Understanding Mold in the Restoration Industry


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Understanding Mold in the Restoration Industry

  1. 1. Presented by: <br />Servpro of Tustin<br />Instructor: Bill Bisaha<br />Course Number: 144799<br />Credits: 4 D.O.I.<br />
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  3. 3. History of Mold in Property Restoration<br />Participants in the Mold Issue<br />The Biology of Mold<br />Safety During Mold Remediation<br />Assessing the Environment<br />The Mold Remediation Process<br />OVERVIEW<br />
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  6. 6. Mold Has Been Around For AgesIndoor Issues Are More Recent <br />Mold Awareness:<br />1993 New York Guidelines<br />1994 Saratoga Springs<br />1994 Baarn Workshop<br />1995 Health Canada Guide<br />1996 Society of IAQ<br />1999 ACGIH Bioaerosols Committee<br />2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings<br />2003 IICRC S520<br />Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited:<br />Initial cases were:<br /> landlord-tenant<br /> faulty construction<br />Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court<br />Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability<br />
  7. 7. Mold Awareness:<br />1993 New York Guidelines<br />1994 Saratoga Springs<br />1994 Baarn Workshop<br />1995 Health Canada Guide<br />1996 Society of IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)<br />1999 ACGIH (American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)Bio-aerosols Committee<br />2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings<br />2003 IICRC S520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation<br />
  8. 8. Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited:<br />Initial cases were:<br /> landlord-tenant<br /> faulty construction<br />Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court<br />Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability<br />
  9. 9. Insurance Companies<br />Coverage, exclusions and prevention<br />Employee, customer and vendor safety<br />Challenge of limited government guidance<br />Vendor mitigation vs. remediation<br />Coverage for restoration companies<br />Underwriting: Who is covered?<br /> What is covered?<br />
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  14. 14. Participants In The Mold Issue<br />
  15. 15. Participants In The Mold Issue<br />
  16. 16. Participants In The Mold Issue<br />
  17. 17. BIOLOGY OF MOLD<br />Mold is a Fungus<br />Thousands of Species of Mold<br />Classified as a Saprophyte<br />Most Derive Nutrients From Decomposing Organic Matter<br />Grows from Spores<br />Spores are Microscopic<br />
  18. 18. Molds Grow By Sending Out Branches<br />Spore Mass<br />Hyphae(high fee)<br />Root-like hyphae<br />Surface hyphae<br />Spore producing structure<br />Spore Producing Structure<br />
  19. 19. Molds Begin Life As A Tiny Spore<br />Spore mass contains thousands of spores<br />Airflow carries the spores for long periods <br />
  20. 20. SPORE MASS<br />
  21. 21. INVISIBLE ENEMY<br />Growing Mold Colonies Eventually Become Visible, But... <br />Cannot See Mold Spores<br />Disturbance of Mold Causes Spore Mass to Rupture and Release Spores into Air Stream<br />Cannot Visually Determine if Materials are Contaminated with Settled Spores<br />
  22. 22. REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLD GROWTH<br />Food Source<br />Appropriate Temperature Range<br />Moisture<br />Time<br />
  23. 23. Molds Feed On Organic Materials<br />Wood<br />Paper<br />Drywall<br />Insulation<br />Natural fibers<br /><ul><li>Plants, potting soil
  24. 24. Paints
  25. 25. Starch in wall paper paste
  26. 26. Caulk</li></li></ul><li>MOISTURE IS MOST EASILY CONTROLLED FACTOR<br />Fast Response to Water Damages is Critical to Preventing Mold Growth<br />All Water Damaged Structures Have Potential for Mold Contamination<br /><ul><li>Better to Mitigate than to Remediate</li></li></ul><li>Moisture is the most easily controlled factor<br />Fast response to water damage is critical to preventing mold growth<br />All water damaged structures have potential for mold contamination<br />Better to mitigate than to remediate<br />
  27. 27. Goals In Mold Remediation<br />Safety is First Priority<br />Contain Mold During Remediation<br />Remove Mold Contamination<br />Dry the Structure and Contents<br />
  28. 28. Molds Cause Minor Illnesses…<br />Allergies<br />Headaches<br />Sore throats<br />Cold and flu-like symptoms<br />Fatigue and malaise<br />
  29. 29. Molds Can Cause More Serious Illness As Well…<br />Upset stomach<br />Nausea<br />Vomiting<br />Diarrhea<br />Athlete’s foot<br />Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)<br />Internal bleeding<br />Asthma<br />Pneumonia<br />Ringworm<br />Hypersensitivity pneumonitis<br />Edema<br />Bronchiospasms<br />Pulmonary emphysema<br />
  30. 30. Show-Time!<br />
  31. 31. Priority 1!!! Safety of Employees and Occupants<br />EPA: Warn people about the risks …<br />If you’re aware, BEWARE!<br />No fear mongering<br />Physicians know at-risk! Vendors only pre-qualify.<br />Workers’ training and use of personal protective equipment<br />
  32. 32. Mold Safety And OSHA<br />General Duty Clause<br />The employer must provide a workplace free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.<br />OSHA standards<br />Personal Protective Equipment 1910.132<br />Respiratory Protection 1910.134<br />Confined Space Entry 1910.146<br />Lockout/Tag out 1910.147<br />Electrical 1910.303<br />
  33. 33. Mold Safety And OSHA<br />Ensure safety of others visiting the job site<br />Customers and subcontractors<br />Post warning signs<br />“Do Not Enter…”<br />Site safety plan<br />Site specific<br />
  34. 34. Mold Remediation Safety Equipment <br />Small Contamination Sites<br />N95 or Greater Filter Type Respirator<br />Gloves and Eye Protection<br />Large Contaminations<br />Half-Mask Respirator With HEPA Filters<br />Eye Protection and Gloves<br />Extensive Contaminations<br />Full-Face Respirator or PAPR <br />Full Body Protection<br />
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  36. 36. Assessing the Environment<br />Do You See Areas of Mold Contamination?<br />Do You Smell Musty Odor of Mold?<br />Does Customer Know if Mold is Present? <br />When Did the Water Damage Occur?<br />Has There Been a Previous Water Damage?<br />Evidence of Mold in HVAC?<br />
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  41. 41. New York City Department of Health Guidelines<br />Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments (updated Nov. 2008)<br />www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/epi/moldrpt1.html<br />The only extensive guidelines available until US EPA were published on 4/2/01.<br />Not perfect, but a good start!<br />
  42. 42. NYC DOH Offers 5 Levels Of Removal Procedures<br />Small Isolated Areas - ceiling tiles, small areas on walls.<br />Medium-Sized Isolated Areas (10-100 s.f.)<br />Large Areas (>100 s.f.)<br />Small Isolated area in the HVAC system (<=10 s.f.)<br />Large Area in the HVAC system (>10 s.f.) <br />
  43. 43. NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less)<br />Regular building maintenance staff with training. <br />Workers wear respiratory protection (e.g., N95 disposable respirator), gloves and eye protection.<br />Vacate people from the work area.<br />Reduce dust generation—misting, HEPA vacuum, vacuum shrouded tools.<br />
  44. 44. NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less)<br />Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in sealed plastic bags.<br />Clean the work area and areas used by remedial workers for egress with a damp cloth and/or mop and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum.<br />Leave all areas dry and visibly free from contamination and debris.<br />
  45. 45. NYC Medium Sized Procedures (10 – 100 square feet)<br /><ul><li>All small area items plus:</li></ul>Enclose the work area and egress pathways with a plastic sheet(s) and seal with tape before remediation to contain dust/debris.<br />Seal ventilation ducts/grills and other openings in the work area.<br />
  46. 46. NYC Large Area Procedures (>100 square feet)<br /><ul><li>All small and medium items plus the following:</li></ul>Trained mold remediation workers.<br />The presence of a health and safety professional may be helpful.<br />Consider using HEPA filtered negative air machines.<br />HEPA vacuum and clean work and egress areas.<br />
  47. 47. NYC Small Area HVAC Procedures (< 10 square feet)<br />Trained building staff familiar with the HVAC system<br />Respiratory protection—N-95 minimum<br />Shut down the HVAC system<br />Dust suppression <br />Clean nonporous surfaces, dispose of porous materials.<br />HEPA vacuum work/egress areas and damp clean.<br />Leave all surfaces dry and visibly free of mold.<br />
  48. 48. Large Area Procedures (>100 contiguous square feet))<br />Clean the outside of the bags with a damp cloth and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum in the decontamination chamber prior to transporting them to or through uncontaminated areas. <br />HEPA vacuum the contained area and decontamination room and clean with a damp cloth and/or mop with a detergent solution. <br />Conduct air monitoring prior to occupancy to determine if the area is fit to reoccupy.<br />
  49. 49. Large Area HVAC(>10 square feet)<br /><ul><li>All small area items plus:</li></ul>Trained mold remediation workers with experience in HVAC mold remediation.<br />Minimum of half-face P-100 respirators<br />Full body coveralls including head and feet<br />Use of negative air pressure<br />Consider using airlocks and a clean changing room<br />Communicate with building occupants<br />
  50. 50. Level IV Procedures (more than 100 contiguous square feet)<br />Use an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization.<br />Use airlocks and decontamination room.<br />Vacate at-risk people from spaces adjacent to the work area.<br />Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in a sealed plastic bag.<br />
  51. 51. April 2001 – EPA issued recommendations rather than regulations… “EPA does not regulate mold or mold spores in indoor air.”<br />Reinforces on-site technician training “Adapt guidelines to meet the circumstances of each particular job site.” <br />EPA input and guidance very positive for process and protocol decision making efforts.<br />
  52. 52. 3 Levels of Contamination <br />EPA emphasizes “…adapt as needed” and “…professional judgment and experience”<br />Small ( < 10 SF) NYC Small<br />Medium (10 – 100 SF) NYC Medium<br />Large ( > 100 SF) NYC Large<br />EPA says, “The remediation manager must determine the appropriate procedures for a particular job, using the EPA Guidelines only as recommendations.”<br />
  53. 53. <ul><li>EPA Guidelines contribute to areas not covered by NYC Guidelines:</li></ul>Refers to locations of possible “Hidden Mold”<br />Defines PPE into Minimum, Limited and Full. EPA recommends powered air purifying respirators for full protection.<br />Cautions against unplanned sampling, and only trained personnel should perform sampling or else results could be misleading.<br />
  54. 54. <ul><li>P.P.E.
  55. 55. Minimum:
  56. 56. Gloves, N-95 respirator, eye protection</li></ul>Limited:<br />Gloves, N-95 respirator or ½ face with HEPA filter, disposable overalls, eye protection<br />Full:<br />Gloves, overalls, head gear, foot coverings, full face respirator with HEPA (P-100) filter<br />
  57. 57. EPA Guidelines - Containment more aggressive than NYC Guidelines:<br />Levels of Containment: Limited and Full<br />Limited - single layer polyethylene, negative air <br />Applies to Medium (10-100 SF) <br />Full - double layer polyethylene, negative air<br />Applies to Large (> 100 SF)<br />Double bagging vs. single bagging moldy debris<br />
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  62. 62. IICRC Water Damage Standard<br />(IICRC S500, pg. 31)<br />Remove porous material exhibiting extensive microbial growth<br />Physically remove surface microbial growth on nonporous materials (including wood) to typical background levels<br />Remove settled spores<br />Reduce moisture to levels that do not support microbial growth.<br />
  63. 63. IICRC S520Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation<br /><ul><li>The S520Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification
  64. 64. Takes a philosophical shift away from setting numerical contamination action levels.
  65. 65. Establishes mold contamination definitions, descriptions and conditions-- Levels 1, 2 & 3
  66. 66. IEP not necessary on all jobs.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Condition 1
  67. 67. Normal fungal ecology
  68. 68. Condition 2
  69. 69. Settled spores from a condition 3 area.
  70. 70. May have traces of mold growth.
  71. 71. Condition 3
  72. 72. Actual growth</li></li></ul><li>IICRC Water Damage Standard<br />IICRC mentions levels of contamination:<br />Microbial growth on the surface of painted walls or nonporous surfaces<br />Microbial growth confined to a larger area of the structure (up to 32 SF)<br />Extensive mold remediation projects (32 SF or more)<br />
  73. 73. Responses To The Mold Issue <br />We Are Not Mold Experts.<br />We compile experts’ knowledge and apply it.<br />We should never give a customer mold remediation advice. <br />We should not define and perform our own protocol for mold remediation.<br />When required, an IAQ/IH professional should test, provide written protocol and clearance test and/or inspection. <br />
  74. 74. STAY TUNED! <br />The Mold Issue is Still Evolving<br />Guidelines and Protocols May Change<br />Coverage Issues and Limitations are Being Addressed by Insurance Companies and State Legislation<br />The Medical Community is Still Researching the Health Affects of Mold <br />