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Mold Has Been Around For AgesIndoor Issues Are More Recent Mold Awareness: 1993 New York Guidelines 1994 Saratoga Springs 1994 Baarn Workshop 1995 Health Canada Guide 1996 Society of IAQ 1999 ACGIH Bioaerosols Committee 2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings 2003 IICRC S520 Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited: Initial cases were: landlord-tenant faulty construction Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability
Mold Awareness: 1993 New York Guidelines 1994 Saratoga Springs 1994 Baarn Workshop 1995 Health Canada Guide 1996 Society of IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) 1999 ACGIH (American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)Bio-aerosols Committee 2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings 2003 IICRC S520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation
Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited: Initial cases were: landlord-tenant faulty construction Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability
Insurance Companies Coverage, exclusions and prevention Employee, customer and vendor safety Challenge of limited government guidance Vendor mitigation vs. remediation Coverage for restoration companies Underwriting: Who is covered? What is covered?
INVISIBLE ENEMY Growing Mold Colonies Eventually Become Visible, But... Cannot See Mold Spores Disturbance of Mold Causes Spore Mass to Rupture and Release Spores into Air Stream Cannot Visually Determine if Materials are Contaminated with Settled Spores
REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLD GROWTH Food Source Appropriate Temperature Range Moisture Time
Molds Feed On Organic Materials Wood Paper Drywall Insulation Natural fibers
MOISTURE IS MOST EASILY CONTROLLED FACTOR Fast Response to Water Damages is Critical to Preventing Mold Growth All Water Damaged Structures Have Potential for Mold Contamination
Better to Mitigate than to Remediate
Moisture is the most easily controlled factor Fast response to water damage is critical to preventing mold growth All water damaged structures have potential for mold contamination Better to mitigate than to remediate
Goals In Mold Remediation Safety is First Priority Contain Mold During Remediation Remove Mold Contamination Dry the Structure and Contents
Molds Cause Minor Illnesses… Allergies Headaches Sore throats Cold and flu-like symptoms Fatigue and malaise
Molds Can Cause More Serious Illness As Well… Upset stomach Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Athlete’s foot Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) Internal bleeding Asthma Pneumonia Ringworm Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Edema Bronchiospasms Pulmonary emphysema
Priority 1!!! Safety of Employees and Occupants EPA: Warn people about the risks … If you’re aware, BEWARE! No fear mongering Physicians know at-risk! Vendors only pre-qualify. Workers’ training and use of personal protective equipment
Mold Safety And OSHA General Duty Clause The employer must provide a workplace free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. OSHA standards Personal Protective Equipment 1910.132 Respiratory Protection 1910.134 Confined Space Entry 1910.146 Lockout/Tag out 1910.147 Electrical 1910.303
Mold Safety And OSHA Ensure safety of others visiting the job site Customers and subcontractors Post warning signs “Do Not Enter…” Site safety plan Site specific
Mold Remediation Safety Equipment Small Contamination Sites N95 or Greater Filter Type Respirator Gloves and Eye Protection Large Contaminations Half-Mask Respirator With HEPA Filters Eye Protection and Gloves Extensive Contaminations Full-Face Respirator or PAPR Full Body Protection
Assessing the Environment Do You See Areas of Mold Contamination? Do You Smell Musty Odor of Mold? Does Customer Know if Mold is Present? When Did the Water Damage Occur? Has There Been a Previous Water Damage? Evidence of Mold in HVAC?
New York City Department of Health Guidelines Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments (updated Nov. 2008) www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/epi/moldrpt1.html The only extensive guidelines available until US EPA were published on 4/2/01. Not perfect, but a good start!
NYC DOH Offers 5 Levels Of Removal Procedures Small Isolated Areas - ceiling tiles, small areas on walls. Medium-Sized Isolated Areas (10-100 s.f.) Large Areas (>100 s.f.) Small Isolated area in the HVAC system (<=10 s.f.) Large Area in the HVAC system (>10 s.f.)
NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less) Regular building maintenance staff with training. Workers wear respiratory protection (e.g., N95 disposable respirator), gloves and eye protection. Vacate people from the work area. Reduce dust generation—misting, HEPA vacuum, vacuum shrouded tools.
NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less) Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in sealed plastic bags. Clean the work area and areas used by remedial workers for egress with a damp cloth and/or mop and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum. Leave all areas dry and visibly free from contamination and debris.
NYC Medium Sized Procedures (10 – 100 square feet)
All small area items plus:
Enclose the work area and egress pathways with a plastic sheet(s) and seal with tape before remediation to contain dust/debris. Seal ventilation ducts/grills and other openings in the work area.
Trained mold remediation workers. The presence of a health and safety professional may be helpful. Consider using HEPA filtered negative air machines. HEPA vacuum and clean work and egress areas.
NYC Small Area HVAC Procedures (< 10 square feet) Trained building staff familiar with the HVAC system Respiratory protection—N-95 minimum Shut down the HVAC system Dust suppression Clean nonporous surfaces, dispose of porous materials. HEPA vacuum work/egress areas and damp clean. Leave all surfaces dry and visibly free of mold.
Large Area Procedures (>100 contiguous square feet)) Clean the outside of the bags with a damp cloth and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum in the decontamination chamber prior to transporting them to or through uncontaminated areas. HEPA vacuum the contained area and decontamination room and clean with a damp cloth and/or mop with a detergent solution. Conduct air monitoring prior to occupancy to determine if the area is fit to reoccupy.
Trained mold remediation workers with experience in HVAC mold remediation. Minimum of half-face P-100 respirators Full body coveralls including head and feet Use of negative air pressure Consider using airlocks and a clean changing room Communicate with building occupants
Level IV Procedures (more than 100 contiguous square feet) Use an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization. Use airlocks and decontamination room. Vacate at-risk people from spaces adjacent to the work area. Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in a sealed plastic bag.
April 2001 – EPA issued recommendations rather than regulations… “EPA does not regulate mold or mold spores in indoor air.” Reinforces on-site technician training “Adapt guidelines to meet the circumstances of each particular job site.” EPA input and guidance very positive for process and protocol decision making efforts.
3 Levels of Contamination EPA emphasizes “…adapt as needed” and “…professional judgment and experience” Small ( < 10 SF) NYC Small Medium (10 – 100 SF) NYC Medium Large ( > 100 SF) NYC Large EPA says, “The remediation manager must determine the appropriate procedures for a particular job, using the EPA Guidelines only as recommendations.”
EPA Guidelines contribute to areas not covered by NYC Guidelines:
Refers to locations of possible “Hidden Mold” Defines PPE into Minimum, Limited and Full. EPA recommends powered air purifying respirators for full protection. Cautions against unplanned sampling, and only trained personnel should perform sampling or else results could be misleading.
Limited: Gloves, N-95 respirator or ½ face with HEPA filter, disposable overalls, eye protection Full: Gloves, overalls, head gear, foot coverings, full face respirator with HEPA (P-100) filter
EPA Guidelines - Containment more aggressive than NYC Guidelines: Levels of Containment: Limited and Full Limited - single layer polyethylene, negative air Applies to Medium (10-100 SF) Full - double layer polyethylene, negative air Applies to Large (> 100 SF) Double bagging vs. single bagging moldy debris
IICRC Water Damage Standard (IICRC S500, pg. 31) Remove porous material exhibiting extensive microbial growth Physically remove surface microbial growth on nonporous materials (including wood) to typical background levels Remove settled spores Reduce moisture to levels that do not support microbial growth.
IICRC S520Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation
The S520Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification
Takes a philosophical shift away from setting numerical contamination action levels.
IICRC Water Damage Standard IICRC mentions levels of contamination: Microbial growth on the surface of painted walls or nonporous surfaces Microbial growth confined to a larger area of the structure (up to 32 SF) Extensive mold remediation projects (32 SF or more)
Responses To The Mold Issue We Are Not Mold Experts. We compile experts’ knowledge and apply it. We should never give a customer mold remediation advice. We should not define and perform our own protocol for mold remediation. When required, an IAQ/IH professional should test, provide written protocol and clearance test and/or inspection.
STAY TUNED! The Mold Issue is Still Evolving Guidelines and Protocols May Change Coverage Issues and Limitations are Being Addressed by Insurance Companies and State Legislation The Medical Community is Still Researching the Health Affects of Mold