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G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning


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G4LI Games for Learning Day at G4C 2011

G4LI Games for Learning Day at G4C 2011

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  • 1. G4LI Advancing Research on Games for Learning
    Ken Perlin & Jan L. Plass
    Games for Learning Institute
    Games for Change Festival• June 22, 2011
    99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games.
  • 2. Overview
    The National Challenge
    Games for Learning Institute
  • 3. Overview
    The National Challenge
  • 4. The Challenge
    The National Challenge
    U.S. students are falling behind their peers in other countries, especially in STEM (PISA, TIMMS)
    21st Century requires new skill sets to succeed in knowledge society
    Science and Engineering positions in many companies remain unfilled due to lack of qualified applicants
    Problems even more pronounced for women, ethnic minorities, learners with low English proficiency
  • 5. The Challenge
    Board of Advisors
    Faculty from NYU, New York City, National, International
    Network of Middle and High Schools in New York City
    Organizations offering After-School programming
    Media Developers & Broadcasters
  • 6. Games for Learning
    The Games for Learning Institute (G4LI)
  • 7. Games for Learning Institute
    G4LI–A Multi-Institutional Institute
    Comprised of 13 faculty (at 9 institutions), specializing in STEM Education, Science of Learning, Educational Technology, Psychology, Game Design, Computer Science, and Software Engineering. Funded by Microsoft Research.
    NYU (Ken Perlin, Jan Plass, Co-Directors, Cath Milne)
    NYU Poly (Katherine Isbister, Carl Skelton, Joel Wein)
    CUNY Graduate Center (Bruce Homer)
    Columbia (Steve Feiner)
    Teachers College (Chuck Kinzer)
    Parsons School of Design (Colleen Macklin)
    Dartmouth (Mary Flanagan)
    Rochester Institute of Technology (Andy Phelps)
    Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Miguel Nussbaum)
  • 8. Games for Learning Institute
    Identification of design patterns describing the effects of key design elements of games on students’ learning experiences and outcomes
    Investigating how effects found in education and psychology research can be applied to the design of games for learning
    Develop theory-based, empirically validated design patterns for games for learning
    Facilitate the development of critical STEM knowledge and skills as well as critical digital literacy skills to be informed citizens
  • 9. Research: Games for Learning
    Adventure Game for Science Learning
    Strong Narrative
    Science Problems Embedded
  • 10. Research: Games for Learning
    AR Simulation Game for Science Learning
    Geo-Located Hot Zones
    Authentic Scientific Data feed
  • 11. Research: Games for Learning
    Games and Learning
    Math Skills: Factor Reactor
  • 12. Research: Games for Learning
    Games and Learning
    Math Skills: Supertransformation!
  • 13. Games for Learning
    Development Research (Ken)
  • 14. Other Projects
    App Inventor (Ken Perlin)
    App Inventor as entry level programming language
    Level up to Super App Inventor (add variable scoping, data typing, object classes and instancing, and aggregate types; editable code)
    Use to teach computer programming
    Game-like features, applying our research
  • 15. Other Projects
    Ken to add slides
  • 16. Research Results
    Empirical Research
    NYU Poly
    Teachers College Columbia University
  • 17. Learning with Games
    Why Games for Learning? Games have potential to be:
    Highly Contextualized, Situated Problem Solving Spaces
    Highly Engaging, Individualized Learning
    Teach 21st Century skills + Concepts and Skills
    Bridge in-school and out-of-school learning
    Emotional Impact by Design
    Embedded Assessment (learning, learner state and trait variables)
    We do not yet understand well enough how to designGames that are effective for learning and fun/engaging.
  • 18. Learning with Games
    Functions of Games for Learning
    Games to prepare future learning (Schwartz, 1999)
    Games for specific learning goals: new content, skills
    Games to practice existing skills: automatization
    Development of 21st Century Skills
    Most generalizable research focusses on Games to practice existing STEM skills
    Qualitative Research focusses on Games to develop of 21st Century Skills
  • 19. Research Agenda
  • 20. Games for Learning
    Research Methods
    Experimental Research
    Video Observations
    Using a variety of measures:
    Physiological (biometrics, eye tracking, fMRI)
    Behavioral (in-game assessment, video observations)
    Self-reports (in-game/post-game think-aloud, interviews, surveys)
  • 21. Research Methods
    Research Methods: Posture Sensor
  • 22. Research Methods
    Research Methods: Eye Tracking & Games
  • 23. Computational Thinking
  • 24. Research Findings
    Rapunsel (NSF)
    Goal: Teach Girls How to Program
    Participants: 56 middle school students (29 female)
    Design: Pre/Post test design
    Duration: 4 weeks, 50min per week
  • 25. Research Findings
    No increases in programming-related knowledge
    Significant pre/post increases in girls' generalself-efficacy(d = .65); nsd for boys
    Significant pre/post increases in programmingself-efficacyfor girls (d = 1.06); marginally significant for boys (d = .48)
    Significant pre/post increases in self-esteem for girls (d = .66) and for boys (d = .48)Plass, J.L., Goldman, R., Flanagan, M., et al., (2007)
  • 26. Research: Play Mode
    Mode of Play Study
    Play Mode
    Goal: Compare Single Player v. Collaborative v. Competitive Mode
    Participants: 63 NYC middle school students, 6-8th grade
    Design: factorial design (solo v. collaborative v. competitive)
  • 27. Research: Play Mode
    Mode of Play Study
    Collaborative and competitive play resulted in
    greater situational interest than solo play
    the strongest mastery goal orientation
    Solo game play was reported to be less enjoyable than collaborative and competitive game play
    Participants in the competitive group completed more math problems in the game, BUT:
    Solo group demonstrated significantly greatermathfluency in the posttest
  • 28. Research Findings
    Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)
    A Controlled Comparison of Movement Based Games
    In-school study with low/medium/high movement Wii games.
    Players rated emotions after each round.
    Video coded for manipulation check.
    Higher arousal/energy whenmore movement.
    Same amount of positive feelings in all conditions.
  • 29. Research Findings
    Movement-Based Play (NYU Poly)
    Can movement-based play increase math confidence? An investigation using the number-line game Scoop!
    We created a Kinect-based number line math game, using research about ‘power poses’.
    In-school study with ‘high’ and ‘low’ power pose versions of the game was conducted this spring.
    Players rated emotions and math confidence pre and post play.
    We also received student math scores.
    Currently doing analysis of results.
  • 30. Research: Learning Mechanics
    Learning Mechanics Research
    Two learning mechanics:
    Solve missing angles by selecting correct number
    Better: Solve missing angles by identifying correct rule
  • 31. Research: Play Mode
    Game Mechanic Study
    Goal: Compare Rule-based v. Arithmetic Responses to Geometry Problems
    Participants: 89 NYC middle school students, 6 & 8th grade
    Design: factorial design (rule v. arithmetic)
  • 32. Research: Play Mode
    Game Mechanic Study
    Results (Preliminary)
    Arithmetic game more interesting than rule-based game
    More problems solved in rule-based game
    Diminishing returns for arithmetic but not rules group (>30 levels solved)
  • 33. Research: Feedback Design
    Feedback Study (Teachers College Columbia U)
    Goal: Compare different types of feedback (informative v. Elaborative) and choice of avatar (choice v. no choice)
    110 sixth and seventh grade NYC students
  • 34. Research: Feedback Design
    Feedback Study
  • 35. Learning Mechanics
    G4LI Library of Learning Mechanics
  • 36. Assessment Mechanics
    G4LI Library of Assessment Mechanics
  • 37. Collaborators
    Ken Perlin
    Bruce Homer
    Catherine Milne
    Katherine Isbister
    Trace Jordan
    Joel Wein
    Carl Skelton
    Mary Flanagan
    Chuck Kinzer
    Andy Phelps
    Miguel Nussbaum
    Paul O’Keefe
    Yan Wang
    Ruth Schwartz
    Jon Frye
    Yoo Kyung Chang
    Lizzie Hayward
    Tsu-Ting Huang
    Helen Zeng
    Charles Hendee
    Murphy Stein
    Juan Barrientos
  • 38. Conclusion
    Thank you – Questions?
    Ken Perlin:
    Jan L Plass: