1. Population Key Word GlossaryDefine: explain | Give a detailed account including reasons and causesTrends | Changes over timePatterns | the arrangements and changes in spatial elementsCrude birth rate | average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in thepopulation at midyear;Total # of births/Total Population *100019600/11890000=0.00164 * 1000= 16.4Natural increase | is the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population.CBR- CDR = Natural Increase16.5 – 10 = 6.5 natural increaseRate of Natural Increase (Also known as annual growth rate or annual growth percentage)CBR – CDR / 10 = RNI6.5Crude death rate | the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population atmidyear;infant mortality | the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female.Child mortality | the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age 5. Total fertility rate | figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman ifall women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a givenfertility rate at each age. Life expectancy | the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in thesame year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.Regions: an extensive, continuous part of a surface, space, or body: region of the earth.Spatial: Where things are located in the world
2. Births Describe the ... Give reasons / causes ..Trends The overall trends in global birth rates can beAs Time passes- the general global attributed to number of social, economic, and politicaltrend is that income per person reasons. Here are just a fewincreases and crude birth decreases. Social: Improvement in the status of women (more women going to college, getting jobs, having careers, delaying marriages, and having few children) Overall marriage ages are increasing as more and more people are putting off marriage till later in life. Lower IMRs due to improvements in nutrition, sanitation (less disease), and better standards of medical care. Economic- More and more country’s are developing rapidly (esp. in cities)- with more people working in the secondary and tertiary sectors of society = more $ $ and better standards of living Cost of living is increasing and children are becoming more and more expensive Etc.Patterns In territories with the fewest births per person, more people are dying than are being born.According to the map- there are a lot As with all population statistics, even this vitalof births in Asia and Africa. one, figures are rough estimates.Europe, North America, and South More children are born each year in Africa thanhave moderate number of births are born in the Americas, all of Europe and Japan put together. Worldwide, more than a third of aAustralia and Canada have very few million new people will be born on your birthdaybirths. this year. Source: http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?Page 7 IB Geography Study Guide selected=3I
3. Natural Increase Describe the ... Give reasons / causes...Trends The world’s population is growing very rapidly. MostThat in most regions population of this is quite recent. Global population betweenchange (rate of natural increase) 1650 and 1850, 1850 and 1920, 1920 and 1970. It isincreased between 1930 and 1960, and thus taking less time for population to double.again between 1960-1990 (whenpopulation growth % reached its peakin all regions). The Exceptions wereNorth America and Europe. Incontrast, the projected changes for1990-2020 show that populationgrowth rates will fall in all regions,notably South America and Australasia.Patterns Upton 95% of population growth is taking place in LEDCs. An increasing or accelerating rate of growth isEvery region of the world is known as exponential growth and can be attributed toexperiencing overall natural increases more people having children (quite the opposite ofin population size; just a few countries people having more children)have natural decreases in populationsize. Highest growth rates are found in Africa, while lowest growth rates are in North America and Europe. Fertility Describe the ... Give reasons / causes ..Trends See page 8 and 9 of study guide for more information.Fertility trends have two distinctfeatures.Fertility in MEDCs countries orCountries that are reachingdevelopment ( stage 3) are seeing amarked decline in the # of women perwoman OR remaining lowIn contrast- in developing regions
4. fertility rates remain highPatterns Changes in fertility are a combination of both sociocultural and economic factors. WhileIn general the highest fertility rates are there may be strong correlations betweenfound among the poorest countries these sets of factors and changes in fertility- itand very few LEDCs have made the is impossible to prove the linkages or to provetransition from high birth rates to low that one set of factors is more important thanbirth rates. Most MEDCs, by contrast, the other.have brought the birth rate down. InMEDCs, fertility rates have fallen as See page 8 and 9 of study guide for morewell- the decline in population growth information.is not therefore due to changingpopulation structure. Mortality And Life Expectancy Describe the ... Give reasons / causes ..Trends CDR has fallen in most countries in the last few decades due to improvements in food supply, water,As time passes the general global trend sanitation, and housing. Unfortunately this trend isis that when income increases, Crude being reversed in some areas due to AIDSDeath rate decreases-T he trend over the past few decades isthat life expectancies in most countriesare increasing, however there is arecent fluctuation due to the AIDs virusin many African CountriesPatterns Low CDR High Life Expectancy • Technological improvements (such asAt the global Scale, the pattern of better medicines)mortality in MEDCs differs from that in • Better nutritionLEDCs. In MEDCs, the death rate is low • Better healthcareand has fallen steadily over time and • Better environmental conditionslife expectancies have risen. People in MEDCs are more frequently victims ofIn LEDCs high death rates and low life degenerative diseases….expectancies are still common- • A degenerative disease, also calledalthough they have shown neurodegenerative disease, is a disease in
5. improvement over the past few which the function or structure of the affecteddecades (trend) tissues or organs will progressively deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. Degenerative diseases can also be inherited by children from their parents- “Heart Disease runs in my family” • Examples: Cancer, strokes, heart disease, obesity, parkinsonism disease, Lu Gerhig Disease, Alsimurs, diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis High CDR Low Life Expectancy • Poor healthcare • Disease • Famine (lack of food) • Poor access to safe drinking water • Poor sanitation • And poor shelter/housing conditions People in LEDCS are more frequently victims of water-borne or Vector-borne diseases… • Diseases that are transmitted through Water.. • Examples: Cholera, gastroenteritis • A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent, sometimes with other animals serving as intermediary hosts. (Mosquitoes spread Malaria) • Examples: Malaria, River Blindness, AIDs, dysentery, salmonella, swine flu, SARS, small pox, ecoli, bubonic plague, diphtheria,http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/index.htmlPick a country and use the “statistics” hyperlink.