Engineering Franco Zambonelli      Socio-Technical Reggio Emilia                      Università di Modena eUrban Superorg...
E Pluribus Unum
Superorganisms•  Colonies(of(ants,(termites,(   etc.(•  Organisms(composed(of(   many(individual(ones(•  That(exhibit(final...
UrbanSuperorganisms•  Can(our(urban(   environments(become(   superorganisms?(•  What(could(this(actually(   mean?(•  Why(...
Smart Cities: From Senseable…•  Sensing what’s   happening  –  Via ICT devices     Sense%  –  And social     networks•  To...
…To Actuable•  We can “shape”   other than   understand           Sense%                    Act                           ...
…To Actuable•  We can “shape”   other than   understand           Sense%                    Act                           ...
Urban Superorganisms: ICT Side•  An ICT-enriched urban environment with rich   sensing, actuating, and computing (SAC) cap...
Urban Superorganisms: Human Side •  People with smart phones or alike (or whatever will    appear in the future as wearabl...
Urban Superorganisms: Putting All Together•  The ICT and Human/Social level   blurred to the point of invisibility:•  Comp...
Living in a Superorganism•  Collective vs individual awareness   –  Reflecting on ourselves as members of a community•  Be...
Collective Mobility, for Instance•  Mobility per se :: steer for car, bike, ride sharing•  Childcare :: steering & monitot...
The SAPERE Project•  SAPERE Self-aware Pervasive   Service Ecosystems  –  EU FP7 FET  –  Starting October 1st 2010, lastin...
The SAPERE Approach•  Nature-inspired (Biochemical)   –  Simply metaphor for combining/aggregating services      in a spon...
The SAPERE Architecture•  Humans & ICT Devices   –  Interact by injecting/      consuming service/data      components•  S...
The SAPERE Eco-laws•  Identification of 4 primitive eco-laws    –  Forming a necessary and complete set       bond    –  U...
The SAPERE Self-org Patterns•  Built upon the set of basic   eco-laws    –  Which can be       considered sorts of       “...
Steering Mobility in SAPERE
Programming SAPERE Apps•  Have SAPERE middleware launched   in the nodes to be involved•  Write agents that inject LSAs   ...
Steering Behaviors in SAPEREwith an Ecosystem of Displays
Open Challenges!  There    are many challenges to solve  !  Engineering and programming tools  !  Patterns of self-organiz...
Challenge: Engineering Tools!  Designing  !  How to represent collective urban situations?  !  How to turn it into collect...
Challenge: Patterns!  Given   the basic sense-understand-act loop schemes  !  At urban scale, multidutes of local/nested l...
Challenge:Top-down/Bottom-up!  Bottom-upself-organization and adaptation  !  Driven by emergence (often     implicit, e.g....
Traffic Steering:Top-down Control
Traffic Steering:Bottom-up Control  By Prof. Peter Stone  @UTA.edu
Traffic Steering:Mixing Top Down and Bottom up
The Roundabout Lesson:Engineering the environment•  The(shape(of(the(environment(   can(affect(the(behavior(of(selfE   orga...
Engineering the Environmentin SAPERE•  What does it means to “shape” the environment   –  Shaping its perception by compon...
Engineering the Environmentin SAPERE•  What does it means to “shape” the environment   –  Shaping its perception by compon...
Conclusions•  Our future cities will become sorts of superorganisms  •  Human & ICT tightly coupled  •  Collective partici...
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Engineering Self-organizing Urban Superorganisms

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Invited Talk at BIONETICS 2012 Conference, Lugano (CH), December 2012.

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Transcript of "Engineering Self-organizing Urban Superorganisms"

  1. 1. Engineering Franco Zambonelli Socio-Technical Reggio Emilia Università di Modena eUrban Superorganisms franco.zambonelli@unimore.it
  2. 2. E Pluribus Unum
  3. 3. Superorganisms•  Colonies(of(ants,(termites,( etc.(•  Organisms(composed(of( many(individual(ones(•  That(exhibit(finalized( collec>ve(par>cipa>ve( behaviors((or(“collec>ve( intelligence”)(
  4. 4. UrbanSuperorganisms•  Can(our(urban( environments(become( superorganisms?(•  What(could(this(actually( mean?(•  Why(socioEtechnical?(
  5. 5. Smart Cities: From Senseable…•  Sensing what’s happening –  Via ICT devices Sense% –  And social networks•  To better understand (via data analysis) Understand % –  City and social (compute)% dynamics –  At a global level
  6. 6. …To Actuable•  We can “shape” other than understand Sense% Act % (Steer) % –  Actuating ICT devices –  Steering human actions•  Closing the loop Understand % that enables (compute)% finalized urban behaviors possible
  7. 7. …To Actuable•  We can “shape” other than understand Sense% Act % (Steer) % –  Actuating ICT device –  Steering human actions•  Closing the loop Understand % that enables (compute)% finalized urban behaviors possible
  8. 8. Urban Superorganisms: ICT Side•  An ICT-enriched urban environment with rich sensing, actuating, and computing (SAC) capabilities –  Sensing: sensor networks, tags, smart objects,etc. –  Actuating: traffic controllers, public digital displays, critical infrastructures –  Computing: highly distributed and decentralized, with inter-connected computational engines everywhere
  9. 9. Urban Superorganisms: Human Side •  People with smart phones or alike (or whatever will appear in the future as wearable devices) contribute to such SAC capabilities –  Sensing: the 5 senses + smart phones –  Actuating: the body –  Computing: human & social intelligence
  10. 10. Urban Superorganisms: Putting All Together•  The ICT and Human/Social level blurred to the point of invisibility:•  Complementing each other in a process of high value co-creation•  In the resulting overall “urban organism”, we can achieve very high-levels of collective –  Perception –  Awareness –  Action•  Dramatically changing the way we move, live, work, and play, in our towns
  11. 11. Living in a Superorganism•  Collective vs individual awareness –  Reflecting on ourselves as members of a community•  Be capable of understanding and acting together in real time –  Immediate feedback to/from the community
  12. 12. Collective Mobility, for Instance•  Mobility per se :: steer for car, bike, ride sharing•  Childcare :: steering & monitoting children on their way to school•  Exhibitions :: steer to avoid crowd or suggest paths•  All of these requiring collective sensing awareness and action•  And can (should?) rely on bio-inspired solutions
  13. 13. The SAPERE Project•  SAPERE Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems –  EU FP7 FET –  Starting October 1st 2010, lasting 3 years•  Key Challenges –  To define and implement a framework for adaptive service ecosystems –  Models + Middleware –  Experience with pervasive urban services and pervasive displays
  14. 14. The SAPERE Approach•  Nature-inspired (Biochemical) –  Simply metaphor for combining/aggregating services in a spontaneous way –  Whether human or ICT ones•  Spatially-situated –  To match the nature of urban scenarios– Adaptive –  Spontaneous reconfiguration of activities and interactions
  15. 15. The SAPERE Architecture•  Humans & ICT Devices –  Interact by injecting/ consuming service/data components•  Service Components –  Execute in a sort virtual Spatial substrate –  Moving, acting, composing, as from eco-laws•  Eco Laws –  Rule local activities and interactions –  Apply based on state of local components –  Self-organization of collective behavior
  16. 16. The SAPERE Eco-laws•  Identification of 4 primitive eco-laws –  Forming a necessary and complete set bond –  Upon which to build more complex self-organization patterns•  The Eco-laws –  Bonding: sort of chemical bond, local connection of LSAs – subsuming discovery and invocation spread –  Spreading: diffusion of LSAs to neighbors, to enable non-local interactions –  Aggregation: sort of fusion, primitive aggr data reduction based on ODI functions –  Decay: evaporation and deletion of information, to perform decentralized garbage collection in a decentralized decay way
  17. 17. The SAPERE Self-org Patterns•  Built upon the set of basic eco-laws –  Which can be considered sorts of “primitive patterns”•  To define complex bio- inspired self-organization and self-composition behaviours –  Counterproof of the completeness and efficacy of the basic set
  18. 18. Steering Mobility in SAPERE
  19. 19. Programming SAPERE Apps•  Have SAPERE middleware launched in the nodes to be involved•  Write agents that inject LSAs –  To express services/ functionalities they made available –  To request (formal fields) the services/data/funtionalities they requires•  Exploit self-org patterns to realize specific distributed functionaities –  Gradients, Chemiotaxis, Context completion, etc.•  Let the SAPERE space react by triggering eco-laws and react to events (bond, spread, etc.)
  20. 20. Steering Behaviors in SAPEREwith an Ecosystem of Displays
  21. 21. Open Challenges!  There are many challenges to solve !  Engineering and programming tools !  Patterns of self-organization !  Top-down vs bottom-up approaches !  Incenvitives for participation!  Just to mention a few…
  22. 22. Challenge: Engineering Tools!  Designing !  How to represent collective urban situations? !  How to turn it into collective awareness? !  How to represent urban goals and plan of actions? !  Role of existing social networks in future ecosystems?!  Programming !  What programming languages and abstractions? !  How to trigger/deploy specific urban behaviors? !  How to measure the goodness/badness of behaviors?
  23. 23. Challenge: Patterns!  Given the basic sense-understand-act loop schemes !  At urban scale, multidutes of local/nested loops co-exists !  What are the architectural patterns by which such loops can be organized? !  What is the impact of different patterns on urban behaviors?!  Towhat extent we can “design” the shape of such loops? Breakpoint Token Next element to execute
  24. 24. Challenge:Top-down/Bottom-up!  Bottom-upself-organization and adaptation !  Driven by emergence (often implicit, e.g., stigmergic) feedback loop in interactions !  Very robust and efficient !  Cannot by designed by definition!  Top-down self-adaptation !  Explicit engineering of feedback loops !  Needed to enforce specific behaviors?!  Howwe can make the two co-exists?
  25. 25. Traffic Steering:Top-down Control
  26. 26. Traffic Steering:Bottom-up Control By Prof. Peter Stone @UTA.edu
  27. 27. Traffic Steering:Mixing Top Down and Bottom up
  28. 28. The Roundabout Lesson:Engineering the environment•  The(shape(of(the(environment( can(affect(the(behavior(of(selfE organizing(components( –  Without(undermining(their( autonomy( –  Without(losing(the(advantages(of( selfEorganiza>on( –  Yet(promo>ng(more(predictability(•  And(enabling(topEdown( engineering( –  The(shape(you(give(is(the( behavior(you(get(
  29. 29. Engineering the Environmentin SAPERE•  What does it means to “shape” the environment –  Shaping its perception by components –  Equivalent to the distort the way LSAs are perceived and propagate•  Very easy to implement but… –  Still to be verified its effectiveness and the ease of engineering top- down behaviors in this way
  30. 30. Engineering the Environmentin SAPERE•  What does it means to “shape” the environment –  Shaping its perception by components –  Equivalent to the distort the way LSAs are perceived and propagate•  Very easy to implement but… –  Still to be verified its effectiveness and the ease of engineering top- down behaviors in this way
  31. 31. Conclusions•  Our future cities will become sorts of superorganisms •  Human & ICT tightly coupled •  Collective participation and action •  Bio-inspired solutions at work in future cities•  How can we engineer these? •  SAPERE is doing some steps in the right direction •  Yet there are a lot of challenges to solve
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