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G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning

G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning



G4LI Games for Learning Day at G4C 2011

G4LI Games for Learning Day at G4C 2011



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    G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning Presentation Transcript

    • G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning
      Ken Perlin & Jan L. Plass
      Games for Learning Institute
      Games for Change Festival• June 22, 2011
      99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games.
    • Overview
      The National Challenge
      Games for Learning Institute
    • Overview
      The National Challenge
    • The Challenge
      The National Challenge
      U.S. students are falling behind their peers in other countries, especially in STEM (PISA, TIMMS)
      21st Century requires new skill sets to succeed in knowledge society
      Science and Engineering positions in many companies remain unfilled due to lack of qualified applicants
      Problems even more pronounced for women, ethnic minorities, learners with low English proficiency
    • The Challenge
      Board of Advisors
      Faculty from NYU, New York City, National, International
      Network of Middle and High Schools in New York City
      Organizations offering After-School programming
      Media Developers & Broadcasters
    • Games for Learning
      The Games for Learning Institute (G4LI)
    • Games for Learning Institute
      G4LI–A Multi-Institutional Institute
      Comprised of 13 faculty (at 9 institutions), specializing in STEM Education, Science of Learning, Educational Technology, Psychology, Game Design, Computer Science, and Software Engineering. Funded by Microsoft Research.
      NYU (Ken Perlin, Jan Plass, Co-Directors, Cath Milne)
      NYU Poly (Katherine Isbister, Carl Skelton, Joel Wein)
      CUNY Graduate Center (Bruce Homer)
      Columbia (Steve Feiner)
      Teachers College (Chuck Kinzer)
      Parsons School of Design (Colleen Macklin)
      Dartmouth (Mary Flanagan)
      Rochester Institute of Technology (Andy Phelps)
      Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Miguel Nussbaum)
    • Games for Learning Institute
      Identification of design patterns describing the effects of key design elements of games on students’ learning experiences and outcomes
      Investigating how effects found in education and psychology research can be applied to the design of games for learning
      Develop theory-based, empirically validated design patterns for games for learning
      Facilitate the development of critical STEM knowledge and skills as well as critical digital literacy skills to be informed citizens
    • Research: Games for Learning
      Adventure Game for Science Learning
      Strong Narrative
      Science Problems Embedded
    • Research: Games for Learning
      AR Simulation Game for Science Learning
      Geo-Located Hot Zones
      Authentic Scientific Data feed
    • Research: Games for Learning
      Games and Learning
      Math Skills: Factor Reactor
    • Research: Games for Learning
      Games and Learning
      Math Skills: Supertransformation!
    • Games for Learning
      Development Research (Ken)
    • Other Projects
      App Inventor (Ken Perlin)
      App Inventor as entry level programming language
      Level up to Super App Inventor (add variable scoping, data typing, object classes and instancing, and aggregate types; editable code)
      Use to teach computer programming
      Game-like features, applying our research
    • Other Projects
      Ken to add slides
    • Research Results
      Empirical Research
      CUNY GC
      NYU Poly
      Teachers College Columbia University
    • Learning with Games
      Why Games for Learning? Games have potential to be:
      Highly Contextualized, Situated Problem Solving Spaces
      Highly Engaging, Individualized Learning
      Teach 21st Century skills + Concepts and Skills
      Bridge in-school and out-of-school learning
      Emotional Impact by Design
      Embedded Assessment (learning, learner state and trait variables)
      We do not yet understand well enough how to designGames that are effective for learning and fun/engaging.
    • Learning with Games
      Functions of Games for Learning
      Games to prepare future learning (Schwartz, 1999)
      Games for specific learning goals: new content, skills
      Games to practice existing skills: automatization
      Development of 21st Century Skills
      Most generalizable research focusses on Games to practice existing STEM skills
      Qualitative Research focusses on Games to develop of 21st Century Skills
    • Research Agenda
    • Games for Learning
      Research Methods
      Experimental Research
      Video Observations
      Using a variety of measures:
      Physiological (biometrics, eye tracking, fMRI)
      Behavioral (in-game assessment, video observations)
      Self-reports (in-game/post-game think-aloud, interviews, surveys)
    • Research Methods
      Research Methods: Posture Sensor
    • Research Methods
      Research Methods: Eye Tracking & Games
    • Computational Thinking
    • Research Findings
      Rapunsel (NSF)
      Goal: Teach Girls How to Program
      Participants: 56 middle school students (29 female)
      Design: Pre/Post test design
      Duration: 4 weeks, 50min per week
    • Research Findings
      No increases in programming-related knowledge
      Significant pre/post increases in girls' generalself-efficacy(d = .65); nsd for boys
      Significant pre/post increases in programmingself-efficacyfor girls (d = 1.06); marginally significant for boys (d = .48)
      Significant pre/post increases in self-esteem for girls (d = .66) and for boys (d = .48)Plass, J.L., Goldman, R., Flanagan, M., et al., (2007)
    • Research: Play Mode
      Mode of Play Study
      Play Mode
      Goal: Compare Single Player v. Collaborative v. Competitive Mode
      Participants: 63 NYC middle school students, 6-8th grade
      Design: factorial design (solo v. collaborative v. competitive)
    • Research: Play Mode
      Mode of Play Study
      Collaborative and competitive play resulted in
      greater situational interest than solo play
      the strongest mastery goal orientation
      Solo game play was reported to be less enjoyable than collaborative and competitive game play
      Participants in the competitive group completed more math problems in the game, BUT:
      Solo group demonstrated significantly greatermathfluency in the posttest
    • Research Findings
      Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)
      A Controlled Comparison of Movement Based Games
      In-school study with low/medium/high movement Wii games.
      Players rated emotions after each round.
      Video coded for manipulation check.
      Higher arousal/energy whenmore movement.
      Same amount of positive feelings in all conditions.
    • Research Findings
      Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)
      Can movement-based play increase math confidence? An investigation using the number-line game Scoop!
      We created a Kinect-based number line math game, using research about ‘power poses’.
      In-school study with ‘high’ and ‘low’ power pose versions of the game was conducted this spring.
      Players rated emotions and math confidence pre and post play.
      We also received student math scores.
      Currently doing analysis of results.
    • Research: Learning Mechanics
      Learning Mechanics Research
      Two learning mechanics:
      Solve missing angles by selecting correct number
      Better: Solve missing angles by identifying correct rule
    • Research: Play Mode
      Game Mechanic Study
      Goal: Compare Rule-based v. Arithmetic Responses to Geometry Problems
      Participants: 89 NYC middle school students, 6 & 8th grade
      Design: factorial design (rule v. arithmetic)
    • Research: Play Mode
      Game Mechanic Study
      Results (Preliminary)
      Arithmetic game more interesting than rule-based game
      More problems solved in rule-based game
      Diminishing returns for arithmetic but not rules group (>30 levels solved)
    • Research: Feedback Design
      Feedback Study (Teachers College Columbia U)
      Goal: Compare different types of feedback (informative v. Elaborative) and choice of avatar (choice v. no choice)
      110 sixth and seventh grade NYC students
    • Research: Feedback Design
      Feedback Study
    • Learning Mechanics
      G4LI Library of Learning Mechanics
    • Assessment Mechanics
      G4LI Library of Assessment Mechanics
    • Collaborators
      Ken Perlin
      Bruce Homer
      Catherine Milne
      Katherine Isbister
      Trace Jordan
      Joel Wein
      Carl Skelton
      Mary Flanagan
      Chuck Kinzer
      Andy Phelps
      Miguel Nussbaum
      Paul O’Keefe
      Yan Wang
      Ruth Schwartz
      Jon Frye
      Yoo Kyung Chang
      Lizzie Hayward
      Tsu-Ting Huang
      Helen Zeng
      Charles Hendee
      Murphy Stein
      Juan Barrientos
    • Conclusion
      Thank you – Questions?
      Ken Perlin: ken.perlin@gmail.com
      Jan L Plass: jan.plass@nyu.edu