year 2006 - 15.6 million, Year 2016 – 69.3 million – Trend - Vast improvement in solar power technology  - Asia as the highest concentration of regions with the most solar energy.  - Former Soviet Union, Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand as very low areas with high solar energy  - North America, Southern Africa and South America have adequate amounts of access to solar energy  - The current source of solar energy on Earth in general does not produce a significant amount of energy as a renewable source of energy compared to Biofuels  Geothermal & Tidal/Wave Energy= Solar  Geothermal  Solar energy  In North America, South America, and Southern Africa there are about 10 million tons of Oil Equivalent  In North Africa/Middle East there are about 7.5 million tons of Oil Equivalent  In Europe and the Former Soviet Union/Eastern Europe there is about 5 million tons of Oil Equivalent  Together, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand have about 2.5 million tons of Oil Equivalent  China, India, and Oceania have about 25 million tons of Oil EquivalentNext, use the table graph on page 44 to look at both the potential percentage change and potential change inabsolute terms ($$) for your energy source (2006-2016)  (If your source is not listed use the guidelinesbelow)
  • 2.  Tidal/wave = Solar  Hydro Electric = Fuel Cells  Geothermal= Total  Potential percentage change: 226.5/55.4 = 408.8447653, or about 408.8% change  Absolute change: 226.5 – 55.4 = $171.1 billion*Task #2: Using this electronic document- create a case study for your assigned type of Renewable Energy (ExceptSolar- Everyone does Solar)Your case study should:  Explain how electricity is produced by the energy resource?  Show and describe the Global Pattern of usage/potential of the resource  The advantages and disadvantages of the resource.  Focus on the use of the energy resource in one country and tell:  What percentage of the country’s energy comes from that source?  What future plans are there for the energy resource in your chosen country? What targets about the use of renewable energy resources have they set?  Give a detailed look at one example/location of the energy resource use.Place all information for your resource in the space below in order to create one giant document on Renewable EnergyResources that your peers can use and learn from.Renewable/Sustainable Sources of Energy:Biogas Energy & Biomass EnergyResources for use:Study Guide 44-46**Place information here**Wind Energy:
  • 3. Study Guide 44-46**Place information here**How is Electricity Produced by Wind Power In order to understand how electricity is produced bywind power, we must first understand how wind is created.The Sun heats our atmosphere unevenly, so some patchesbecome warmer than others. As the warm air rises, other airblows in to replace it – thus we feel a wind blowing. Therefore, we can use the energy in the wind bybuilding a tall tower with a large properly on the top. Thewind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator toproduce electricity. To maximize the amount of electricity produced bywind power, wind farms or many of these tall towers are created. There are three main factors that can influencethe amount of electric produced by wind power: 1. Height of towers: The buildings are tall in order to get the propellers as high as possible, up to where the wind is stronger. 2. Strength of Wind: A strong wind will cause the propeller to spin faster and thus generate more electricity. 3. Length of the propellers: A propeller needs to be large in order to extract energy from the largest possible volume of air.Global Pattern of Usage/Potential of the Resource
  • 4. The best places for wind farms are in coastal areas, at the tops of rounded hills, open plains and gaps inmountains. In order for the wind farm to be cost effective, an average wind speed of approximately 25 km/hour isneeded. From the diagram above, we can that regions above 23.5 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) of the equatorgenerally have high wind speeds. For example, the central parts of North America, the northeastern tip of Canada,the coastal regions of Western Europe, most parts of Greenland, and Central parts of Asia all have wind speeds over7.5 m/s. However, the regions below or at the equator generally have lower wind speeds. For example, most partsof Latin America, Central and Northern part of South America, Southern Half of Africa and Australia all have windspeeds lower than 6m/s. While this general pattern is relatively accurate, the Southern tip of South Americapresents itself as an anomaly. It is south of the equator, but it has an average wind speed of over 9 m/s.The Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power: Advantages Disadvantages Wind is free and can be captured efficiently using The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies modern technology. from zero to storm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time. There will be times when they produce no electricity at all. Once the wind turbine is built, the energy it produces Many people see large wind turbines as unsightly doesn’t cause green house gases or other pollutants. structures and not pleasant or interesting to look at. They disfigure the countryside and are generally ugly.Although wind turbines can be very tall, they only take Wind turbines are noisy. Each one can generate theup a small plot of land. This means that the land below same level of noise as a family car travelling at 70 mph. can still be used. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still continue.Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity When wind turbines are being manufactured some
  • 5. power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own pollution is produced. Therefore wind power does supply. produce some pollution. Wind farms can be tourist attractions as Many people Large wind farms are needed to provide entirefind wind farms an interesting feature of the landscape. communities with enough electricity. For example, the largest single turbine available today can only provide enough electricity for 475 homes, when running at full capacity.Case Study: Wind Power in SpainIntroduction Spain is considered the world leader in using wind power as a renewable energy source. In the past decadeSpain has relentlessly invested in wind power, along with other renewable sources, making it the third-biggestsupplier after the United States and Germany. From just over 200MW in 1997, the Spanish market has beensteadily increasing at annual rates of more than 30%. Last year, Spain reached a record level of 2,065MW installed. Currently, 15% of the country’s power is supplied by wind energy. However, in November 8th 2009, highwinds across Spain meant that for over five hours, over 53% of the country’s power came from wind energy, whichset a new record in wind energy production. Although most of the wind was used immediately, 6% of it wasstored, and 7.7% of it was exported to France, Portugal and Morocco.Future Plans In order to meet its goal of generating 30% of its electricity needs from renewable power by 2010,with half of that amount coming from wind power, Spain wanted to implement a series of changes and focustheir resources to make the energy gathered from wind power more efficient. Firstly, the Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDEA) wants to expand renewable energysources by phasing out non-renewable energy sources, mainly nuclear energy. While José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero,Spain’s Prime Minister, a strong believer in renewable energy, has hinted his Government may phase out nuclearplants, his actions are also strong opposed. Nuclear energy produced 20.9 per cent of Spain’s energy needs lastyear and critics claim the country cannot dispense with a source which supplies almost a fifth of its power. Secondly, research concerning the production of hydrogen from the use of water by a wind farm isoccurring at a newly installed laboratory in the Universidad Pública de Navarra under an agreement betweenEnergía Hidroeléctrica de Navarra, Stuart Energy Systems of Canada, and Statkraft of Norway. The lab will replicatethe power generation environment of a wind farm and examine the effects of an electrolyzer. “An initial phase ofthe experiment will utilize a budget of 180,000 euro, with later phases evaluating the use of hydrogen in publicbuses in the city of Pamplona, and a wind turbine designed specifically for hydrogen production” Thirdly, According to Graber, an area of needed improvement for the wind power sector includes “more-detailed prediction of meteorological information that could increase efficiency of wind turbines, allowing electriccompanies and wind-farm operators to predict with a high level of accuracy when wind will pick up and slowdown” (2005). Additionally, three factors will control the further progress of wind power development in Spain:the capability of the wind farms network to hold all the electricity harnessed by wind power, predominantly in off-peak times, the cost of energy, and the environmental effect that the abundance of wind farm development in Spain
  • 6. could turn out. The Spanish wind power industry will be confronted with the following issues in the immediatefuture: formulating its development to be congruent with required supply agreements by the national electricity supply operator guaranteeing that the installation of wind farms occurs with recognition of the environment synchronizing wind power development of the 17 autonomous regions trimming down the investment costs to acquire sufficient returns with declining energy prices in the upcoming years.Local Case Study: Maranchon Wind FarmIntroduction:The Maranchon Wind Farm in the Castilla la Mancha region, located in the center of Spain, is currently thelargest wind farm in Europe. It consists of seven smaller wind parks with a total capacity of 208 MW.Aims:A new law introduced in 2007, covering both green power and energy efficiency, has the aim that by 2012 all theelectricity used by households in Castilla la Mancha will come from renewable sources. The present contribution is70%.Environmental BenefitsRenewable energy has been encouraged in Castilla la Mancha because it helps to reduce the region’s output ofpolluting gases.The operators of the wind turbines, Iberdrola Renewables, also ensure that the local environment is protected byregular monitoring of flora and fauna in the area, including the activities of birds.Economic BenefitsIt also creates jobs and new economic activity. One result is that numerous companies have established operatingand production bases in the region, including Iberdrola Renewables, General Electric and Danish wind turbinemanufacturer Vestas, which this year opened a 30,000 square metre blade factory. Iberdrola Renewables is theleading developer of renewable energy in Castilla la Mancha, where it has already invested over €2.4 billion. Thishas helped create more than 500 jobs in the region, both directly and through sub-contracts to localbusinesses. The Company has a capacity of 1.981 megawatts in this region. Nationally, the Spanish Wind EnergyAssociation ( AEE) says that the wind power sector already provides about 40,000 jobs. At Maranchon, 50 peopleare employed in operation of the wind park, maintenance, environmentalTidal Energy & Wave Energy:Study Guide 44-46
  • 7.**Place information here** Tidal PowerTidal barrage, Rance Estuary, France – largest tidal power station in the worldOnly around 20 sites in the world have been identified as possible tidal power stations - not realistic source of energyfor most countriesProcess of generating to electrical energy:– enquires movement of a huge volume of water into and out of the barrage across the mouth of a river estuary, twicedaily. The rise and fall of tides daily will turn the turbines build on the barrages to generate electricityCase Study UK:The country has 8 out of 20 of the world’s places to build tidal stationsCurrently there hasn’t been a tidal station in UK, ones present are only prototypesIf UK utilizes the tidal energy technology, this can result 20% of the electricity to come from tidal energyPlan - Severn Barrage" from Brean Down in Somerset to Lavernock Point in Wales 1. at least £15 billion to build 2. would provide over 8,000 Megawatts of power (thats over 12 nuclear power stations worth), another says it would be equivalent to 3 nuclear power stations 3. Affect ecosystem - huge numbers of birds that feed on the mud flats in the estuary when the tide goes out would have nowhere to feed 4. loss of up to 75% of the existing intertidal habitat 5. 4.4% of UK electricity supply (17TWh)Advantages: 6. Do not produce wastes or pollution 7. Tides are predictable 8. Reliable source of energy 9. Not expensive to maintainDisadvantages: 10. high cost of development 11. limited number of suitable sites 12. environmental damage to estuarine sites 13. long period of development 14. possible effects on ports and industries upstreamWave Power- Not CommonHow it works: the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall, results air is forced in and out of thehole in the top of the chamber turning the turbine
  • 8. Advantages • The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. • Not expensive to operate and maintain. • Can produce a great deal of energy.Disadvantages • Depends on the waves - sometimes youll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing. • Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong. • Some designs are noisy. But then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem. • Must be able to withstand very rough weather.Hydro Electric Power:Study Guide 44-46 Study Three Gorges Dam page 46 Study Guide**Place information here**Geothermal Energy Guide 44-46
  • 9.**Place information here**When tunneling through the Earth’s crust, the temperature will rise 1°C for every 30-50 meters that you go down. Insome volcanic areas, molten rock is close to the surface. The heat given off by the molten rock can be used forgeothermal energy.How it produces electricity: Water is pumped down injection wells. It then filters through cracks in the rocks in the hotregion, and flows back up the recovery well due to pressure. When it reaches the surface, it turns into steam. The steamis either used to drive a turbogenerator, or it is passed through a heat exchanger to heat water to warm houses e.g. inIreland. Steam must be purified before going into the turbines.Advantages: No pollution, does not contribute to greenhouse effect. Power stations do not take up a lot of room, so not a lot of impact on the environment No fuel needed Energy is essentially free. Energy will be needed to run the pump, but this can be taken from the energy generatedDisadvantages - Not many places that you can build a geothermal power station at. Rocks must be a suitable type, at a depthwhere we can reach. Rock must also be easy to drill through - Geothermal site may run out of steam - Dangerous gases or minerals may surface, and can be difficult to safely dispose of. - Potential to cause earthquakes.A majority of the geothermal power stations are located in volcanic areas. Iceland (421 MW, or 26.5% of electricitygeneration), Philippines (1969 MW, or 23% of electricity generation capacity), and the US, where 4,000 MW are underdevelopment(thats still only 1% of the countrys energy capacity).Japan Survey for geothermal energy began around 1950, first power station started operation in 1966  After 35 years, 16 geothermal power plants in 14 geothermal power station sites are currently operating Authorized rated output = 530MW, or 0.2% of the whole Japanese power capacity of 250 GW. Japanese geothermal power generation capacity accounts for 6% of world, and ranks six; behind USA, Philippines, Italy, Mexico, and IndonesiaHeat of geothermal energy is used too Heat from hot springs is used as a heat source for AC, greenhouses, fish culturing, road thawing, and hot water supply for some facilities e.g. swimming pools. Total direct heat consumption in Japan = 1,000 TJ
  • 10. String of new projects started in 2009 includes a geothermal power plant to be built in Yuzawa in Akita Prefecture, innorthern Japan, by Mitsubishi Materials and J-Power.Japan has the potential to be the global leader in this field.There is a target of a total output of 120,000 kW from hot spring water-powered generation in 2020.Unfortunately, Japan’s geothermal plants were most built pre 1996. The only one built after that was built in 2000. In2009 it dropped to 8th place in the world in terms of geothermal usage.Global pattern of geothermal energy:Geothermal energy is prominent in volcanic areas. This is because there is heat close to the surface of the Earth, makingit easy to reach the heat. However, the rock above the location must also be easy to drill through; if the rock is too hardthen it is hard to reach the heat source.Areas such as: the West cost of the Americas, countries that are along fault lines such as Icelnad, and the countriesbordering on the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean, e.g. the Phillipines, are examples of countries that use high amounts ofgeothermal energy.On the other hand, countries that are nowhere near fault lines have use no geothermal energy. These regions includeinner Africa, Australia, and norther Central Europe.Japan is an anomaly country, in that although it is mostly a volcanic area and thus has the highest potential for being theleader in this area, it is only the 8th place in the world in terms of geothermal energy usage. This is because of the lack ofdevelopment in technology in this area. As of right now, the number of plants and the geothermal technology canonly generate 0.2% of the countries energy usage.Yanaizu-Nishiyama geothermal power plant in Japan:*Task #3:Also- EVERYONE SHOULD LOOK AT SOLAR POWER Looks at potential in EuropeSolar power technology takes its next step- facts on solar power- Guide 44-46
  • 11.**Place information here** How Electricity is Produced by the Energy Resource 1. Solar Cells Known as photovoltaic or photoelectric cells, solar cells convert light energy directly into electricity. In a sunny climate, a PV solar cell can run a 100W light bulb from just one square meter of solar panel.2. Solar Water Heating This process uses heat from the Sun to heat water in glass panels on the roof. Thus, not as much as or electricity is needed to heat up water. Special black painted pipes are used to pump water into the panel, and due to the fact that black color absorbs more heat, the pipes get hotter when the Sun shines on them. The water is then pumped in at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of hot water. This helps out the central heating system and cuts fuel bills.3. Solar Furnaces Solar furnaces are the most advanced type of solar water heating panel. Researchers claim that it can supply 90% of the UK’s typical home’s hot water needs from April to November. Known as the “Thermomax” panels, solar furnaces are made using a set of glass tubes. Each of these tubes contain a metal plate with blue coating to help it absorb solar energy from IR to URV, so even a small amount of sunlight can provide a decent output of electricity. The tubes are actually vacuums thus; the air has been removed to reduce heat loss.Solar furnaces also use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Sun’s energy into a small space and produce veryhigh temperatures. Note: The one at Odeillo, France, can achieve up to 3,000 degreees Celsius.Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy Advantages Disadvantages Solar energy is free, it doesn’t need fuel and it doesn’t It is still very expensive to build solar power station.produce any waste or pollution. Furthermore, sunlight Even though the cost is coming down as technology is extremely abundant! There are 89 petawatts of improves, in the mean time, solar cells cost a great deal sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface – that’s 6,000 compared to the amount of electricity they produce. times more than the 15 terwatts equivalent of average power consumed by humans.In countries with an abundant supply of sunlight, solar Solar power doesn’t work at night!polar can be used to supply electricity to a remote place Solar polar is handy for low-power uses such as solar Can be unreliable unless youre in a very sunny climate. powered garden lights or batter chargers.
  • 12. PV installations can operate for many years with little A solar energy installation requires a large area for themaintenance after their initial set up, so after the initial system to be efficient in providing a source of cost of building any solar power plant operating This may be a disadvantage in areas where space is costs are extremely low compared to existing power short, or expensive (such as inner cities). technologies.Global Potential for Solar Energy From the diagram above, one can see that regions between the 23.5 degrees north and south of theequator, or in other words between the tropic of cancer and Capricorn, have the highest potential for solar energy.For example, regions such as South America, Southern Africa, India, China, Asian and Oceania have more or equalto 50 tons of oil equivalent. However, countries that are above 23.5 degrees north or below 23.5 degrees south ofthe equator generally have a smaller potential for solar energy. For example, regions such as Northern Europe,Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have a potential for solar energy that’s lower than 10 million tons of oilequivalent. While these general trends are relatively accurate, there are a few anomalies in this diagram. Forexample, most parts of North America is above 23.5 degrees north of the equator, but it’s solar potential isapproximately 50 million tons of oil equivalent. Furthermore, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand are between 23.5degrees north and south of the equator, but their solar potential for solar energy is only 10 million tons of oilequivalent.Case Study – ChinaWhat percentage of the country’s energy comes from that source?n/aChina invested $34.6 billion towards clean energy It is also the world leader in solar photovoltaic manufacturingand production, providing more than 40% of the world’s solar photovoltaics. They have the world’s largest marketfor solar hot water. China has become a world leader in the manufacture of solar photovoltaic technology, with itssix biggest solar companies having a combined value of over $ 15 billion. Around 820 megawatts of solar PV wereproduced in China in 2007, second only to Japan.
  • 13. What future plans are there for the energy resource in your chosen country? What targets about the use ofrenewable energy resources have they set?There are numerous recent developments and plans announced by industry players. A new thing film solar plant developed by Anwell Technologies in Henan provinces using its own proprietary solar technology, which signed an agreement for a 500MW solar project/power plant in a desert. Chinese President gave a speech at the UN climate summit on 22nd September 2009 in New York: China will adopt plans targeting to use 15% of its energy from renewable sources within a decade About 50 MW of installed solar capacity was added in 2008, more than double the 20 MW in 2007, but still a relatively small amount. The government has announced plans to expand the installed capacity to 20 GW by 2020.By 2020, the government is committed to raising the share of renewable energy (excluding hydroelectric power) inthe energy mix to 6%, from the current 1.5% - will improve solar energyCase StudyProjects - Jiangsu province – the home of Suntech – announced 1bn yuan (£92bn) of incentives aimed at buildingsolar energy generation capacity to 260 MW megawatts by 2011. This is extremely ambitious given that the targetfor the entire country next year is 300 megawatts.Solar Power3 types of processing methods of solar power:1) Solar cells convert light into electrical energy. With the current state of technology thismethod is ineffective2) Solar Water Heating – Heat from the sun will heat water in glass panels on roof, the heatedwater is stored.3) Solar Furnaces - use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Suns energy into a small space and produce veryhigh temperatures.Case Study – China 1. China is the worlds leading manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV) panels, which turn sunlight into electricity. But 95% of these are exported. 2. Sunshine Regions – e.g. Gansu, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia 3. Projects - Jiangsu province – the home of Suntech – announced 1bn yuan (£92bn) of incentives aimed at building solar energy generation capacity to 260 MW megawatts by 2011. 4. Action to support use of solar power - Since last year, a glut in supply of PV panels has pushed prices down by more than 30%, cutting profits of domestic manufacturers such as Suntech. 5. By 2020, the government is committed to raising the share of renewable energy (excluding hydroelectric power) in the energy mix to 6%, from the current 1.5% - will improve solar energy
  • 14. AdvantagesA - Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution.A - In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place. - Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping yourhome energy bills.DisadvantagesD - Doesnt work at night.D - Very expensive to build solar power stations, although the cost is coming down as technology improves. Inthe meantime, solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of electricity theyll produce in theirlifetime.l - Can be unreliable unless youre in a very sunny climate. In the United Kingdom, solar power isnt much usefor high-power applications, as you need a large area of solar panels to get a decent amount of power.However, technology has now reached the point where it can make a big difference to your*Task #4:Nuclear PowerStudy Guide page 45List the advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear EnergyAdvantages: - Cheap, reliable, and abundant source of electricity - Plentiful supply of uranium - No need to rely on unstable regions such as the Middle East for energy needs, as uranium is found in the USA, Canada, South Africa, and Australia - EU favors nuclear power; 40% of EU electricity will be provided via nuclearDisadvantages: - radioactive material and so the nuclear power industry is faced with hazards of waste disposal and problems of decommissioning old plants and reactors - rising environmental fear concerning the safety of nuclear power and nuclear testing are based on experience e.g. Chernobyl, 1986 - recession in the 1990s and 2000s has reduced demand for energy i.e. less development is required - EU, for example, has a diverse range of energy suppliers; the threat of disruption of any one source is therefore less worrying than it used to be
  • 15. Optional Readings