Understanding Mold in the Restoration Industry

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  • 1. Presented by:
    Servpro of Tustin
    Instructor: Bill Bisaha
    Course Number: 144799
    Credits: 4 D.O.I.
  • 2.
  • 3. History of Mold in Property Restoration
    Participants in the Mold Issue
    The Biology of Mold
    Safety During Mold Remediation
    Assessing the Environment
    The Mold Remediation Process
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Mold Has Been Around For AgesIndoor Issues Are More Recent
    Mold Awareness:
    1993 New York Guidelines
    1994 Saratoga Springs
    1994 Baarn Workshop
    1995 Health Canada Guide
    1996 Society of IAQ
    1999 ACGIH Bioaerosols Committee
    2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings
    2003 IICRC S520
    Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited:
    Initial cases were:
    faulty construction
    Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court
    Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability
  • 7. Mold Awareness:
    1993 New York Guidelines
    1994 Saratoga Springs
    1994 Baarn Workshop
    1995 Health Canada Guide
    1996 Society of IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)
    1999 ACGIH (American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)Bio-aerosols Committee
    2001 EPA Guidelines For Schools and Commercial Buildings
    2003 IICRC S520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation
  • 8. Litigation Prior To 1993 was limited:
    Initial cases were:
    faulty construction
    Lawsuits are exploding in State and Federal Court
    Court decisions are defining the future of mold and mold liability
  • 9. Insurance Companies
    Coverage, exclusions and prevention
    Employee, customer and vendor safety
    Challenge of limited government guidance
    Vendor mitigation vs. remediation
    Coverage for restoration companies
    Underwriting: Who is covered?
    What is covered?
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Participants In The Mold Issue
  • 15. Participants In The Mold Issue
  • 16. Participants In The Mold Issue
    Mold is a Fungus
    Thousands of Species of Mold
    Classified as a Saprophyte
    Most Derive Nutrients From Decomposing Organic Matter
    Grows from Spores
    Spores are Microscopic
  • 18. Molds Grow By Sending Out Branches
    Spore Mass
    Hyphae(high fee)
    Root-like hyphae
    Surface hyphae
    Spore producing structure
    Spore Producing Structure
  • 19. Molds Begin Life As A Tiny Spore
    Spore mass contains thousands of spores
    Airflow carries the spores for long periods
  • 20. SPORE MASS
    Growing Mold Colonies Eventually Become Visible, But...
    Cannot See Mold Spores
    Disturbance of Mold Causes Spore Mass to Rupture and Release Spores into Air Stream
    Cannot Visually Determine if Materials are Contaminated with Settled Spores
    Food Source
    Appropriate Temperature Range
  • 23. Molds Feed On Organic Materials
    Natural fibers
    Fast Response to Water Damages is Critical to Preventing Mold Growth
    All Water Damaged Structures Have Potential for Mold Contamination
    • Better to Mitigate than to Remediate
  • Moisture is the most easily controlled factor
    Fast response to water damage is critical to preventing mold growth
    All water damaged structures have potential for mold contamination
    Better to mitigate than to remediate
  • 27. Goals In Mold Remediation
    Safety is First Priority
    Contain Mold During Remediation
    Remove Mold Contamination
    Dry the Structure and Contents
  • 28. Molds Cause Minor Illnesses…
    Sore throats
    Cold and flu-like symptoms
    Fatigue and malaise
  • 29. Molds Can Cause More Serious Illness As Well…
    Upset stomach
    Athlete’s foot
    Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)
    Internal bleeding
    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    Pulmonary emphysema
  • 30. Show-Time!
  • 31. Priority 1!!! Safety of Employees and Occupants
    EPA: Warn people about the risks …
    If you’re aware, BEWARE!
    No fear mongering
    Physicians know at-risk! Vendors only pre-qualify.
    Workers’ training and use of personal protective equipment
  • 32. Mold Safety And OSHA
    General Duty Clause
    The employer must provide a workplace free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
    OSHA standards
    Personal Protective Equipment 1910.132
    Respiratory Protection 1910.134
    Confined Space Entry 1910.146
    Lockout/Tag out 1910.147
    Electrical 1910.303
  • 33. Mold Safety And OSHA
    Ensure safety of others visiting the job site
    Customers and subcontractors
    Post warning signs
    “Do Not Enter…”
    Site safety plan
    Site specific
  • 34. Mold Remediation Safety Equipment
    Small Contamination Sites
    N95 or Greater Filter Type Respirator
    Gloves and Eye Protection
    Large Contaminations
    Half-Mask Respirator With HEPA Filters
    Eye Protection and Gloves
    Extensive Contaminations
    Full-Face Respirator or PAPR
    Full Body Protection
  • 35.
  • 36. Assessing the Environment
    Do You See Areas of Mold Contamination?
    Do You Smell Musty Odor of Mold?
    Does Customer Know if Mold is Present?
    When Did the Water Damage Occur?
    Has There Been a Previous Water Damage?
    Evidence of Mold in HVAC?
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. New York City Department of Health Guidelines
    Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments (updated Nov. 2008)
    The only extensive guidelines available until US EPA were published on 4/2/01.
    Not perfect, but a good start!
  • 42. NYC DOH Offers 5 Levels Of Removal Procedures
    Small Isolated Areas - ceiling tiles, small areas on walls.
    Medium-Sized Isolated Areas (10-100 s.f.)
    Large Areas (>100 s.f.)
    Small Isolated area in the HVAC system (<=10 s.f.)
    Large Area in the HVAC system (>10 s.f.)
  • 43. NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less)
    Regular building maintenance staff with training.
    Workers wear respiratory protection (e.g., N95 disposable respirator), gloves and eye protection.
    Vacate people from the work area.
    Reduce dust generation—misting, HEPA vacuum, vacuum shrouded tools.
  • 44. NYC Small Area Procedures (10 square feet or less)
    Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in sealed plastic bags.
    Clean the work area and areas used by remedial workers for egress with a damp cloth and/or mop and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum.
    Leave all areas dry and visibly free from contamination and debris.
  • 45. NYC Medium Sized Procedures (10 – 100 square feet)
    • All small area items plus:
    Enclose the work area and egress pathways with a plastic sheet(s) and seal with tape before remediation to contain dust/debris.
    Seal ventilation ducts/grills and other openings in the work area.
  • 46. NYC Large Area Procedures (>100 square feet)
    • All small and medium items plus the following:
    Trained mold remediation workers.
    The presence of a health and safety professional may be helpful.
    Consider using HEPA filtered negative air machines.
    HEPA vacuum and clean work and egress areas.
  • 47. NYC Small Area HVAC Procedures (< 10 square feet)
    Trained building staff familiar with the HVAC system
    Respiratory protection—N-95 minimum
    Shut down the HVAC system
    Dust suppression
    Clean nonporous surfaces, dispose of porous materials.
    HEPA vacuum work/egress areas and damp clean.
    Leave all surfaces dry and visibly free of mold.
  • 48. Large Area Procedures (>100 contiguous square feet))
    Clean the outside of the bags with a damp cloth and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuum in the decontamination chamber prior to transporting them to or through uncontaminated areas.
    HEPA vacuum the contained area and decontamination room and clean with a damp cloth and/or mop with a detergent solution.
    Conduct air monitoring prior to occupancy to determine if the area is fit to reoccupy.
  • 49. Large Area HVAC(>10 square feet)
    • All small area items plus:
    Trained mold remediation workers with experience in HVAC mold remediation.
    Minimum of half-face P-100 respirators
    Full body coveralls including head and feet
    Use of negative air pressure
    Consider using airlocks and a clean changing room
    Communicate with building occupants
  • 50. Level IV Procedures (more than 100 contiguous square feet)
    Use an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization.
    Use airlocks and decontamination room.
    Vacate at-risk people from spaces adjacent to the work area.
    Remove contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned from the building in a sealed plastic bag.
  • 51. April 2001 – EPA issued recommendations rather than regulations… “EPA does not regulate mold or mold spores in indoor air.”
    Reinforces on-site technician training “Adapt guidelines to meet the circumstances of each particular job site.”
    EPA input and guidance very positive for process and protocol decision making efforts.
  • 52. 3 Levels of Contamination
    EPA emphasizes “…adapt as needed” and “…professional judgment and experience”
    Small ( < 10 SF) NYC Small
    Medium (10 – 100 SF) NYC Medium
    Large ( > 100 SF) NYC Large
    EPA says, “The remediation manager must determine the appropriate procedures for a particular job, using the EPA Guidelines only as recommendations.”
  • 53.
    • EPA Guidelines contribute to areas not covered by NYC Guidelines:
    Refers to locations of possible “Hidden Mold”
    Defines PPE into Minimum, Limited and Full. EPA recommends powered air purifying respirators for full protection.
    Cautions against unplanned sampling, and only trained personnel should perform sampling or else results could be misleading.
  • 54.
    • P.P.E.
    • 55. Minimum:
    • 56. Gloves, N-95 respirator, eye protection
    Gloves, N-95 respirator or ½ face with HEPA filter, disposable overalls, eye protection
    Gloves, overalls, head gear, foot coverings, full face respirator with HEPA (P-100) filter
  • 57. EPA Guidelines - Containment more aggressive than NYC Guidelines:
    Levels of Containment: Limited and Full
    Limited - single layer polyethylene, negative air
    Applies to Medium (10-100 SF)
    Full - double layer polyethylene, negative air
    Applies to Large (> 100 SF)
    Double bagging vs. single bagging moldy debris
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62. IICRC Water Damage Standard
    (IICRC S500, pg. 31)
    Remove porous material exhibiting extensive microbial growth
    Physically remove surface microbial growth on nonporous materials (including wood) to typical background levels
    Remove settled spores
    Reduce moisture to levels that do not support microbial growth.
  • 63. IICRC S520Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation
    • The S520Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification
    • 64. Takes a philosophical shift away from setting numerical contamination action levels.
    • 65. Establishes mold contamination definitions, descriptions and conditions-- Levels 1, 2 & 3
    • 66. IEP not necessary on all jobs.
    • Condition 1
    • 67. Normal fungal ecology
    • 68. Condition 2
    • 69. Settled spores from a condition 3 area.
    • 70. May have traces of mold growth.
    • 71. Condition 3
    • 72. Actual growth
  • IICRC Water Damage Standard
    IICRC mentions levels of contamination:
    Microbial growth on the surface of painted walls or nonporous surfaces
    Microbial growth confined to a larger area of the structure (up to 32 SF)
    Extensive mold remediation projects (32 SF or more)
  • 73. Responses To The Mold Issue
    We Are Not Mold Experts.
    We compile experts’ knowledge and apply it.
    We should never give a customer mold remediation advice.
    We should not define and perform our own protocol for mold remediation.
    When required, an IAQ/IH professional should test, provide written protocol and clearance test and/or inspection.
  • 74. STAY TUNED!
    The Mold Issue is Still Evolving
    Guidelines and Protocols May Change
    Coverage Issues and Limitations are Being Addressed by Insurance Companies and State Legislation
    The Medical Community is Still Researching the Health Affects of Mold