Amateur Satelllite Beginners

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A presentation o Amateur Satellites given at the Leicester Amateur Radio Show in Oct. 2008 by Dave Johnson, G4DPZ and Carlos Eavis, G0AKI

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Amateur Satelllite Beginners

  1. 1. Amateur Satellite Beginners Session <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Dave Johnson, G4DPZ AMSAT-UK / AMSAT-NA </li></ul><ul><li>In association with </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos Eavis, G0AKI RSGB </li></ul>
  2. 2. Welcome <ul><li>We are going to cover: </li></ul><ul><li>OSCAR? </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>A bit of orbit theory </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite operation </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite modes </li></ul><ul><li>Ground station equipment </li></ul><ul><li>What's up! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Oscar... <ul><li>An OSCAR is an O rbiting S atellite C arrying A mateur R adio </li></ul><ul><li>Built for non-commercial purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Originally built by Project OSCAR members in garages in Silicon Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Now built by and/or funded by members of AMSAT and AMSAT affiliates </li></ul><ul><li>Originally a “bleep sat” but now carry sophisticated repeaters or transponders </li></ul><ul><li>Are encouraged to carry sensors and other scientific experiments </li></ul>
  4. 4. A bit of History <ul><li>OSCAR-I , which had a battery powered 140mw transmitter operating in the 2 meter band. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit it’s message of “HI” for three weeks and re-entered the atmosphere on January 31, 1962 after making 312 orbits. </li></ul><ul><li>The greeting “HI” is used in almost all beacons, including AO-40’s telemetry beacon, built and launched by the Amateur Satellite service. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A bit of History <ul><li>Sputnik 1 was the world's first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. Launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How is a Satellite Designed
  7. 7. FM v Linear Transponder
  8. 8. Some important terms
  9. 9. Threats to Satellites
  10. 10. Orbital Comparison
  11. 11. Satellite Orbit Tracks
  12. 12. Inclined Orbit
  13. 13. Molnya
  14. 14. Satellite Coverage
  15. 15. High Earth Orbit (HEO)‏
  16. 16. Low Earth Orbit (LEO)‏
  17. 17. CubeSats <ul><li>Based on a 10cm cube but some can be a bit bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Operate in Amateur Satellite allocation </li></ul><ul><li>AX-25 protocol & others </li></ul>
  18. 18. Student Satellites <ul><li>PCSAT 1 </li></ul><ul><li>US Naval Academy Aerospace student project </li></ul><ul><li>APRS protocol </li></ul><ul><li>note the antennas! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Operation a Satellite
  20. 20. Ground Station Equipment <ul><li>Antennas (rotators)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Preamps </li></ul><ul><li>Radios </li></ul><ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking Software / Computers </li></ul>
  21. 21. Antennas <ul><li>Handheld antennas: </li></ul><ul><li>Good for portable ops (and SOTA)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Arrow Antennas </li></ul>Delfi-C3 transponder enabled
  22. 22. Antennas <ul><li>Handheld antennas: </li></ul><ul><li>DIY out available materials </li></ul><ul><li>You will need a Mux </li></ul>
  23. 23. Antennas <ul><li>Extreme portable!: </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Long, G6LVB </li></ul><ul><li>Used on AO-40 very successfully </li></ul>
  24. 24. Antennas <ul><li>Fixed Station: </li></ul><ul><li>Wimo X antenas </li></ul><ul><li>Yaesu G5500 rotator </li></ul><ul><li>Homebrew dish with modified LNB </li></ul>
  25. 25. Antennas <ul><li>Fixed Station for Cubesat C&C: </li></ul><ul><li>M2 antenas </li></ul><ul><li>M2 Rotator </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the GENSO network </li></ul>
  26. 26. Handheld Transceiver <ul><li>The minimum you need to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>TH-D7e </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Band </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex </li></ul><ul><li>APRS </li></ul><ul><li>CTCSS </li></ul>
  27. 27. Base Station <ul><li>FT-847 </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent sat capabilities but no longer in production </li></ul>
  28. 28. Base Station <ul><li>TS-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Really good all round radio with satellite facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Does have a birdie on SO-50 downlink! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Base Station <ul><li>IC-910 </li></ul><ul><li>VHF/UHF/L-Band </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for Satellite op's </li></ul><ul><li>Old ones were deaf </li></ul><ul><li>Mine's fine! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ideal Groundstation for LEO
  31. 31. What's Up! <ul><li>We have three types of satellite: </li></ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Deceased R.I.P. (not rust in piece, in space)‏ </li></ul>
  32. 32. Operational Satellites <ul><li>DO-64 Delfi-C3 Launch Date: April 28, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary telemetry downlink: 145.870 MHz 1200 Baud BPSK AX.25 400mW </li></ul><ul><li>Backup telemetry downlink: 145.930 MHz 1200 Baud BPSK AX.25 400mW </li></ul><ul><li>Linear transponder passband downlink: 145.880 - 145.920 MHz (inverting)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>400mW </li></ul><ul><li>Linear transponder passband uplink: 435.570 - 435.530 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Transponder mode beacon: 145.870 MHz CW (10dB below transponder PEP)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Delfi-C3 web page: http://www.delfic3.nl/ </li></ul>
  33. 33. Operational Satellites <ul><li>VO-52 HAMSAT Launch Date: May 05,2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Frequencies:Indian Transponder: </li></ul><ul><li>Uplink: 435.220 to 435.280 MHz LSB/CW </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink: 145.930 to 145.870 MHz USB/CW </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Transponder: </li></ul><ul><li>Uplink: 435.225 to 435.275 MHz LSB/CW </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink: 145.925 to 145.875 MHz USB/CW </li></ul><ul><li>Mode and Antenna Polarization: </li></ul><ul><li>V: LHCP U: RHCP </li></ul>
  34. 34. Operational Satellites <ul><li>AO-51 ECHO Launch date: June 29, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Analog voice downlink: 435.300 MHz FM / 435.150 MHz FM / 2401.200 Mhz FM </li></ul><ul><li>Analog voice uplink: 145.880 MHZ FM / 145.880 MHz USB / 145.920 MHz FM </li></ul><ul><li>1268.700 MHz FM 67Hz PL tone </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Downlinks: 435.150 MHz FM 38k4 PBP, 1 watt output </li></ul><ul><li>435.150 MHz FM 9k6 Pacsat Broadcast Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>2401.200 MHz FM 38k4 bps, AX.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Uplink: 145.860 MHz FM 9k6 Pacsat Broadcast Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>1268.700 mhz FM 9k6 PBP Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Beacon: 435.150 MHz </li></ul>
  35. 35. Operational Satellites <ul><li>SO-50 SAUDISAT-1C Launch date: December 20, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Uplink: 145.850 MHz FM - 67.0 Hz PL tone </li></ul><ul><li>Downlink: 436.795 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>To switch the transmitter on, you need to send a CTCSS tone of 74.4 Hz. </li></ul><ul><li>The order of operation is thus: (allow for Doppler as necessary): </li></ul><ul><li>1) Transmit on 145.850 MHz with a tone of 74.4 Hz to arm the 10 minute timer </li></ul><ul><li>on board the spacecraft. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Now transmit on 145.850 MHz (FM Voice) using 67.0 Hz to PT the </li></ul><ul><li>repeater on and off within the 10 Minute window. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Sending the 74.4 tone again within the 10 minute window will reset </li></ul><ul><li>the 10 minute timer. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Operational Satellites <ul><li>In addition, we have several satellites that have schedules under which they are operational due to current solar illumination conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>FO-29 JAS-2 </li></ul><ul><li>AO-27 AMRAD </li></ul><ul><li>AO-16 PACSAT </li></ul><ul><li>AO-7 AMSAT OSCAR 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Details can be found on the www.amsat.org site. </li></ul>
  37. 37. R.I.P. CP4 HO-59 HITSat NCUBE-2 XO-53 SSETI UWE-1 AO-49 AATiS OSCAR-49 (SAFIR-M)‏ MO-46 TIUNGSAT-1 NO-45 SAPPHIRE SO-42 SAUDISAT-1B SO-41 SAUDISAT-1A AO-40 AMSAT OSCAR 40 OO-38 OPAL UO-36 UoSAT-12 SO-35 SUNSAT PO-34 PANSAT SO-33 SEDSAT-1 TO-31 TMSAT-1 PO-28 POSAT-1 IO-26 ITAMSAT KO-25 KITSAT KO-23 KITSAT UO-22 UOSAT AO-21 AMSAT-OSCAR 21 FO-20 JAS-1b LIBERTAD-1 LO-19 LUSAT WO-18 WEBERSAT DO-17 Dove UO-14 UoSAT-3 FO-12 Fuji-OSCAR 12 AO-10 OSCAR 10 AO-8 AMSAT-OSCAR 8 AO-6 AMSAT-OSCAR 6 AO-5 Australis-OSCAR 5 OSCAR III RS-15 RADIO SPORT RS-15 RS-13 RADIO SPORT RS-13 RS-12 RADIO SPORT RS-12
  38. 38. Other Resources <ul><li>You can find more details about Amateur Satellite Operations on the www here: </li></ul><ul><li>www.amsat.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.amsat.de </li></ul><ul><li>www.amsat-dl.org </li></ul>
  39. 39. Not so subtle Advert <ul><li>Membership of AMSAT-UK costs £15/year </li></ul><ul><li>ALL money goes to funding Satellite related projects, fund now stands at £73K plus a £40K legacy </li></ul><ul><li>All committee give their time for free </li></ul><ul><li>Many current projects!!!! </li></ul>
  40. 40. What we covered, phew! <ul><li>Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>A bit of orbit theory </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite operation </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite modes </li></ul><ul><li>Ground station equipment </li></ul><ul><li>What's up! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Thank You We'll be in GB4FUN for the next few hours to answer any more questions. Or outside waving antennas at satellites! --... ...--

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