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  • 1. Chapter 13: The Bureaucracy
  • 2. Tonight’s Class  Review schedule  Politics in the news  The Presidency
  • 3. Schedule Ch 12 4/21 The Presidency Ch 13 4/28 The Bureaucracy Ch 14 5/5 The Judiciary 5/12 •Foreign policy Ch 16 •Wars in Iraq & Afghanistan 5/19 •Global warming •Review for the final 5/26 Final exam
  • 4. Final exam  50 multiple choice questions from ch. 7-14  Two essays selected from:  The current economic crisis  Foreign policy  Global warming
  • 5. The Bureaucracy: The Power of Rule-Making 5 Click the icon to open the movie Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 6. Questions 6  Why does Congress allow for bureaucratic rulemaking?  What are the potential conflicts in a system that allows bureaucratic rulemaking? Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 7. Bureaucracies 7  Bureaucracies are often handy political targets to blame for society’s ills.  Yet, the same bureaucrats who are blamed for red tape have also accomplished some remarkable tasks:  NASA  TVA Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 8. Bureaucracies (cont.) 8  Americans tend to be against “Big Government” in the abstract, but they also demand all kinds of government services. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 9. © 2003 AP/Wide World Photos 2002 AP/ Wide World Photos Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning 9
  • 10. Bureaucracy and the Policy Process 10  Client Groups  Congress  Triangles and Subgovernments  Issue Networks Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 11. The Veterans Affairs “Triangle” 11 Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 12. The Politics of Bureaucracy 12  Bureaucracy and Public Opinion  Bureaucracy and the President  Bureaucracy and Policymaking Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 13. Models of Bureaucracy 13  Weberian Model  Hierarchy  Specialization  Rules and regulations  Neutrality  Acquisitive Model  Monopolistic Model  Bureaucracies Compared Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 14. The Size of the Bureaucracy 14 Today there are about 2.7 million civilian employees of the federal government. (UPI Photo/Bill Greenblatt/Landov) Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 15. A Profile of Bureaucracy: Government Employment— Federal, State, and Local 15 Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 16. © Bob Daemmrich /Stock, Boston /PictureQuest Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning 16
  • 17. Federal Agencies and Their Employees 17 Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 18. 18 Government Employment at the Federal, State, and Local Levels Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 19. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning 19
  • 20. The Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy 20  Cabinet Departments  Independent Executive Agencies  Independent Regulatory Agencies  The Purpose and Nature of Regulatory Agencies  Agency Capture  Deregulation and Reregulation  Government Corporations Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 21. Major Regulatory Agencies 21  The Federal Trade Commission (1914)  The Federal Communications Commission (1934)  The Securities and Exchange Commission (1934)  The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (1978) Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 22. Deregulation 22  The government regulation of industry, which increased during the New Deal administration of FDR, had by the 1970s, become a target of criticism.  In the 1970s, President Carter called for deregulation of airlines, banking, trucking, railroads, and telecommunications. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 23. The Growth of Social Regulation 23  Although considerable deregulation of transportation, communications, and financial industries took place, social regulation increased during the 1970s and 1980s. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 24. Staffing the Bureaucracy 24  Political Appointees  The aristocracy of the federal government  The difficulty of firing civil servants Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 25. Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform 25  Sunshine Laws  The 1966 Freedom of Information Act  Changes after 9/11  Sunset Laws require congressional review of existing programs to determine their effectiveness. If Congress does not explicitly reauthorize a program, it expires. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 26. The Civil Service 26  The Spoils System  The Road to Reform  1850s Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 27. The Carter Reforms 27  The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978  Whistle-blowers  The Senior Executive Service Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 28. “I’m sorry, dear, but you knew I was a bureaucrat when you married me.” The New Yorker Collection 1980. Robert Weber from cartoonbank.com. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning 28
  • 29. Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform (cont.) 29  Privatization  Incentives for Efficiency and Productivity  The Government Performance and Results Act of 1997  Saving Costs through E-Government  Helping Out the Whistle Blowers Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 30. Bureaucrats as Politicians and Policy-Makers 30  The Rulemaking Environment  Waiting periods and court challenges  Negotiated Rulemaking Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 31. Congressional Control of the Bureaucracy 31  The ultimate control is in the hands of Congress because Congress controls the purse strings.  Congressional control of the bureaucracy includes the establishment of agencies and departments, the budget process, and oversight conducted through investigations, hearings, and review. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 32. Questions for Critical Thinking 32  What could be done to eliminate iron triangles?  In modern times, we tend to equate the term “bureaucracy” with “red tape” or inefficiency. How does the goal of neutrality and the need for specialization help reinforce those images? Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 33. Web Links 33  US Office of Personnel Management  The Project on Government Oversight  USA Jobs Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 34. Web Links (cont.) 34  GAO—U.S. Government Accountability Office  FAS—Federation of American Scientists  OMB Watch  Openthegovernment.org Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning