Recycling and substitution
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Recycling and substitution

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  • On August 1st 1986, a local neighborhood organization in Vermont launched a campaign to ban the use of foam food packing in Mcdonalds and replace it with cardboard packaging. This campaign got so much publicity and raised numerous health, ecological and social concerns about the use of stryofoam, that in august 1st, 1990, McDonalds stopped using Styrofoam to package their food.

Recycling and substitution Recycling and substitution Presentation Transcript

  • Conservation Strategies: Recycling and Substitution
  • Recycling
    Definition:
    The processing of industrial household waste so that materials can be reused
  • Why is Recycling Necessary?
    Large cities today generate as much as 20000 tonnes of garbage per day
    2 planets needed by 2020
    Humans using 30% more resources than sustainable
    Running up an ecological debt of $4tr (£2.5tr) to $4.5tr every year
  • Types of recycled wastes
    Plastics
    Glass
    Metals
    Paper
    Rubber
  • General Example: Aluminum Cans (1)
  • General Example: Aluminum Cans (2)
  • Pros and Cons of Recycling Aluminum
    Advantages:
    Saves energy and reduces greenhouse gas emissions
    Recycling a single aluminum can saves enough to power a TV for 3 hours
    Quality of metal doesn’t diminish even after being recycled
    Creates jobs
    Disadvantages:
    Process pollutes water – adds metal ions into water, makes it poisonous
    Need land to fill the waste
    Transportation costs
  • General Example: Recycling Class
    6) Treatment (Processing)
    2) Glass Container Making
    1)Raw Materials
    4) Use at Home
    3)Transportation to Retailers
    5) The Bin
    Collection
  • Pros and Cons of Recycling Glass
    Advantages:
    Making glass from recycled materials cuts water pollution by 50%
    Glass can be recycled indefinite number of times
    Recycling one glass jar saves enough electricity to light a conventional60 watt bulb for 4 hours
    Creates Jobs!
    Disadvantages
    Still pollutes water
    Need land to fill the waste
    Transportation Costs
  • Local Case Study: Novelis Inc. (1)
    Warrington, Cheshire, UK
    Produces ingots from beverage cans, only aluminum can recycling plant in Europe
    Current Capacity – 135000 tonnes per year
    Initial Capital investment (1990) - £5 million
    Further Capital investment - £7 million
    2009 over 97 tonnes of cans (approximately 6.3 million) were sent for reprocessing
  • Local Case Study: NovelisInc (2)
    The ‘closed recycling loop’ saves 95% of the energy required to make aluminum from its raw materials, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by the same amount
    The plant is currently registered the Environment Agency under the Environmental Protection Act 1990
    2009 over 97 tonnes of cans (approximately 6.3 million) were sent for reprocessing
  • Recycling in Europe
  • National Case Study: Recycling in Denmark
    Europe’s “greenest” countries
    2003 suggest that 31% of all household waste was recycled
    10,000 Danes are in the business of collecting waste - more than 0.1% of the entire population
  • Global Case Study: US and China
    US recycles about 28% of its waste
    42% of all paper
    40% of all plastic soft drink bottles
    55% of all aluminium beer and soft drink cans
    57% of all steel packaging
    52% of all major appliances are now recycled
  • Global Case Study: Recycling in China
    China’s paper industry imported almost 20 million tonnes in, primarily from the US, Europe and Japan- NGO Forest Trend, 2006
    USA exported 11.6 million tons of recovered paper and cardboard to China in 2008 – Takes up land
    China’s paper recycling industry prevented 54 million metric tons of wood being harvested for pulp – 2006 (BBC)
    Brings employment
    Con -The recovery process results in the release of waste liquids containing toxic substances, and cases of damage to the environment and public health emerge continuously. Also takes space to store the wastes.
  • Resource Substitution
    Definition:
    Substitution refers to the using one renewable resource than another.
    Renewable Resource: Resources that can be replaced by natural processes at a rate comparable or faster than rate of consumption.
  • General Example: Food Packing – Cardboard FOR Styrofoam
    An example of resource substitution is the use of Cardboard packaging rather than Styrofoamin food packaging.
  • Pros and Cons of Cardboard FOR Styrofoam
    Advantages:
    Environmental:
    • Production processes doesn’t emits a lot of toxic waste
    • Does not promotes the use of petroleum
    • It is biodegradable
    Social
    • Does not expose workers to toxic chemicals
    • Does not contaminate food
    Disadvantages:
    • The production of cardboard cuts down trees – can be unsustainable.
    • Not energy efficient – only has 24% energy savings. (Note: aluminum has 95% energy saving)
    • More transport cost - heavier
  • General Example: Biofuel FOR petroleum based fuel
    Another example of resource substitution is the use of biofuel FOR petroleum based fuel. (AVIATION FUEL)
    Aviation Fuel: : Specialized type of petroleum-based fuel to power aircraft.
    Biofuel: Are any kind of fuel made from living things, or from the waste they produce
  • Pros and Cons of Biofuel FOR Petroleum based fuel
    Advantages:
    Growing plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
    Biofuels reduce emissions by 50%-60% compared to fossil fuels
    Disadvantages:
    Still emits fossil fuels
    Less plants used for food/nutrition = rising food prices
    Reduced Biodiversity – Reduce habitat for animals and wild plants
  • General Example: Tap water FOR bottled water
    • Another example of resource substitution is the use of tap water rather than bottled water.
  • Pros and Cons of using tap water rather than bottled water
    Advantages:
    • Way, way cheaper. (Approx. 2000 times cheaper)
    • Tap water is more regulated than bottled water. While the Environmental Protection Agency enforces water quality standards for tap water, the FDA makes no such demands for bottle water.
    • Doesn’t produce as much waste. In the US, people but half a billion bottles of water every week.
    • In taste tests across the country, people consistently choose tap over bottled water.
    Disadvantages
    • Some sources of tap water might not be that clean. (Especially in developing countries)
  • Local Case Study: Cleveland’s Tap Water
    Fiji Water’s Ad Campaign.
    In the city of Cleveland, people didn’t want to drink water from the city water from the city tap.
    “The Label Says Fiji because it’s not bottled in Cleveland.”
    MANUFACTURED DEMAND
  • Local Case Study: Cleveland’s Tap Water
    Cleveland’s public utilities director Julius Ciaccia decided to put the two waters to the test:
    the results found 6.31 micrograms of arsenic per liter in the Fiji bottle. Cleveland tap water, on the other hand, had no measurable arsenic
    Cleveland’s NewsChannel5 held a blind taste test. The result? Testers preferred Cleveland water.
  • Local Case Study: Cleveland’s Tap Water
    Environmental Concern
    People in the U.S. buy more than half a billion bottles of water every week. That’s enough to circle the globe more than 5 times.
    Each year, making the plastic water bottles used in the U.S. takes enough oil and energy to fuel a millioncars
    What happens to all these bottles when we’re done? 80% percent end up in landfills, where they will sit for thousands of years
  • National Case Study
    “McToxins”
    What Happened?
    August 1st1987 - Vermont’s Organization for Cleanup launched a campaign to ban the use of foam food packaging in Mcdonalds and replace it with cardboard packaging.
    August 1st 1990- McDonalds joined forces with the Environmental Defense Fund and banned the use of Styrofoam to adopt cardboard packaging.
  • National Case Study
    “McToxins”
    Why?
    • Non-biodegradable – Takes 900 years to break down. (Paper takes 2-5 months to break down.)
    • CCHW (The Community Center for Health & Wellness – Mcdonalds contributed to 1.3 billion cubic feet of foam food packaging annually. (US estimates only)
    • Contaminates food - Styrene is a cancer causing agent – linked with leukemia
  • National Case Study
    “McToxins”
    Results:
    • Provided a 70-90% reduction in sandwich packaging volume – reducing landfill space, energy used and pollutant released.
    • 510 million kilowatt hours were saved in 1999
    • Eliminated over 300 million pounds of packaging. Note: That’s enough to keep Peoria, Illinois trash free for 10 years
    • Recycled 1 million tons of corrugated (card board) boxes. Reducing restaurant waste by 30%.
  • Global Case Study
    A Virgin Atlantic jumbo jet has flown between London's Heathrow and Amsterdam using fuel derived from a mixture of Brazilian babassu nuts and coconuts.
    Virgin boss Sir Richard Branson said the flight marked a "vital breakthrough" for the entire airline industry.
    Virgin's Boeing 747 had one of its four engines connected to an independent biofuel tank that it said could provide 20% of the engine's power.
    Could routinely be flying on plant power within 10 years.
  • Global Case Study: Disadvantages
    “High-altitude greenwash”
    Less air travel is the only answer
    Biofuels do very little to reduce emissions
    Increase global food prices
    Could led to DEFORESTATION
  • THANK YOU
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