Cartilage & bone, mbbs 1st year
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Cartilage & bone, mbbs 1st year

on

  • 2,442 views

for 1st year mbbs students

for 1st year mbbs students

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,442
Views on SlideShare
2,442
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
61
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • good
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Cartilage & bone, mbbs 1st year Cartilage & bone, mbbs 1st year Presentation Transcript

  • Histology of Cartilage
  • CARTILAGE
  • CARTILAGE
  • CARTILAGE
  • Cartilage
    • General features:
    • Cells of cartilage – chondrocytes.
    • No blood vessels or lymphatics.
    • No nerves.
    • Surrounded by a fibrous membrane called perichondrium.
    • When cartilage calcifies, chondrocytes die & the cartilage is replaced by bone.
  • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Features:
    • Intercellular substance is homogenous.
    • Contains numerous collagen fibers.
    • Cells are usually present in groups (of two or more), called cell nests or isogenous cell groups.
    • Distribution:
    • Costal cartilages,
    • Articular cartilage,
    • Thyroid, cricoid & arytenoid cartilages,
    • Nasal septum & lateral wall of nose,
    • Epiphyseal plate of cartilage.
  • Elastic Cartilage
    • Matrix contains elastic fibers that form a network.
    • Distributions:
      • Auricle or pinna,
      • Lateral part of EAM,
      • Medial part of auditory tube,
      • Epiglottis,
      • Corniculate &
      • Cuneiform.
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Numerous collagen bundles.
    • No perichondrium over the cartilage.
    • Distributions:
    • Intervertebral discs,
    • Pubic symphysis,
    • Manubriosternal joint,
    • Articular discs – TMJ, sternoclavicular joint,
    • Glenoidal labrum & acetabular labrum.
  • BONE - I
  • Functions of bone
    • Give shape & support to the body & resist all forms of stress.
    • Provide surface for the attachment of muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc.
    • Serve as levers for muscular actions.
    • Protect visceral organs.
    • Bone marrow manufactures blood cells.
    • Store 97% of the body calcium & phosphorus.
    • Bone marrow contains R-E cells.
    • Paranasal air sinuses affect the timber of the voice
  • Classification of Bones
    • According to shape:
    • Long bones:
    • Two ends called epiphysis & an intervening part diaphysis.
    • Contain nutrient foramen directed away from the growing end.
    • Typical long bone: Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, & fibula;
    • Miniature long bone: metacarpals, metatarsals & phalanges; &
    • Modified long bones: clavicle.
  •  
    • 2. Short bones:
    • Shape is cuboid, cuneiform, trapezoid, or scaphoid.
    • Carpal & tarsal bones.
    • 3. Flat bones:
      • vault of the skull, ribs, sternum & scapula.
    • 4. Irregular bones:
      • vertebrae, hip bone & bones in the base of the skull.
    • 5. Pneumatic bones:
      • Maxilla, sphenoid, ethmoid, etc.
    • 6. Sesamoid bones:
    • patella, pissiform, fabella, etc.
    • Functions:
      • To resist pressure;
      • To minimize friction; &
      • To alter the direction of pull of the muscle.
    • 7. Accessory bones:
    • Sutural bones
  • Developmental classification
    • Membrane bone:
      • Ossify in membrane, derived from mesenchymal condensations.
      • E.g. bone of vault of skull & facial bones.
    • Cartilaginous bone:
      • Ossify in cartilage & derived from the preformed cartilaginous models.
      • E.g. bones of limbs, vertebral column & thoracic cage.
    • Membrano-cartilaginous bones:
      • Partly in membrane & partly in cartilage.
      • E.g. clavicle, mandible, occipital, temporal, sphenoid.
    • Regional classification:
      • Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column & ribs
      • Appendicular skeleton: bones of the limbs.
    • Structural classification:
      • Macroscopically
          • Compact bone,
          • Cancellous bones
      • Microscopically
          • Lamellar bone,
          • Fibrous bone,
          • Dentine &
          • Cement.
  •  
  • Gross structure of an adult long bone
    • Shaft:
      • Periosteum
      • Cortex
      • Endosteum
      • Medullary cavity
    • Two ends
    • Parts of a young bone:
    • Epiphysis: ends of bone, ossify from sec. centre of ossification.
    • Pressure epiphysis: head of femur, lower end of radius, etc.
    • Traction epiphysis: trochanters of femur & tubercles of humerus.
    • Atavistic epiphysis: coracoid process of scapula.
    • Aberrant epiphysis: epiphysis at the head of the first metacarpal & at the bases of other metacarpal bones
    • Parts of a young bone…..
    • Diaphysis: shaft of a long bone, ossify by primary centre of ossification.
    • Metaphysis : epiphysial end of diaphysis, zone of active growth.
    • Epiphysial plate of cartilage: separate epiphysis from diaphysis. it causes increased length of bone.
  • Blood supply of bones
    • For long bone:
    • Epiphysial artery
    • Metaphysial artery
    • Periosteal artery
    • Nutrient artery
  • Histology of compact bone
  • Cells of Bone
    • Osteoprogenitor cells: stem cells of mesenchymal origin that can proliferate & convert themselves into osteoblasts.
    • Osteoblasts: bone forming cells derived from osteoprogenitor cells & responsible for laying down the organic matrix of bone.
    • Osteocytes: cells of mature bone.
    • Osteoclasts: bone removing cells found in relation to surfaces where bone removing is taking place.
  • Cells of Bone
  • Histology of compact bone
  •