Long-hated one-child rule may be eased in ChinaBy ALEXA OLESEN (AP) – 2 days agoDAFENG, China — When asked why she and her...
those eligible to have a second child said they would stop at one, with economics being the majorfactor. The Chinese Acade...
A change would mark a turnaround from a 30-year-old policy that dates from an era when theCommunist Party controlled every...
Chinas one-child policy causes extra pain               Grief, anger engulf parents whose only child perished in 7.9-earth...
families to one offspring. The policy was meant to rein in Chinas exploding population and ensure bettereducation and heal...
Anti-natal Policy (China)             The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate social,1979       ...
In the year 2000 there were more than enough children to support the older generation, but astudy of Chinas population sho...
With Chinas life expectancy increasing the older generation are living longer, and not only are        they expecting thei...
This table shows the Infant mortality in China by sex.Year       1973-75 1981 1987 1990 2000Boys       48.9    38.7 39.9 2...
shortage in food which could lead to starvation. So, because of this, is it right for the followingdiscriminations to be i...
child by both the grandparents and parents, so six people are giving one child undivided attention andtherefore that child...
Another consequence is that as a result of the one child policy, children who have suffered from beingspoilt have trouble ...
women to have late-term abortions and be sterilized.Women are forced into having abortions and are sterilized, and in rura...
"So for the Chinese economy, although unemployment is a concern, continued supply of younglabor, skilled labor, is one of ...
It is good to have only one childWhat do you already know about Chinas One Child Policy?
What you know already knowHow you do you see the OCP in your everyday lives here in China?e.g. propaganda posters on the f...
How does the policy work?How does it encourage families to have only one child?       Where is China?           •   Sounds...
When was the policy introduced?  •   Produce a timeline of the policies introduction and any changes made to it since.  • ...
China plans the end of hated one-child policy
Why was the One Child Policy introduced?  •   What geographical situation caused the Chinese government to introduce the O...
Give a detailed explanation of the reasons why the one child policy was introduced.                                    His...
How Successful?  •   You must be able to evaluate the population policies that you study?  •   How successful has Chinas O...
Give a Detailed Account of the Positives by placing any relevant material in the followingcategories.Social E.g. things re...
Government attempts to control population growth areineffective.” Discuss this statement. [15 Marks]
*Its important you understand what the question is asking you for. Notice it is not sayingdiscuss the positives and negati...
One Child Policy NotesOne problem created by OCP is too many boys in Rural AreasReasons    Carry Family Name    Support ...
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  1. 1. Long-hated one-child rule may be eased in ChinaBy ALEXA OLESEN (AP) – 2 days agoDAFENG, China — When asked why she and her husband do not want a second child, ShiXiaomei smiles at her pudgy 9-year-old son and does a quick tally of the family budget.Her salary as a cleaning lady and the income from a mahjong parlor in their spare room barelycover their sons school fees and other expenses."With just one, we can give him nicer things. But if you tried to split what we have between twoor three, they would all end up with nothing," the 34-year-old says at her home in Dafeng, aprosperous but still-rural county 185 miles (300 kilometers) north of Shanghai.For years, China curbed its once-explosive population growth with a widely hated one-child limitthat at its peak led to forced abortions, sterilizations and even infanticide. Now the long-sacrosanct policy may be on its way out, as some demographers warn that China is facing theopposite problem: not enough babies.A stroll down the dirt path linking Shis close-knit neighborhood suggests why.Though a little-known exception allows a second child when both parents are single childrenthemselves, there are few takers."Why would we want another one? Thats just looking for trouble," said Huang Xiaochen, 28,mother of a year-old son."Kids are running in and out of here all the time," her husband Zhu Yingzhun said, pointing tohis front door which, like many here, is often left open. "He doesnt need a sibling to havesomeone to play with."Officially, the government remains committed to the one-child policy. But it also commissionedfeasibility studies last year on what would happen should it eliminate the policy or do nothing.An official with the National Population and Family Planning Commission said privately that theagency is looking at ways to refine the limit without getting rid of it.A people shortage may seem unlikely in a country of 1.3 billion, the most in the world. Theconcern, though, is not with the overall number. Rather, as the population shrinks, which isprojected to begin in about 15 years, China may find itself with the wrong mix of people: too fewyoung workers to support an aging population.It is a combination that could slow or, in a worst-case scenario, even reverse Chinas surgingeconomic growth. The government and families will have to tap savings to care for the elderly,reducing funds for investment and driving up interest rates. At the same time, labor costsprobably will rise as the work force shrinks and squeeze out some industries.In a survey of 18,638 women in Dafeng and six other counties in Jiangsu province, 69 percent of
  2. 2. those eligible to have a second child said they would stop at one, with economics being the majorfactor. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences survey did not calculate a margin of error."Government control is no longer necessary to maintain low fertility,"Zheng Zhenzhen, who headed the study, wrote in the November issue of Asian PopulationStudies magazine. "A carefully planned relaxation of the birth-control policy in China is unlikelyto lead to an unwanted baby boom."Family size has dropped dramatically since the 1970s, when the average Chinese woman hadfive to six children. Today, Chinas fertility rate is 1.5 children per woman. Most families havejust one, but exceptions allow multiple children for ethnic minorities and a second one for ruralfamilies whose first baby is a girl.If that fertility rate holds, Chinas population will peak at 1.4 billion in 2026 and then startshrinking, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. By the end of this century, Chinas populationwould be cut almost in half to 750 million, according to a model developed by Wang Feng, ademographer at the University of California, Irvine. That would still be two and a half timesbigger than the U.S. today.Wang says the governments focus on slowing population growth has dangerous side effects.In just 10 years, the age 20-24 population is expected to be half of todays 124 million, a shiftthat could hurt Chinas economic competitiveness by driving up wages. Over the same period,the proportion of the population over 60 is expected to climb from 12 percent — or 167 millionpeople — to 17 percent."We feel like were seismologists, you know," said Wang, who has helped lead a data-drivencampaign to persuade the government to drop the one-child policy. "This earthquake ishappening and most people dont see it. We feel we have the knowledge to detect this and weshould tell the public."Another concern is a surplus of males. Sonograms became more widely available in the 1990s,and some parents who wanted a son aborted their baby if they learned it was a girl.Though the practice is illegal, statistics make clear that it is widespread. The male-female ratio atbirth was 119 males to 100 females in 2009, compared with a global average of 107 to 100.Experts fear that, in the years to come, the gender imbalance will create a frustrated generation ofmen unable to find spouses. That in turn could fuel the trafficking of women and girls to be soldas brides.Still, not all experts agree the one-child rule should be dropped.Li Xiaoping, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, welcomes the comingpopulation decline, saying it will ease food and water shortages and limit pollution. Writing inthe state-run China Daily newspaper, Li said the government should stand firm on the one-childlimit while finding ways to boost the earning power of a smaller work force.
  3. 3. A change would mark a turnaround from a 30-year-old policy that dates from an era when theCommunist Party controlled every aspect of peoples lives: where they lived and worked, whoand when they married and how many children they could have.The government credits the rule with raising millions out of poverty by preventing 400 millionadditional births. The gains have come at a cost, however. Families who violated the one-childrule were fined. Some lost their jobs or homes.Others underwent forced abortions or sterilizations, the subject of well-known author Mo Yanslatest book, "Frog," the tale of a rural midwife who struggles with an emotional breakdown aftera 30-year career performing such brutal procedures."Yes, our slowed population growth delivered economic prosperity, but needless to say, wevepaid a great price," said Mo, whose book was inspired by his aunt, a country doctor. "No matterhow you look at it, its been a tragedy."Xie Zhenming, who heads the government-funded, research-oriented China PopulationAssociation, expects change within the next five years, gradually, in steps.Susan Greenhalgh, an expert on the policys history, agrees. The anthropology professor at theUniversity of California, Irvine, believes the government will avoid dramatic change, out of fearthat it could revive bad memories and make people wonder whether such a harsh measure wasever necessary."My view is that it will gradually be taken apart, piece by piece, over the next few years," shesaid, "until we all wake up and discover that, lo and behold, the one-child policy has beendismantled to the point that its no longer a one-child policy."Copyright © 2010 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Chinas one-child policy causes extra pain Grief, anger engulf parents whose only child perished in 7.9-earthquakeBi Kaiwei holds a photo of his daughter, Bi Yuexing, who was killed when her schoolroom collapsed inMondays earthquake in Chinas southwest Sichuan province. China death toll nears 20,000May 16, 2008WUFU, China - Bi Kaiwei and his wife, Meilin, stopped having children after their daughter was born,taking to heart Chinas one-child policy and its slogan "Have fewer kids, live better lives."For them and other couples who lost an only child in this weeks massive earthquake, the tragedy hasbeen doubly cruel. Robbed of their sole progeny and a hope for the future, they find it even harder torestart their shattered lives, haunted by added guilt, regret and gnawing loss."She died before becoming even a young adult," said Bi, an intense, wiry chemical plant worker, standingbeside the grave of 13-year-old Yuexing — one of dozens sprinkled amid fields of ripened spring wheatand newly planted rice. "She never really knew what life was like."Yuexing, a bright sixth-grader, was in school when Mondays quake struck, bringing the Fuxin No. 2Primary School crashing down, killing her and 200 other students. Teachers had locked all but one of theschools doors during break time, parents said, leaving only a single door to escape through.A couples only childMany among the more than 22,000 people killed across central China were students in school. Nearly6,900 classrooms collapsed, government officials said Friday, in an admission that highlighted achronically underfunded education system especially in small towns and compounded the anger of manyChinese over the quake.In Wufu, a farming village two hours north of the Sichuan provincial capital of Chengdu, most of the deadstudents were a couples only child — born under a policy launched in the late 1970s to limit many
  5. 5. families to one offspring. The policy was meant to rein in Chinas exploding population and ensure bettereducation and health care.The "one-child policy" has been contentious inside China as well as out. The government says it hasprevented an additional 400 million births. But critics say it has also led to forced abortions, sterilizationsand a dangerously imbalanced sex ratio as local authorities pursue sometimes severe birth quotas set byBeijing and families abort girls out of a traditional preference for male heirs. The policy is law but there areexceptions.The child is deadFarther down the lane from where Yuexing is buried, 10 more graves were laid out, some accompaniedby favorite items — textbooks for English and music, a pencil box, a Chinese chess set. At one, agrandmother threw herself to the dirt and wailed as her husband lighted a handful of "spirit paper"believed to comfort the dead in the afterlife.Another bereaved parent, Sang Jun, stood where his daughter, Rui, is buried, a simple mound of dirtbeside his quake-shattered farmhouse. The house is surrounded by burned bushes — a traditionaldisinfectant."The house is gone and the child is dead," said Sang, who wore a T-shirt and plastic sandals. Hisparents, both in their 70s, looked on with tears in their eyes.Resistance by ordinary Chinese has forced Beijing to relax its child policies, allowing many rural familiesto have a second child if the first was a girl. But in Wufu, the family planning committee seems to haveprevailed on most families to stop at one child. Slogans daubed on boundary walls and houses all alongthe rutted country road leading to Wufu call on families to "stabilize family planning and create a brighterfuture."Standing in the rubble of the school holding his daughters ID and a posed shot taken at a local salon, Bisaid starting a new family, either by having another child or adoption, is simply imponderable."Im 37 years old and my child was 13. If we were to do it again, Id be 50 when this stage comes along,"Bi said.Parents who lose children in disasters often feel intense guilt for what they see as a failure to protectthem, said psychology professor Shi Zhanbiao. Parents, he said, may also recall their past relationshipswith their children with regret, thinking they were too stern, did not show them sufficient love or did notinteract with them enough."Theyll think that if they just hadnt sent their children to school that day, they would have been saved,"said Shi, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Science in Beijing.We have nothing elseThe loss is intensified for those with no other offspring to lavish with care and affection, Shi said. And inChina, other, more practical concerns may also come into play because children are generally expectedto care for their aging parents."Theyll be worried about the future, because for the later part of their lives, theyll have no one to dependon," Shi said.Bi said Yuexing was polite and smart. She had won a coveted place at the countys best high school onthe recommendation of a teacher. She was a top student who got better after the family moved closer toschool to reduce her commuting time, said Bi, who completed high school but failed the nationaluniversity entrance exam.
  6. 6. Anti-natal Policy (China) The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate social,1979 economic, and environmental problems in China, and authorities claim that the policy has prevented 250 million births from its implementation to 2000Mechanisms of the One Child PolicyOverviewThe One Child Policy is the policy of having just one child in rural and urban areas of China. Starting in1979, the policy was created because of an enormous predicted growth of the Chinese population. If therise continued, resources and lifestyle would deplete / worsen. The limit is more strict in urban areas, butvaries from location to location. Additional children will result in large fines: families violating the policy aremade to pay monetary penalties and might be denied bonuses at their workplace, normally the price theyhave to pay for a second child is all the education and health care they got for free for their first child, thiscan sometimes be as much as a whole years salary.Chinas population growth rate has reduced to 0.6, the second lowest in the world, this shows that, so far,the policy is working.Exceptions • Children born outside of China are legal if they do not obtain citizenship. • In most rural areas, families are allowed to have another child if the first child is female or disabled, this is because the population in these areas are normally lower, but the second child is subject to birth spacing of 3 or 4 years. • Twins and triplets have no restrictions on them, so many women abuse this right and deliberately take fertility drugs. • Han-Chinese, the ethnic group totaling 10% of Chinas population, is subject to different rights and can be allowed 3 or 4 children in rural areas.PropagandaThe technique of propaganda is used in China to try to encourage people within the country to only haveone baby. The countrys government heavily promoted the idea of one one child good, two children isokay, three children is too many and Small family = happy family during the 1970s, before any officiallaws were implemented. Now, of course, one child (with noted exception) is the maximum and strict lawsensure this is kept.Methods of limiting baby production on posters were produced for use in display cases, featuring popularvisuals and baby boys to appeal to a wide audience, in rural and urban areas.Demographic Structure - Dependency RatiosOver 25 years ago China was concerned about having too many children to support, now theyare facing the complete opposite, because of the result of the One Child policy, the countryfaces the prospect of not having enough children to support the ageing population.
  7. 7. In the year 2000 there were more than enough children to support the older generation, but astudy of Chinas population shows that in 2050 there will be just under enough children tosupport the older generation.As the "One-Child" policy nears its next generation, one adult "child" is left to look after twoadults and four grandparents. This is known as the "One-Two-Four" problem. This creates theissue of extremely high pension rates.The National Dependency ratio of China is 38.6%. This is one of the highest Dependency ratiosin the world.Population Pyramids, China: 2000 and 20502000 2050 • Source: World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (2005). Due to the dramatic fertility decline and the improved longevity over the past two decades, Chinas population is ageing at one of the fastest rates ever recorded, this is also accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease and disability in the population. Meeting the health and long-term care needs of this growing elderly population will result in soaring health care costs and with a shrinking working-age population to help pay the bill. Chinese health officials implemented various chronic-disease prevention programs at the national level, they are also starting to set up long-term care delivery systems for the elderly. But while Chinas economy carries on growing rapidly, whether it will be able to allocate enough income to meet these rising health care costs remains as a major concern. Percentage of Older Adults (Age 65+) in China, 1950-2050
  8. 8. With Chinas life expectancy increasing the older generation are living longer, and not only are they expecting their children to provide for the in later life but their grandchildren as well. This means that with this policy, one child will be providing for 6 adults.Gender selectionFor years, Chinas history has considered men superior to women. Boys are given the right to carry onthe family name and they were allowed to be emperors while women could not.The government has banned gender selection for new born babies by induced abortion and ultrasounds.This has not stopped it from happening because some doctors will perform these services for extramoney. This is problem is greater in rural areas because they want boys to help on farms and with thefamily.Also there is a huge shortage of girls due to this. So a "girl care project" has been introduced and is asystem that will hopefully increase the number of girl births. Women who give birth to girls and keep themwill be rewarded. There will also be benifits for girls such as their school fees being exempt. Families withdaughters only are given preferential treatment with health care, employment and housing. Thegovernment is also committed to solving this genre imbalance with education campaigns, punishments forsex-selective abortions and rewards like retirement pensions for parents who have girls.In 2005 there was an average of 123 boys born to every 100 girls born. In some regions, the figure has hit130 boys for every 100 girls.
  9. 9. This table shows the Infant mortality in China by sex.Year 1973-75 1981 1987 1990 2000Boys 48.9 38.7 39.9 25.5 26.5Girls 42.8 36.7 40.8 29.4 38.9Both sexes - 37.7 40.3 27.3 32.2Ratio G/B 0.88 0.95 1.02 1.15 1.46 • If the female to male ration does not change then by 2040 there will be 30 million men at the age of marriage unable to find wives. This could cause some social problems. One way to solve this problem would be to impliment a proper social security system, to make couples in rural areas feel they do not need to rely on a son when they get old and need help.Due to Chinas 1 one-child policy, the population has started rebelling against the government.The army had to unleash forces to break up the protests.The riots are still happening as we speak.More than 50 thousand people gathered together to protest against forced abortions, sterilizations andhysterectomies.The Chinese army went to the protesters and violently broke up the protest, killing 2 and injuringhundreds. The population have attacked family planning officials overturned cars and set fire togovernment buildings in a riot.All the coverage of the protest eventually made its way to the internet which then provoked a world-wideresponse. After this, the CCP has censored all coverage and deleted all related information fromwebsites.Civil RightsChina’s one child policy is considered immoral and ineffective by many people. However the Chinesepopulation is growing and in a few years time the population will be so high that there could be a severe
  10. 10. shortage in food which could lead to starvation. So, because of this, is it right for the followingdiscriminations to be inflicted on the population of China? • Human right violations • Forced abortions • Female infanticide • Abandonment • Sex-selective abortions • Bribery • Forced sterilization • Coercion • There is a 118:100 male to female ratio, which is a serious unbalance in the sex of the population. • It has been reported that women up to 8 and a half months pregnant are having abortions, some would consider this as extremely immoral, by this stage of the pregnancy the child is fully developed, is this not considered as murder? • Women are being forced to be sterilized after having one child, so they can no longer have any more children. • Women who become pregnant either by choice of by accident, become so afraid of what will happen if they get found out that they go into hiding, and give birth to their children without telling anyone. However now there are special organisations which employ people to keep watch on all the women during their child-bearing years. Women are asked personal questions by there people so they can keep watch on any women who have missed their menstrual cycle, or seem to be broody. This is considered as controlling a woman (and her family’s) life, people should be in control of their own lives, and not be scared into doing something that is immorally wrong. • Forced abortion is one of the main catastrophes that are taking place in China. A women aged 27 was nine months pregnant when two people who were said to be from the government sector that was in charge of the one-child policy, came into her house and took her away to their quarters. Here the woman was injected into her womb by a doctor, and the baby was aborted. This not only is extreme violation of human rights, but in many peoples eyes, murder. It is not right that any woman she be forced to go through such an atrocity, for the sake of the government’s beliefs. Woman are not only scarred by these memories, but the woman who went through this trauma is not unable to have any more children, and is suffering mentally and physically from it. In the article concerning this story it was said that the husband was called and made his way to the place where the abortion had happened. The husband arrived there finding his 9 month old daughter dead. The husband was not even informed of the abortion before it took place. What kind of country lets atrocities like this happen? It has even been said that these sorts of things have been happening since the 1970’s.Little Emperor SyndromeWhat is it?Little emperor syndrome is a name for a condition which affects both parents and their only child. Withboth parents giving all their attention to one child and spoiling it, the child feels more important.Demographically:One cause of the Little Emperor Syndrome is the structure of the family. The structure is a 4-2-1structure, four grandparents, two parents and one child this means that more attention is spent on the
  11. 11. child by both the grandparents and parents, so six people are giving one child undivided attention andtherefore that child becomes spoilt and think they are the centre of everyones universe.The Chinese have a special name for children with Little Emperors Syndrome, "xiao huangdi", or "littleemperors." Editor of a prominent literary journal, Yang Xiaosheng says that China’s children are growingup as self centered, narrow minded and incapable of accepting criticism.In rural areas, the “little emperor syndrome” rarely appears, as families will often have 5 or 6 children sono one child is lavished upon, however in urban areas where the one child policy is enforced, 20% ofpeople under 25 have been raised in a one child family (100 million).Economic:Hill and Knowlton and Seventeen magazine, surveyed 1,200 students at 64 universities in Beijing andShanghai and found that 60% of the people were spending more than $60 a month on unessential itemssa huge amount of money considering that their monthly income averages at less than $250.These little emperors and empresses, are growing up in an era of prosperity, their parents before as theirparents and grandparents grew up with the famine under Mao’s disastrous agriculture policy.Food:The little emperors and empresses are brought up on cheeseburgers, pizza and fried chicken. In bigcities, one in five children under 18 suffers from obesity. These children are growing up without any selfcontrol and therefore it is producing a generation of overweight people. Connections have been foundbetween the “Little Emperor syndrome” and type 2 diabetes (related to obesity). The population pyramidof China is top heavy, therefore usually all 4 grandparents are usually alive and have been known to overnourish their grandchildren, meaning that a lot of children in that generation are overweight.Pressure:Due to the one child policy and therefore the family being carried on by one heir, the child recieves morepressure on them to achieve and do well in their education so that the child can take care of the parent intheir old age.Gender:Gender affects the Little Emperors Syndrome as boys are valued more highly than girls. Due to this thepercentage of boys who are accused of being spoilt is higher than the percentage of girls. For example aBBC News Article interviewed a woman who said that her Grandmother wasnt even named because herfamily didnt feel that girls were important enough to have names.Consequences:Some people worry that as a result of the Little Emperors Syndrome it will result in a higher tendencytoward poor social communication and cooperation skills as they have no siblings at home. Somepeople also believe that as a result of being an only child you have a very lonely childhood and anawkward adulthood. The children who belong to a one child family are often spoiled or pressured intosucceeding to carry on the family name.
  12. 12. Another consequence is that as a result of the one child policy, children who have suffered from beingspoilt have trouble getting a career in later life as their employers dont like their self importance andtherefore dont want to hire them, these people who were spoilt as children often have trouble adjusting tothe independent lifestyle of working in offices and other such work places so therefore are less likely to beemployed. A female representative from a Hydro Scheme said, "Students from cities and only childrencannot endure the hardships incurred in the process of geological exploration. Brain drain is rife," shealso said that only children will tend to want to work close to home and their parents. Workers from theInvestigation Design Institute of Water Conservation and Electric Power in Cangzhou city, HebeiProvince, were of the same opinion: "Experience proves that lots of only children are prone to beeffeminate and overconfident," said an anonymous spokesman. "Sixty per cent of staff who are onlychildren will hop from job to job. My company attaches more importance to strong will and vitality toconquer hardships."Success of china’s one child policyWhat has happened?China’s one child policy was instigated in 1979 to reduce the population growth and avoid numerousdisasters such as pressure on resources (water, food, medical care, housing) and a virus such as SARSwill not spread as fast as if the population was bigger.Penalties are implemented on violators, there are fined or if the person is caught prior to giving birth anabortion in forced upon the woman.Over the last three decades chinas one child policy has prevented 400 million births. The averagenumber of births to a couple has declined from 6 in 1970 to 1.8 in 2006.Since the regulations were introduced in 1979, China has kept its population in check using persuasion,coercion and encouragement.It has been over 30 years since the population control policy began, and it does not look like they will beremoving it any time soon.But Wang Feng, from University of California, says that this reduction is mainly due to a fall in the fertilityrate in the 1970s (due to normal factors), rather than any more recent policy initiatives.Who is benefiting now?Children in urban areas are benefiting from the one child policy; with no sibling competition they have abetter education, a greater amount of attention. The parents have very high expectation for their childrenand therefore encouraging them to excel in school and in extra curricular activities. But this increasedpressure on the children has caused some to comit suicide.Children in rural areas benefit as well, the policy has permitted children to go to school and receive agood education.The fertility rate has helped reduce the population size, therefore avoiding or reducing certain severproblems, epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services and strain on the ecosystem.Who is not benefiting now?An activist called Chen Guangcheng was sent to prison last year, he said they illegally forced
  13. 13. women to have late-term abortions and be sterilized.Women are forced into having abortions and are sterilized, and in rural areas many couples arekilling the baby girls. When the women get married, then they move in with their husbandsfamily and leave their parents; whereas boys stay with their parents and his wife comes and liveswith them.The predicated pyramid suggests that there will be a decline in the birth rate, but a very lowdeath rate. There will be a very high population dependency; the older generations will need a lotof funding for retirements. Unfortunately not enough people will be able to finance the oldergeneration, so taxes will rise.Will it benefit at longer term?Many Chinese and foreign academics believe this is a mistake and will result in a number of seriousdemographic problems in the future.Chinese officials say the current fertility rate is between 1.7 and 1.8 births per woman, well below the 2.1births needed to keep the population at a stable level.The children in the urban areas will benefit from china’s one child policy, there are treated like “littleemperors” therefore there future is very promising.Future of Chinas One Child PolicyAt the moment it is very important for china to make predictions and concern about the future ofits population. Theories have been made and laws instigated to try and avoid the estimations.It is said in less than 30 years, Chinas population is predicted to peak at 1.5 billion, and thenstart to shrink. By then, 20 % of the population will be over age 65, compared with seven % atthe present.Wang Feng, an expert on Chinese population issues at the University of California – Irvinestates."The increase of labor force supply will stop by 2013 and will start instead to decline," he noted.
  14. 14. "So for the Chinese economy, although unemployment is a concern, continued supply of younglabor, skilled labor, is one of the engines of Chinas success in the global economy."It is believed by 2020, there will be around 40 million Chinese men incapable to marry, since toofew girls will have been born. Sociologists say that could activate aggressive behavior amidirritated bachelors, including trafficking and in women kidnapping.Several options for the future have been recommended. One option is that everyone could beallowed to have up to two children, with a gap of at least five years between them.1 It has beenpredicted that this alternative would yield a total fertility rate of 1.7 during the next two decades,which would help to normalize the sex ratio, reduce the 4:2:1 phenomenon, and be acceptable tothe majority of people.But the government feels that care is still essential. It is feared that any fickleness inimplementation of the policy may compromise the objective of keeping the population below 1.4billion by 2010, which in turn could pressure economic growth and stability. There are particularworries about the increasing level of migration from rural to urban areas, which has fueledsubstantial urban growth.Population Pyramids, China: 2000 and 2050In 2000 chinas population pyramid is in a convex shape however in these next 50 years it ispredicted that there will be more old people than young people, which means that the populationwill start declining. Chinas Anti-natalist One Child Population Policy
  15. 15. It is good to have only one childWhat do you already know about Chinas One Child Policy?
  16. 16. What you know already knowHow you do you see the OCP in your everyday lives here in China?e.g. propaganda posters on the free (It’s good to have one child”What questions do you have about the OCP?What is Chinas One Child Policy?
  17. 17. How does the policy work?How does it encourage families to have only one child? Where is China? • Sounds like a silly question - but its always worth asking! • Can you draw a sketch map to locate China, show its scale and label any locations mentioned in your case study?
  18. 18. When was the policy introduced? • Produce a timeline of the policies introduction and any changes made to it since. • What is the future of the One Child Policy? A BRIEF HISTORY OF Chinas One-Child Policy Shanghai encourages second child for eligible couples
  19. 19. China plans the end of hated one-child policy
  20. 20. Why was the One Child Policy introduced? • What geographical situation caused the Chinese government to introduce the One Child Policy. Has Chinas one-child policy worked? Chinas one-child policy - success or failure? A BRIEF HISTORY OF Chinas One-Child Policy
  21. 21. Give a detailed explanation of the reasons why the one child policy was introduced. Historical Factors include:Social E.g. things related to-education-health-services-well-being-quality of life-etc.EconomicE.g. things related to-finances-industry-consumption-resources-developmental sustainability-etc.Example: After the disastrous famines of the Great Leap Forward (30 million people died due to faminecaused by lack of food) the Chinese government realized that if they wanted their collectivized method ofindustrialization to work (i.e. move people away from the agricultural sector to the secondary sector) theywere going to have stem population growth otherwise they would continue to have a problem with foodproduction. The baby booms or high fertility rates before and after the TGF suggested that drasticmeasures had to be taken to reduce Fertility Rates and Population Growth rates. However, OCP (1979)was not the first attempt, In 1970, the government issued three reproductive norms: late marriage, longerspacing between births and fewer children. Men were encouraged to marry no earlier than 28 yrs old (25yrs in rural areas) and women no earlier than 25 yrs old (23 yrs in rural areas). After the first child,couples were encouraged to allow four years between any subsequent births. The fewer children normsuggested two children for urban families and three for rural ones. In 1979, the failure of the previousattempts became clear, and authorities limited households to only one child.”http://www.colby.edu/personal/t/thtieten/pop-chi.htmlI.E. If China wanted to develop its industry- they needed to stop the population growth because (as seen inthe GLF) if they didn’t, the country could not produce enough food.EnvironmentalE.g. things related to-Natural Resources-Environmental Sustainability-pollution-etc.
  22. 22. How Successful? • You must be able to evaluate the population policies that you study? • How successful has Chinas One Child Policy been? • Dont forget to look at the positive as well as the negative aspects.
  23. 23. Give a Detailed Account of the Positives by placing any relevant material in the followingcategories.Social E.g. things related to-education-health-services-well-being-quality of life-etc.EconomicE.g. things related to-finances-industry-consumption-resources-developmental sustainability-etc.EnvironmentalE.g. things related to-Natural Resources-Environmental Sustainability-pollution-etc.PoliticalE.g. things related to-government-foreign relations-domestic relations-regional power-national power-Etc.
  24. 24. Government attempts to control population growth areineffective.” Discuss this statement. [15 Marks]
  25. 25. *Its important you understand what the question is asking you for. Notice it is not sayingdiscuss the positives and negatives of the OCP- or evaluate the OCP, what this question isasking you to do is discuss whether or not a government can control population growth. Youshould use the OCP, discuss how effective it has been at slowing population growth inChina.To certain Extent the OCP has been effective/ineffectivePoint 1 + Explanation and evidencePoint 2 + Explanation and evidencePoint 3 + Explanation and evidenceTo a larger Extent they are effective/ineffectivePoint 1 + Explanation and evidencePoint 2 + Explanation and evidencePoint 3 + Explanation and evidence Points you could discuss Effective Could be Either Ineffective Slowed population growth (prevented 250 million births) Relieved pressure on food supply and allowed country to develop its industry OCP vs previous attempts to control population growth in China TFR= 1.8 in 2009 Population will begin to shrink in 15 yearsPopulation momentum and longer life expectancy have neutralized most demographic benefits of the OCP. Family planning clinics are now forbidden to tell sex of child (many get around it getting “black market” ultrasounds Causes problems
  26. 26. One Child Policy NotesOne problem created by OCP is too many boys in Rural AreasReasons  Carry Family Name  Support Family  Help work in the fieldsThis lead to abortion of girls- Hainan province has 135-100 girls, other places are as high as170-100OCP required rural families to wait 4 years before having children. This was cancelled inorder to improve sex rations  Lead to fewer abortions  Increase in # of girls being bornFamilies given economic incentives to have girls-  Old age pensions  Subsidies  Land to farm  Funds to build homeUNFP: Family planning clinics are now forbidden to tell sex of child (many get around itgetting “black market” ultrasounds  New apporoach = more balanced sex rations, fewer abortions, better maternal and child health.

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