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Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
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Fermentation

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  • Gulpreet Kaur : Tuhadian slides bahut changian ne. Yogesh
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  • 1. FERMENTATION: INDUSTRIAL ASPECTS GULPREET KAUR Department of Biological Sciences Florida Institute of Technology, FL 32901
  • 2. OBJECTIVES • Describe the chemistry of Fermentation • List at least five fermented food products • Describe the process of industrial production of one fermented food product
  • 3. FERMENTATION? Chemical changes in Organic substrates through the activity of living microbes
  • 4. EXAMPLES?
  • 5. INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL PRODUCTION C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2 Sugar Ethanol Yeast Fermentation NO OXYGEN!
  • 6. Yeast • Eukaryotic • 3-4 µm in size • Mostly anaerobic • Grow on organic compounds Saccharomyces cerevisae
  • 7. Wine Production
  • 8. PROCESS OUTLINE • Picking, handling, crushing Grapes • Pre-treatment • Fermentation • Post-fermentation • Racking • Storage and Ageing • Clarification • Packing
  • 9. Grape Processing Good varieties of Grapes - Zinfandel, Merlot, Blue Portuguese, Refosco Picked at Maturity – Balling Degree of 21 to 23⁰ Crushed in Machines - • Machine could be made of Stainless Steel or Nickel • Should not be made of Iron, Steel, Tin or Copper
  • 10. Pre-treatment • Sterilization - to kill undesired microbes • SO2 or sulphites are used • ̴2-6 oz. Potassium Bisulphite added per tonne of grapes
  • 11. Fermentation • Saccharomyces ellipsoideus used • Starter culture prepared ▫ To facilitate quick growth  Large supply of oxygen  Stirring ▫ No alcohol produced!
  • 12. • Fermentation in Tank ▫ Starter culture added to Grape Juice ▫ Time: 3-5 days ▫ Temperature: 70-90⁰F ▫ No oxygen added ▫ Stirring twice a day ▫ Initial Sugar concentration: 22 ⁰ Balling Final concentration of alcohol = Balling reading × 0.575 At the end of this step: • Sugar concentration : 0-4⁰ Balling • Lots of CO2 has accumulated in the tank
  • 13. Post- Fermentation Processing • Kept in Closed Storage tanks with bungs ▫ 7-10 days ▫ Excess CO2 released ▫ No sugar left – Yeast dies off! • Racking • Storage and Ageing • Packaging
  • 14. QUESTIONS?
  • 15. ASSESSMENT 1 • What is a starter culture? What is its purpose?
  • 16. ASSESSMENT 2 • What do you think would happen if an alcohol fermentation tank was not closed properly while processing ?
  • 17. ASSESSMENT 3 From the list given below, write an ‘F’ in front of the foods that you think are fermented and an ‘N’ for foods that are not. • __ Coca Cola • __ Yoghurt • __ Bread • __ Hamburger • __ Whisky • __ Pizza

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