Trevor Pinch is a former chair of the Science and Technology Studies department at Cornell University at which he is currently a professor of science and technology studies, as well as a professor of Sociology
He completed a degree in Physics at the Imperial College London and a PhD in Sociology from the University of Bath.
Other texts contributed to include - How Users Matter: The Co-Construction of Users and Technology and Perspectives on Science: Historical, Philosophical, Social.
Wiebe Bijker is a professor of Technology and Society at the University of Maastricht. He was also President of the Society for Social Studies of Science, director and chairman of the board of the Netherlands Research School on Science, Technology and Modern Culture.
He helped to establish, and was the first scientific coordinator of the European master’s degree program on Society, Science and Technology now offered by 18 universities.
He received a BSc degree in Philosophy from the University of Groningen, an engineer’s degree in applied physics from the Technical University of Delft and completed his PhD in the sociology and history of technology at the University of Twente.
Attempts to integrate the Empirical Programme of Relativism (EPOR) with Social Construction of Technology through three stages: - interpretative flexibility - closure mechanisms through consensus, redefinition of the problem, stabilisation - connection between closure mechanisms and society
Mid-level administrators: cost savings, cost transfer to central IT
Faculty: no discernable change to teaching style, compatible with existing software tools, less clerical work such as automated grading Students: better access to course materials, one point of contact, reinforce established teaching methods.
In previous years distance e-learning looked to become an integral feature of the educational institution
Role of Relevant Social Groups: IT Professionals : important to finetuning the technical aspects, though not to the actual decision to take on the technology Educational Planners : needed to consider the way in which it would restructure education, as well as cut costs through standardised teaching modules Mid-Level Administrators: similar to educational planners Faculty: conflicted between possibility of either increased workload or deskilling of educational profession Students: benefits of increased access, but concerns as to quality of material and the degree to which credentials would be recognised
Technological Determinism Case Study: E-Learning
What is Technological Determinism?
Rogers’ ‘Dissemination of Innovation’ Model
However, things are clearly not this black and white - Classroom is still the dominate medium - Web technology has been modified - Has reinforcing features, rather than revolutionary effects