Fermentation

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Fermentation

  1. 1. FERMENTATION: INDUSTRIAL ASPECTS GULPREET KAUR Department of Biological Sciences Florida Institute of Technology, FL 32901
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES • Describe the chemistry of Fermentation • List at least five fermented food products • Describe the process of industrial production of one fermented food product
  3. 3. FERMENTATION? Chemical changes in Organic substrates through the activity of living microbes
  4. 4. EXAMPLES?
  5. 5. INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL PRODUCTION C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2 Sugar Ethanol Yeast Fermentation NO OXYGEN!
  6. 6. Yeast • Eukaryotic • 3-4 µm in size • Mostly anaerobic • Grow on organic compounds Saccharomyces cerevisae
  7. 7. Wine Production
  8. 8. PROCESS OUTLINE • Picking, handling, crushing Grapes • Pre-treatment • Fermentation • Post-fermentation • Racking • Storage and Ageing • Clarification • Packing
  9. 9. Grape Processing Good varieties of Grapes - Zinfandel, Merlot, Blue Portuguese, Refosco Picked at Maturity – Balling Degree of 21 to 23⁰ Crushed in Machines - • Machine could be made of Stainless Steel or Nickel • Should not be made of Iron, Steel, Tin or Copper
  10. 10. Pre-treatment • Sterilization - to kill undesired microbes • SO2 or sulphites are used • ̴2-6 oz. Potassium Bisulphite added per tonne of grapes
  11. 11. Fermentation • Saccharomyces ellipsoideus used • Starter culture prepared ▫ To facilitate quick growth  Large supply of oxygen  Stirring ▫ No alcohol produced!
  12. 12. • Fermentation in Tank ▫ Starter culture added to Grape Juice ▫ Time: 3-5 days ▫ Temperature: 70-90⁰F ▫ No oxygen added ▫ Stirring twice a day ▫ Initial Sugar concentration: 22 ⁰ Balling Final concentration of alcohol = Balling reading × 0.575 At the end of this step: • Sugar concentration : 0-4⁰ Balling • Lots of CO2 has accumulated in the tank
  13. 13. Post- Fermentation Processing • Kept in Closed Storage tanks with bungs ▫ 7-10 days ▫ Excess CO2 released ▫ No sugar left – Yeast dies off! • Racking • Storage and Ageing • Packaging
  14. 14. QUESTIONS?
  15. 15. ASSESSMENT 1 • What is a starter culture? What is its purpose?
  16. 16. ASSESSMENT 2 • What do you think would happen if an alcohol fermentation tank was not closed properly while processing ?
  17. 17. ASSESSMENT 3 From the list given below, write an ‘F’ in front of the foods that you think are fermented and an ‘N’ for foods that are not. • __ Coca Cola • __ Yoghurt • __ Bread • __ Hamburger • __ Whisky • __ Pizza

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