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  • 1. Morning Stars PRESENTS When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? Job 38:7 We Plan to sing together in the earth made new.
  • 2. Writing types By Eric Gabourel Beverley Anderson Rajenai Cima Enoch Isaac Presented to: Dr. Jules Pagna Disso Interamerica Education Centre (IEC)
  • 3. A research paper is the results of someone ’ s investigations on a selected topic. How this information is gathered, interpreted, developed and documented is up to the writer, as is the organization of ideas and the resulting conclusion. However if this is compared to the Bible we find that scripture was inspired by God and there is no private interpretation. 2 Peter 1:31 INTRODUCTION
  • 4. Empirical Study
    • An academic research based on experience or observation, which can be verified or disproved by observation or experiment.
    • (Merriam-Webster.com )
  • 5.
    • Empirical articles will include charts, graphs, or statistical analysis.
    • Articles are usually substantial, and are likely to be
    • from 8-40 pages long.
    • There is always a bibliography found at the end of the article.
    • Are published in scholarly or academic journals.
    • These journals are also called “peer-reviewed,” or “refereed” publications.
    • ( Bruns, 2010)
    Characteristics of an Empirical Article
  • 6.
    • According to Cornell university
    • library , an annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation.
    ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 7. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.
  • 8. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources cited in one’s work. (Bisignani, & Brizee,2011)
  • 9. The Importance of Books and Peer Reviewed Articles in Graduate Studies.
    • It is indeed a widely accepted fact within academic circles that books and peer reviewed articles are more scholarly in nature. This is largely due to the fact that such materials are meticulously scrutinized by the writer’s peers. Peer review therefore, often improves the quality of the research presented in a paper. (Cain,1999)
  • 10.
    • Additionally, (Larson) indicates that peer-reviewed articles and books have been evaluated and critiqued by researchers and experts in the same field before the material is published. This process ensures that an article, and the scholarship of the discipline as a whole-maintains a high standard of quality,
    • accuracy, and academic integrity. (Larson).
    The Importance of Books and Peer Reviewed Articles in Graduate Studies
  • 11. Types of Articles/Journals
    • Short reports
    • Editorials
    • Systematic reviews
    • Books & technology reviews
    • Research articles
    Peer-Reviewed Journals/Article
    • According to the University Of Texas , peer review
    • Is a process that journals use to ensure the articles they publish represent the best scholarship currently available.
    • Primarily appears in academic, scientific or other scholarly publications and are judged by an impartial panel of 2 or more experts in the field (Law & MacDermid, 2008).
    • Also known as Refereed Articles
    • Referees ensures that article is accurate and provides new information in a specified field
  • 12.
    • Definition:
    • Is written by a professor or researcher in an academic discipline
    • Reports on research or provides a scholarly analysis of a topic
    • Is published in a refereed journal-a journal which uses a panel of academic referees to select articles for publication
    • Documents its sources in footnotes or a bibliography (©University of Washington Information Literacy Learning 2001).
    Academic Journal Then the LORD said to Moses, “ Write this on a scroll as something to be remembered” Exodus 17:14
  • 13.
    • Murray (2009) gives reasons why an academic journal is published:
    • Career progression
    • Gaining recognition for work you have done
    • Stopping someone else taking credit for your work or using your materials
    • Personal satisfaction of completing a goal
    • Setting yourself a new challenge
    • Learning how to write to a higher standard
    • Contributing to knowledge
    • Developing a profile
    Academic Journal
  • 14.
    • Smith (1998) states that a White paper is an article that:
    • States an organization’s position or philosophy about a social, political, or a not-too-detailed technical explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology.
    • Explains the results, or conclusions resulting from some organized committee or research collaboration or design and development.
    White Paper
  • 15.
    • White paper is an offshoot of the term White Book , a publication of a national government (Stelzer, 2007).
    • Most White Papers range from 6 to 12 pages
    • Are compromised of mostly text and usually very few graphics.
    • Diagrams, charts & illustrations can be included
    • A famous historic White Paper is the British White Paper of 1922.
    White Paper
  • 16. What is a News Paper A newspaper is a publication that is issued daily or weekly and includes local and international news. It may include:
    • News stories
    • Advertisements
    • Announcements
    • Opinions
    • Cartoons
    • Sports news
    • Television listings
  • 17. Four basic functions of a Newspaper
    • To inform
    • To interpret the news
    • To provide a service to readers
    • To entertain
    Main Parts of a Newspaper
    • What? - what is the story about?
    • Where? - where does the story take place?
    • When? - when does the story take place?
    • Why? - why is this happening?
    • How ? – how this story happened?
  • 18. What is a literature review ?
    • It may be presented as a paper on its own
    • Integral part of an article
    • Research proposal
    • Research report
    • Dissertation.
    What is ‘the literature’?
    • Primary source:
    • Secondary source:
    • Tertiary source:
    “… Guard my teachings as the apple of your eye. Bind them on your fingers;  write them on the tablet of your heart.” Proverbs 7: 2,3
  • 19. The Purpose of a Literature Review
    • Describes
    • Compares
    • Contrasts and
    • Evaluates the major theories
    • Arguments
    • Themes
    • Methodologies
    The literature review structure What is a Book Review ?
    • An analysis that covers the themes or ideas
    • In the text in a much more in-depth and critical manner.
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  • 20. Parts of the Review
    • Characters
    • Plot
    • Climax
    • Biography of the author.
    Parts to be Discussed
    • The story's relevance to its historical setting.
    • The strengths or limitations of the book
    • Whether the book will have lasting value or not.
  • 21. References
    • Bennett, T. (2007) Edith Cowan University Literature Review Academic Tip Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.ecu.edu.au/CLT/tips/docs/literature_review.pdf
    • Bisignani, D. Brizee, A. (2011)Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/
    • Boerger, L. (n.d) Discovering the Dispatch Basic Functions of a News Paper. Retrieved from: http://www.dispatchnie.com/content/digital/pdf/Discovering_Dispatch_5.pdf
    • Book Report or Book Review (2011) Explanation The Difference. Book Reports & Book Reviews. Retrieved from http://custompapers.com/book-report-review/
    • Bruns, C. (2010, Jan 25). Empirical Research: How to Recognize and Locate. Retrieved September 8, 2011, from Cal State Fullerton Pollark Library: http://users.library.fullerton.edu/cbruns/empirical_research.htm
    • Cain, J. (1999) Science and Engineering Ethics . Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr/rcr_authorship/foundation/index.html
    • Chapman, J. K. (2005) Newspapers Fifth Grade Research Report. Retrieved from: http://www.chapmankids.net/reports/newspapers.pdf
    • Cornell university library. What is an annotated bibliography? Retrieved from: http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill28.htm
  • 22.
    • Larson, E. What Other Options Might There Be? Retrieved September 9,2011 from http://library.uvic.ca/instruction/research/peerreview.html
    • Law, M.C. and MacDermid, J. (2008). Evidence-based rehabilitation: A guide to practice . New Jersey, USA: SLACK Incorporated
    • Murray, R. (2009). Writing for academic journals . Berkshire, England: Open University Press
    • Smith, T.D. (October 1998). Retrieved from: http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/white-paper .
    • Stelzner, M.A. (2007). Writing white papers: How to capture readers and keep them engaged . USA: WhitePaperSource Publishing
    • University of Texas at Austin. (March 2010). Retrieved from: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/lsl/help/modules/peer.html
    • University of Washington Information Literacy Learning, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.lib.washington.edu/uwill/courses/geog100/sources4.htm
    •   What Is a Newspaper? (2008) Retrieved from: http://www.abcteach.com/free/r/readinganewspaper.pdf
    References
  • 23. Team Member Roles and Responsibilities 1.Beverley Anderson Implementer and Complete Finisher: Title, introduction, Define Empirical study. PowerPoint design and layout. 2.Rajenai Cima Shaper: Define peer-review journal/article, academic Journal, and White paper. 3.Eric Gabourel Team worker: Define News paper, Literature review and book review. 4.Enoch Isaac Coordinator: Define annotated Bibliography and why discuss why books peer reviewed articles are the two most preferred written sources in graduate writing.

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