Modern  China Chinese history
Chinese civil war <ul><li>Chinese civil war 1911?-1949 (topic 1. War...) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul></ul...
Mao and Communist China <ul><li>Communist China (Topic 3 Single-party state) Themes : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origins - ...
Introduction. <ul><li>What do we know about China? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is China in the world? What are its neighbo...
Chinese past <ul><li>Why should we probe Chinese past? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It seem that the Chinese themselves are obses...
Chinese thought <ul><li>“ Continuities with the past do exist, especially in thought and attitudes.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Confucious <ul><li>What are the main principles of confucian thinking? </li></ul><ul><li>What does C. think is womens plac...
Birth of China <ul><li>The Shang dynasty. Earliest kings in the Valley of the Yellow river around 1300-1200 BC.  </li></ul...
Unification of China <ul><li>Qin dynasty. To 206 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled China south to Vietnam </li></ul></ul...
The dynastic cycle <ul><li>The Han dynasty 206 BC to  220 AD was the first to go through the dynastic cycle </li></ul>Chin...
Song dynasty 960-1279 <ul><li>The peak of urban culture in China </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous Merchant class. Foreign trade....
Ming dynasty 1368-1644 <ul><li>Rule mixture of Confucian and legalist principles. State exams for officials. </li></ul><ul...
Ming cont. <ul><li>Early Ming supported the great merchants adventure around the Indian ocean in the 15th century but late...
Qing dynasty 1681-1911 <ul><li>The Manchu invaded China and formed the Qing dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire at its b...
The Collapse of the old order <ul><li>The Manchu government collapsed under both internal and external pressures </li></ul...
The Opium war 1839-42 <ul><li>What was the Opium war about? </li></ul><ul><li>What has opium to do with it? </li></ul><ul>...
Taiping revolution. <ul><li>After 1800 we see the symptoms of downward cycle.  </li></ul><ul><li>The rebellion was chrushe...
China and the west <ul><li>Chinese weren’t used to learn from other nations.  </li></ul><ul><li>The chinese wanted to reta...
Cont.. <ul><li>The empress was afraid of that any changes would hurt the Qing Dynasty because of its Manchu-origins. </li>...
The Boxer rebellion 1899. <ul><li>What can the Boxer rebellion tell us about the situation? Why was there no rebellion in ...
After the Boxer Rebellion. <ul><li>Finally the imperial court showed som understanding of reforms necessary: </li></ul><ul...
Effect of reform <ul><li>The government couldnt handle it </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation rise </li></ul><ul><li>Regional go...
Revolution 1911 <ul><li>Revolution in the provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Army takes control under leadeship of Yuan ShiKai </...
Warlord Era 1916-28 <ul><li>First phase of  civil war  in China </li></ul><ul><li>Warlord: leaders of provincial armies em...
China and WW1 <ul><li>Japan seized German holdings in Shandong </li></ul><ul><li>1915 China forced to accept Japanese cont...
Kuomintang  (Nationalist Party) <ul><li>Originally founded by Sun Yat Sen in 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Sun set up a governmen...
Sun Yat-sen <ul><li>Three principles of the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy ...
Sun replaced by Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Right wing </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></ul><ul>...
Mao and the Communist party <ul><li>Mao Tse Tung (1893-1976) Revolutionary leader and “poet” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder...
Communism: beginning <ul><li>Communist manifesto translated and published 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Like in many countries wi...
Beginnings cont. <ul><li>Two events gave the radical movement a start: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 4 th  movement against th...
Formation of the communist party <ul><li>Soviet agents helped in the organization of the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Establis...
KMT and the communists <ul><li>Russia supported Sun Yat-sen and until the victory of KMT over China 1927 there was coopera...
The new revolutionary strategy after 1928 <ul><li>Mao was the thinker of the new strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KMT was st...
The Jiangxi Soviet 1931-34 <ul><li>In Jiangxi Mao formed a Chinese Soviet republic based on his peasant revolution princip...
Chinese history
Long march <ul><li>In 1931 the Japanese invaded northeastern China and set up a puppet government. Instead of resisting Ja...
The Long March <ul><li>Heroic myth </li></ul><ul><li>Of 100.000 communists 20.000 survived </li></ul><ul><li>Maos policy s...
Chinese foreign policy <ul><li>1927-28 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuomintang controls all of China.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Japanese influence in China <ul><li>1931-32 The Japanese occupy Manchuria –  </li></ul><ul><li>Was their sphere of influen...
The War with Japan 1937-45 <ul><li>The effect on the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old authorities cleared in the North Eas...
Japanese war against China <ul><li>Mars 1940 Japanese establish a  C hinese  p uppet   government in Nanking </li></ul><ul...
After WWII <ul><li>1945 Japanese have to leave China. General Marshall tries to reconciliate Communists and Guomintang. Ch...
Communist position at the end of war <ul><li>Had already revolutionized big parts of China  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 base ...
Problems facing Mao 49 <ul><li>Economy and infrastructure in ruins </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture inefficient. Food Shortag...
Agricultural and industrial changes <ul><li>Redistribution of land </li></ul><ul><li>Then peasants were persuaded to enter...
Hundred flowers 1957 <ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Call for criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government for…...
The great leap forward 58 <ul><li>Supposed to increase output the chinese way </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the Commun...
Effect of great leap <ul><li>Historians do not agree on effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norman Lowe is relatively possitive <...
Cultural revolution 66-9 <ul><li>Against the right opposition that were calling for incentives, managers,  and private own...
Life after Mao <ul><li>Power struggle after Maos death 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deng came back and took the leadership f...
Demands for liberty  8 9 <ul><li>Right to criticize government </li></ul><ul><li>Non-communist parties in Congress </li></...
Modernization <ul><li>Zhao Ziyang prime minister  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had communal land divided up among individual peas...
Tiananemen Square 1989 <ul><li>Is it possible to have a market economy, the freedom to buy and sell but to deny people all...
Ný konfúsíasmi   <ul><li>Fyrrum forsætisráðherra Singapúr talar um asísku leiðina til nútímans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapí...
After the takeover 1949 <ul><li>1950 Agreement with Soviet Union. Soviet union promises technical and financial aid. China...
China in World politics <ul><li>Zhou Enlai places China in the leadership of neutral third world countries but is not able...
New directions <ul><li>1964 Chinese explode their first atom bomb </li></ul><ul><li>1960-70 The situation on the Soviet-Ch...
US-Chinese relation after ‘71 <ul><li>US-feels isolated in South –East Asia during Vietnam war </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon sen...
Foreign policy after Mao <ul><li>1984 agreement about reverting Hong Kong to China (Hong Kong aquired from 1842-98) </li><...
Mynd Chinese history
Chinese history
Mao and the peasants in Hunan <ul><li>In 1926 Mao observed the peasant revolution in Hunan and wrote an extensive report t...
Hunan peasants <ul><li>P. 78. How does Mao answer the criticism against the “terror” in the countryside. </li></ul><ul><li...
What was done with landlords in Hunan <ul><li>Settling of accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of fines </li></ul><ul><li...
Situation of women in Hunan <ul><li>Many women established their own associations. Were able for the first time to raise t...
Situation of Peasants in Hunan <ul><li>Removal of feudal system and militia </li></ul><ul><li>Clan elders lost power </li>...
Short lecture with handouts <ul><li>Due Week after Lagningardagar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hundred Flowers 1957 Úlfur </...
Questions <ul><li>Why was the US angry towards China until Ping Pong </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of historical break was m...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Overivew of chinese history

2,414

Published on

developed by Th. Thorhallsson

1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,414
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
73
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Foreign policy of China The Japanese in China Ideology of Chinese communists The war between Kuomintang and the communists Women in China Minorities in China (Tibetians) Chinese art (film) Religion in China.
  • Overivew of chinese history

    1. 1. Modern China Chinese history
    2. 2. Chinese civil war <ul><li>Chinese civil war 1911?-1949 (topic 1. War...) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origins of war, political, ideological, economic sources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil warfare, resistance movements, non-systemized warfare or guerilla warfare, revolutionary movements and war. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political, social and economic effects. </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    3. 3. Mao and Communist China <ul><li>Communist China (Topic 3 Single-party state) Themes : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origins - Conditions that produced CC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment, methods, form of government, totalitarianism, treatment of opposition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology of Mao and Chinese communists. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of education, media, the arts, propaganda. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successes and failures in solving political, social and economic problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of women, minorities, and religious groups. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on world affairs. </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    4. 4. Introduction. <ul><li>What do we know about China? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is China in the world? What are its neighbouring countries? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status in the world to day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of Government do we have there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the contribution of China to the world: in technology, culture, arts, religion...? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we know about Chinese history. </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    5. 5. Chinese past <ul><li>Why should we probe Chinese past? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It seem that the Chinese themselves are obsessed with history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China is one of the oldest civilization in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It seem that Chinese history tends to move in cycles: From rise of dynasty to fall of dynasty to anarchy to new dynasty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe this pattern is still going on. </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    6. 6. Chinese thought <ul><li>“ Continuities with the past do exist, especially in thought and attitudes.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are these: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Confucian school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Daoists (taoists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The legalist scool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customs and habits. </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    7. 7. Confucious <ul><li>What are the main principles of confucian thinking? </li></ul><ul><li>What does C. think is womens place in society </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between ruler and subject according to Confucius? </li></ul>Chinese history
    8. 8. Birth of China <ul><li>The Shang dynasty. Earliest kings in the Valley of the Yellow river around 1300-1200 BC. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shang knew the art of writing and it is recognizable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1040-770 BC the Zhou dynasty. Yangzi river becomes part of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>500-200 Chaotic period. Period of the thinkers and philosophers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius fifth century BC </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    9. 9. Unification of China <ul><li>Qin dynasty. To 206 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled China south to Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard coinage, improved communication, standardized writing system, built the Great wall. Legalist. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjects revolted against the ruthless legalist dynasty. </li></ul>Chinese history
    10. 10. The dynastic cycle <ul><li>The Han dynasty 206 BC to 220 AD was the first to go through the dynastic cycle </li></ul>Chinese history
    11. 11. Song dynasty 960-1279 <ul><li>The peak of urban culture in China </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous Merchant class. Foreign trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Educated civil servants that had to pass the state examination in Confucian classics. </li></ul><ul><li>Military strength declined and China became the prey of the Mongol Kublai Khan. Mongol rule lasted to 1368. </li></ul>Chinese history
    12. 12. Ming dynasty 1368-1644 <ul><li>Rule mixture of Confucian and legalist principles. State exams for officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The officials view of society </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scholars who rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants who grew food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans who make important things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants who make nothing but shuffle goods from one place to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchants raised the sons to be scholars </li></ul>Chinese history
    13. 13. Ming cont. <ul><li>Early Ming supported the great merchants adventure around the Indian ocean in the 15th century but late Ming developed distaste for trade and foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>Why didnt the Chinese conquer the world instead of the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress and technology slowed down unfortunately because the westerners were coming </li></ul><ul><li>The first Portugese in China 1514 </li></ul>Chinese history
    14. 14. Qing dynasty 1681-1911 <ul><li>The Manchu invaded China and formed the Qing dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire at its biggest </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption among the ruling class in the 19th century. Dynasty weakens. </li></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation, low technology and corruption. Internal revolts and external wars </li></ul>Chinese history
    15. 15. The Collapse of the old order <ul><li>The Manchu government collapsed under both internal and external pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Opium War, external pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Taiping revolution, internal pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boxer rebellion: internal pressure and external when foreign armys helped crushing it. </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    16. 16. The Opium war 1839-42 <ul><li>What was the Opium war about? </li></ul><ul><li>What has opium to do with it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Chinese loose the war? </li></ul><ul><li>What concessions had the Chinese to make? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a treaty port? The most favoured nation principle, extraterritorality. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the long term effects? </li></ul>Chinese history
    17. 17. Taiping revolution. <ul><li>After 1800 we see the symptoms of downward cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The rebellion was chrushed but at the cost of strengthening regional armies only partly under central command even if the were loyal. </li></ul><ul><li>Li Hongzhan was one of the leaders of the regional armies. Began efforts to introduce western technology. </li></ul>Chinese history
    18. 18. China and the west <ul><li>Chinese weren’t used to learn from other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The chinese wanted to retain the traditional confucian culture but only use western technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Only around the turn of the century some Chinese started to think that society had to be changed fundamentally. </li></ul>Chinese history
    19. 19. Cont.. <ul><li>The empress was afraid of that any changes would hurt the Qing Dynasty because of its Manchu-origins. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese businessmen met opposition from bureaucrats in Chinese dominated cities but they were growing in the treaty ports. Still the always lacked access to capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The hundred days of Kang 1898 show that the idea of reform was there but it was suppressed. </li></ul>Chinese history
    20. 20. The Boxer rebellion 1899. <ul><li>What can the Boxer rebellion tell us about the situation? Why was there no rebellion in the southern provinces? </li></ul><ul><li>Why wasn’t China carved up among the western powers? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the open door policy? </li></ul>Chinese history
    21. 21. After the Boxer Rebellion. <ul><li>Finally the imperial court showed som understanding of reforms necessary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to regain control of tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to end opium imports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abolished the old civil exam system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students sent abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New armies formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial assemblies elected and a National Assembly </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    22. 22. Effect of reform <ul><li>The government couldnt handle it </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation rise </li></ul><ul><li>Regional governors like Zhang Zhidong in Wuhan and Yuan Shikai in the north were removed from office. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These were however the actual bulwarks of government in the provinces and whith them gone the danger of rebellion increased. </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    23. 23. Revolution 1911 <ul><li>Revolution in the provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Army takes control under leadeship of Yuan ShiKai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved the parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shikai abdicated in 1915 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the mistake of proclaiming himself emperor </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    24. 24. Warlord Era 1916-28 <ul><li>First phase of civil war in China </li></ul><ul><li>Warlord: leaders of provincial armies emerging from the ruins of the empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ strong flamboyant personalities building armies by preying on the peasantry” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants suffer in the “sturlungaöld” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main centers of government in the south (Canton) and in the north (Beijing) </li></ul>Chinese history
    25. 25. China and WW1 <ul><li>Japan seized German holdings in Shandong </li></ul><ul><li>1915 China forced to accept Japanese control of Southern Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>An other humiliation for China when Versailles treaty accepts Japans rule of Shangdong </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class and nationalist anger explodes in the 1919 may 4th movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposing foreign domination and Warlord rule </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    26. 26. Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) <ul><li>Originally founded by Sun Yat Sen in 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Sun set up a government in Canton 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Revitalized in the May 4th movement 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Extends its power from Canton to the North </li></ul><ul><li>K was able to overthrow the warlords in 1928 </li></ul>Chinese history
    27. 27. Sun Yat-sen <ul><li>Three principles of the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood (not revolutionary) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sun was willing to work with communists (1923) and organized the party along bolshevik lines </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1925 </li></ul>Chinese history
    28. 28. Sun replaced by Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Right wing </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Worked with Communists until 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>Managed to win warlords 1928 </li></ul>Chinese history
    29. 29. Mao and the Communist party <ul><li>Mao Tse Tung (1893-1976) Revolutionary leader and “poet” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder and leader of the Peoples Republic of China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in Southern China of peasant origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined the revolutionary army when the Manchu dynasty was overthrown 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated womens right and attacked aranged marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined a marxist studygroup at Peking university 1919 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participated in the may 4th demonstrations 1919 </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    30. 30. Communism: beginning <ul><li>Communist manifesto translated and published 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Like in many countries with huge peasantry anarchism had been popular </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrinate marxism did not fit China because in 1918 only 2 million out af population of 300 million were urban workers </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants were the real underclass, supressed by the gentry in a feudal relation </li></ul>Chinese history
    31. 31. Beginnings cont. <ul><li>Two events gave the radical movement a start: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 4 th movement against the Versailles treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Versailles betrayed chinese interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissillution with democracy and capitalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Russian revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution in a neighbouring peasant state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Li Dazhao urged marxist to go into the countryside </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    32. 32. Formation of the communist party <ul><li>Soviet agents helped in the organization of the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Established in July 1921 –Mao head in Hunan </li></ul><ul><li>Still Lenin and Stalin later had not much confidence in communism in China and always advocated cooperation with the KMT – The struggle against imperialism </li></ul>Chinese history
    33. 33. KMT and the communists <ul><li>Russia supported Sun Yat-sen and until the victory of KMT over China 1927 there was cooperation with the communists </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek studied military science in Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>After victory Chiang was urged to turn against communist by industrialists and landowners in the party </li></ul><ul><li>The white terror, massacre of communist workers in Shanghai 1927 </li></ul>Chinese history
    34. 34. The new revolutionary strategy after 1928 <ul><li>Mao was the thinker of the new strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KMT was strongest in the cities so workers revolution was hard to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants were alienated from KMT because it supported the landowners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao started to build base areas in the countryside by adopting: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old guerilla tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced land reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landlords were allowed to keep some land </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    35. 35. The Jiangxi Soviet 1931-34 <ul><li>In Jiangxi Mao formed a Chinese Soviet republic based on his peasant revolution principles </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese communist returning from Moscow tried to undermine Maos efforts with emphasis on class struggle and a broad front against KMT army </li></ul><ul><li>KMT was able to chase the communist away on the so called long march 1934 – 1935 to northern China </li></ul><ul><li>The “bolsheviks” were discredited becaus of this </li></ul>Chinese history
    36. 36. Chinese history
    37. 37. Long march <ul><li>In 1931 the Japanese invaded northeastern China and set up a puppet government. Instead of resisting Japan, Nationalist troops (under Chiang Kai-Shek) launch a series of military campaigns against the Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang's extermination of the communists began in October 1933, and a year later the Communist were driven into a small area in Kiangsi (now Jiangxi) Province. Close to defeat, the Communists decided to march north to Yenan in Shansi (Shanxi) Province, a distance of 8000 km over some of the most inhospitable terrain. On the way the Communists confiscated the property of officials, landlords and tax collectors, and redistributed the land to peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>They armed thousands of peasants with weapons captured from the Nationalists and left soldiers behind to organise guerrilla groups to harass the enemy. The march proved that the Chinese peasants could fight if they were given leadership and weapons. Of the 90,000 people who started the Long March, only 1 in 4 made it to Shansi. During the march a meeting of the CCP hierarchy recognised Mao's overall leadership, and he assumed supreme responsibility for strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan launches a full-scale invasion of China in July 1937, and within five months the Japanese enter Nanking and massacre 200,000 people. The government retreats to Chungking, a remote area ruled by rival warlords. America enters the war in 1941 and finds Chiang (Nationalist) keeping his best troops to fight the Communists. </li></ul>Chinese history
    38. 38. The Long March <ul><li>Heroic myth </li></ul><ul><li>Of 100.000 communists 20.000 survived </li></ul><ul><li>Maos policy survived and became the model for future China </li></ul><ul><li>The LM provided the future leadership of Peoples Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>From the new base Communist would conquer China </li></ul>Chinese history
    39. 39. Chinese foreign policy <ul><li>1927-28 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuomintang controls all of China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist expelled from the party and links with Soviet Union severed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war between Guomintang and Communists starts </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    40. 40. Japanese influence in China <ul><li>1931-32 The Japanese occupy Manchuria – </li></ul><ul><li>Was their sphere of influence before </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the state of Mandsjukuo </li></ul><ul><li>1936 Ceasefire between communist and kuomintang </li></ul><ul><li>1937 Japanese declare war on China and occupy the coast. Soviet Union supports China. </li></ul>Chinese history
    41. 41. The War with Japan 1937-45 <ul><li>The effect on the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old authorities cleared in the North East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KMT had to turn against Japan instead of the communists (internal-external pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still KMT proved corrupt and used US money for private consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communist became the resistance heros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist created new bases in freed regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some landreform – rent and interst control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taught peasant to read and write </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    42. 42. Japanese war against China <ul><li>Mars 1940 Japanese establish a C hinese p uppet government in Nanking </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 1941 USA does not want to make agreement with Japan unless they withdraw from China. </li></ul><ul><li>USA supports Chiang Kai-check. General Stilwell USA agent in Chine but says that Chiangs government is bad and corrupt. He wants USA to support the communists but Roosevelt continues his support with Chiang. </li></ul>Chinese history
    43. 43. After WWII <ul><li>1945 Japanese have to leave China. General Marshall tries to reconciliate Communists and Guomintang. Chaing refuses. </li></ul><ul><li>1945-48 USA gives Guomintang weapons. Chinese communists press for victory before the US public starts to press for armed intervention in China. (before the cold war start to take effect) </li></ul>Chinese history
    44. 44. Communist position at the end of war <ul><li>Had already revolutionized big parts of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 base areas with 100 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had big experienced army </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols for reform – independence – national unity – abolition of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>The US supported KMT </li></ul>Chinese history
    45. 45. Problems facing Mao 49 <ul><li>Economy and infrastructure in ruins </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture inefficient. Food Shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>Superhuman task to control 600 million people but Mao managed it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purges against class enemies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How was the constitution? How is Government organised? What is the role of the party? </li></ul>Chinese history
    46. 46. Agricultural and industrial changes <ul><li>Redistribution of land </li></ul><ul><li>Then peasants were persuaded to enter the coops. How could this collectivization succeed without violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalization of most businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Five year plan for building heavy industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some success with help from Russia but Mao had doubts. </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    47. 47. Hundred flowers 1957 <ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Call for criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government for…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The party for…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign called off (to much criticism) and next step was to further advance and consolidate socialism </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    48. 48. The great leap forward 58 <ul><li>Supposed to increase output the chinese way </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the Commune (30 000 people) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the role of the commune? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Party organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Small factories in the countryside to provide machines for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Backyard furnaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t go well at first. Hunger and shortages. </li></ul>Chinese history
    49. 49. Effect of great leap <ul><li>Historians do not agree on effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norman Lowe is relatively possitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture and small industry did improve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The communes did prove a balance against centralization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese way was supposed to be labor-intensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most other historians seems to think that the great leap was a total disaster, leading to economic ruin, bad harvests, hunger and the backyard furnaces were useless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Great leap the rightists (moderates) wanted to ease things </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    50. 50. Cultural revolution 66-9 <ul><li>Against the right opposition that were calling for incentives, managers, and private ownership of farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao stuck to socialism, avoid the making of a privileged class. </li></ul><ul><li>Lin Biao abolished ranks in the army </li></ul><ul><li>Schools closed en students roam the country exposing the four “Olds”. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao encouraged the red guards to roam the country. The little red book </li></ul><ul><li>Brought chaos and almost a civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao called in the army to restore order. </li></ul>Chinese history
    51. 51. Life after Mao <ul><li>Power struggle after Maos death 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deng came back and took the leadership from Hua Guofeng and the militant gang of four. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deng was a liberal communist and tried to reverse the effects of the cultural revolution, more freedom of expression and communes were democratically elected. </li></ul><ul><li>China entered the international economic world and wanted foreign loans, capital and technichal know how. </li></ul><ul><li>Internally he encouraged productivity by lowering taxes and incentives. </li></ul>Chinese history
    52. 52. Demands for liberty 8 9 <ul><li>Right to criticize government </li></ul><ul><li>Non-communist parties in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to change jobs and travel abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of communes </li></ul><ul><li>Deng was infuriated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the party China will regress into division and confusion </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    53. 53. Modernization <ul><li>Zhao Ziyang prime minister </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had communal land divided up among individual peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory state purchase of crops limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This market socialism did have its problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation and increase in imports more than exports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deng wanted to encourage capitalist initiative and decentralization </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    54. 54. Tiananemen Square 1989 <ul><li>Is it possible to have a market economy, the freedom to buy and sell but to deny people all choice in politics? Under what situation is this possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachevs visit encouraged demonstrators. </li></ul><ul><li>The army brought in 3-4 june 1989 killing 1500-3000. </li></ul><ul><li>Deng believed in the single party system to supervise transition to “social market economy.” </li></ul>Chinese history
    55. 55. Ný konfúsíasmi <ul><li>Fyrrum forsætisráðherra Singapúr talar um asísku leiðina til nútímans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapítalískt efnahagskerfi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterkt ríkisvald </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Konfúsískur lífstíll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traust fjölskyldubönd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virðingu fyrir hinum eldri </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hópvinnu í stað einstaklingshyggju </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agi og vinnusemi </li></ul></ul></ul>Chinese history
    56. 56. After the takeover 1949 <ul><li>1950 Agreement with Soviet Union. Soviet union promises technical and financial aid. China not part of U.N. Britain and India acknowledge China. </li></ul><ul><li>1950 Invasion and occupation of Tibet. </li></ul><ul><li>1950-53 Entered the Korean war when USA armies came close to the border. Managed to keep US away. </li></ul>Chinese history
    57. 57. China in World politics <ul><li>Zhou Enlai places China in the leadership of neutral third world countries but is not able to reach agreement with US </li></ul><ul><li>1958 Cooling relations with Soviet Union after death of Stalin. Mao says the east wind is stronger than the wind from the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Support to African nations. Trying to get goodwill so they can enter UN. </li></ul>Chinese history
    58. 58. New directions <ul><li>1964 Chinese explode their first atom bomb </li></ul><ul><li>1960-70 The situation on the Soviet-Chinese border comes close to a war. Competition for support of third world countries. Eurocommunists confused. </li></ul>Chinese history
    59. 59. US-Chinese relation after ‘71 <ul><li>US-feels isolated in South –East Asia during Vietnam war </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon sends feelers to China in the form of Ping-Pong 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon in China feb. 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>From then on relations with Chine have started to normalize. </li></ul>Chinese history
    60. 60. Foreign policy after Mao <ul><li>1984 agreement about reverting Hong Kong to China (Hong Kong aquired from 1842-98) </li></ul><ul><li>1979 Us fully recognize PRC and abandon support for Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>China most favoured nation status in US after 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>After Dalai Lama got Nobel Peace prize in 1989 the Chinese have releaved some of their repression in Tibet. </li></ul>Chinese history
    61. 61. Mynd Chinese history
    62. 62. Chinese history
    63. 63. Mao and the peasants in Hunan <ul><li>In 1926 Mao observed the peasant revolution in Hunan and wrote an extensive report that shaped his attitude towards the peasant revolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the peasants organize themselves? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many peasants took part in the revolution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage: Number: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the aim of the revolution? (p. 76) </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    64. 64. Hunan peasants <ul><li>P. 78. How does Mao answer the criticism against the “terror” in the countryside. </li></ul><ul><li>P. 79. Who are the poor peasants making the revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>P. 80. The revolutionary government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is done with the landlords and the old elite? How far do these actions reach? All the way? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the situation of women improved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the situation of the peasants improved? </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    65. 65. What was done with landlords in Hunan <ul><li>Settling of accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of fines </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory contribution of funds </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating </li></ul><ul><li>Humiliation(e.g wearing tall hats and parading around town) </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Banishment </li></ul><ul><li>And only for the most powerful landlords, execution. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet the peasants still left them with some land and property. </li></ul>Chinese history
    66. 66. Situation of women in Hunan <ul><li>Many women established their own associations. Were able for the first time to raise their voices and make a difference. </li></ul><ul><li>So-called husband power became weaker and weaker and women had a say in family affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Within family, women gained influence. </li></ul>Chinese history
    67. 67. Situation of Peasants in Hunan <ul><li>Removal of feudal system and militia </li></ul><ul><li>Clan elders lost power </li></ul><ul><li>Outlawing of gambling and opium </li></ul><ul><li>Successful elimination of banditry </li></ul><ul><li>Successful promotion of cultural movement </li></ul><ul><li>Credit unions established </li></ul><ul><li>Improved the transport system (eg. Roads, irrigation canals and flood-control dykes) </li></ul>Chinese history
    68. 68. Short lecture with handouts <ul><li>Due Week after Lagningardagar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hundred Flowers 1957 Úlfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Leap Forward 1958 Kristin Jóna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cultural Revolution 1966 Erna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of Mao 1976 Hildur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deng comes to power 1978 Katerina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square 1989 Tómas jon bjarni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union and China Hjörleifur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA relations with China Bragi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art in China HElga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in China Lea Assel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion in China Solveig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population and Economy. Chris </li></ul></ul>Chinese history
    69. 69. Questions <ul><li>Why was the US angry towards China until Ping Pong </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of historical break was made with the revolution in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Ideology of Chinese communists , how has it changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Russia and China, were are the similarities? </li></ul>Chinese history
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×