When? September 22nd, 1980 ~ 1988 Where? Areas near the border of Iran and Iraq. (First on Irans territory, later on Iraqs territory as well) Who? Iraq and Iran, led by Saddam Hussein and Khomeini respectively, What? almost 9 years of total/ conventional war (for both sides) Why (immediate cause)? In September 1980, border skirmishes erupted in the central sector near Qasr-e Shirin, with an exchange of artillery fire by both sides. And on September 22nd of the same year, Iraq invaded Tehran with their air forces, MiG-23s and MiG-21s.
This war led to Gulf War of 1991, which was also started from Iraqi aggressionThis was fought between two of the largest oil exporters Explains why the number of allies were so large/ The war was internationally importantUsed CW and BW Iraq widely used these, whereas Iran allegedly used them
Use of Air force was also very significant Iraqi MiG-23s/ MiG-21s, Iranian F-14s and Scud (Missiles) which were used first by Iraq, and later also by Iran, to bomb each other’s territoryHigh economic losses for both sides + countries involvedCivilian involvement & impact was hugeResulted from a variety of long/short-term CausesThe war was ended with the help of UN (Iran accepting UN’s Security Council Resolution 598, l eading to a 20 August 1988 cease-fire.)
•Please look at the notes !!!•WAR WAS THE RESULT OF….•Long-term, Short-term, Immediate Causes•Economic, Social, Religious, Ideological, Political and many other causes
Economic/ military: significance of Shatt-al-Arab connected Persian Gulf with the Iranian port of Khorramshahr and Abadan Religious: Most Iraqi population belived in Sunnis Islam, where as most Ianian population believed in Shiis Islam. Sunnis and Shiis Islam were split since 661, when the founder of Islam, Ca liph was assassined. Ethnical: Resentment existed between Arabians and Persians since Arabians invaded Persians centuries ago. Persians could not form a consolidated country for almost 800 years Political: 1961~1975, Iraq focused on the suppression of Kurish rebellions, which led them to accept… Algiers Agreement of 1975
Political: 1) Rise of the two ambitious leaders – Khomeini and Saddam Hussein 2) Islamic revolution of 1979 caused confusion in Iran Diplomatic: 1) “Iran hostage crisis” bad relationship with the U.S. 2) Persecution of communists in Iran bad relationship with USSR Military: Persecution of key military commanders in Pahlavi Shah’s regime
Economic: Islamic revolution in Iran industries were suffering and export of petroleum decreased because of the bad relationship w/ the U.S. Religious: 1) Islamic revolution in Iran also affected Shiis population & even Kuridish people in Iraq. Many of them fought on the Iranian side in the war. 2) Khomeini insulted Saddam Hussein, by saying that his regime is “anti-Islamic”
On September 22nd, 1980 Iraq invaded Tehran with MiG-23s and MiG-21s
These Scud Missiles were launched against Iranian/ Iraqi civilians.
Iraq first used Chemical weapons when Iran started counter attackingMany attributed the use of CW in Iran-Iraq war as the lenient international policy regarding CW&BW
Ali Hassan al-Majid was the minister of National Defense at that time, and he was the one who approved the use of CWMany Iraqi soldiers used CW in the borderline b/w Iran and Iraq
1) US and USSR both supported2) Islam supported Iraq, whose population is mainly Arabians.
Civilians – many civilians died from bombing or as voluntary soldiers Casualties – Iran acknowledged that nearly 300,000 people died in the war Iraq suffered an estimated 375,000 casualties. Another 60,000 were taken prisoner by the Iranians. Economic – Both sides had huge economic impact (Iraq’s bad economy Gulf war 1991) Political: regimes of both Iraq and Iran did not change much after this war. However, the war made both regimes oppressed…
The war stopped when Iran accepted UN Security council Resolution 598, leading to a 20 August 1988 cease-fire.Thus, the war in a sense no winner, and both countries suffered from the war.
Iran-Iraq war caused an enormous ecomomic, military and social problems to both Iran and Iraq. for both fronts it was a TOTAL WAR
Each student must say 3 similarities/ differences between Iran-Iraq war and wars listed below World War I:Gulf War of 1991(Anthony’s war):6 day war (Laurence’s war):Korean war (Jimmy war):
Books: a) Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi b) Geopolitical Determinism: The Origins of the Iran-Iraq War by Efraim Karsh c) The Social Origins of the Iran-Iraq War by Thom Workman (Ph.D Candidate in Department of Political Science in York University) d) Success in World History Since 1945 by Jack Watson e) Challenge to Civilization: a history of the 20th century (1952-1999) by Martin Gilbert Websites: 1) http://course1.winona.edu/aelafandi/polsci270/iran-iraq-war.htm 2) http://www.iranchamber.com/history/iran_iraq_war/iran_iraq_war1.php 3)http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_iraniraq.html 4) http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/iran-iraq.htm 5) http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/arabs/iraniraq.html 6) http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/iraniraq.htm