Chapter 15 recycling of material found in municipal solid waste
GROUP 3 NURUL HAFIZA BINTI ABDUL HALIM FAIZAH BINTI ABDULLAH NOOR HIDAYU BINTI MOHD ASRI NOOR SYAHIDA BINTI ABDUL MUTHOLID MOHAMMAD AZIZI BIN AMRAN
Recycling is an important part of a sustainablelifestyle. It’s important for the future of the planet thatwe all live ’sustainably’ - in other words make the bestuse of limited natural resources.
Identification Meeting of material to specifications be diverted Identification for recovered of reuse and materials recycling opportunities Subsidies for Markets for recycling plastic program Key issue in material recycling Low value of Collection recoveredinfrastructures plastics Potential Lack of contamination infrastructure Low specific weight
Why has the aluminumrecycling been so successfulcompared with other commonpostconsumer waste materialssuch as newspaper, glass andplastics?
The reason is that postconsumer newspaper, glass, and plastic must compete against the raw material used for their manufacture, and these virgin material also are abundant and relatively cheap Aluminum ore must be imported Aluminum industry recognized the advantage of a domestic aluminum supply and established the necessary infrastructure for transportation and processing . A comparable infrastructure does not yet exist for other recyclable material.
Less energyEasy torecycle Less raw material Why bother recycling aluminum? Cost Less effective landfill
Glass constitutes approximately 8 percent by weight of MSW The benefits of recycling glass include -reuse of the material -energy saving -reduced use of landfill space -cleaner compost or an improved refuse-derived fuel (RDF) Glass bottle and Container -manufacture prefer to include cullet with the raw material because furnace temperature can be reduced significantly. - the disadvantage of using cullet from postconsumer is that it almost contain contaminates that can alter product color or quality
What happens to the glass we put into The bottle and jars are collectedthe glass bank? from the glass bank by lorries. The lorries keep the glass separated from the glass bank by lorries. Where does it go? Non-glass items are thrown out The bottles and jars arrive at the factory from the glass bank by lorries The crushed glass is called cullet. where they are crushed and cleaned.
High temperatures in the furnace melt the glass The melted glass is made into new Using old glass in the bottles and jars. furnace saves energy. The new bottles and jars are checked for faults.When the bottles and jars have beenfilledthey are sent to the shops to be sold. The bottles and jars are then sent to be filled.
We buy the new bottles and jars from theshop and take them back to the glassbank. The cycle begins again
What Not to Recycle Good Practice Recycling Consumers should not put glass bowls, cups, dishes or jugs into their glass recycling point or their doorstep collection. They should also not recycle light bulbs, window panes or electronic equipment with their bottles and jars. Following this advice helps the industry use more recycled glass, save more energy and reduce emissions and waste. Electronic Glass Light bulbs and other electronic equipment which have glass components contain many metal elements and a range of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium and should be disposed of by specialist companies. If the public use recycling points for these items it creates quality problems for glass manufacturers and reprocessors in all markets.
Glass Oven WareWe are all familiar with glass in the form of bowls, jugs and casserole dishesbetter known under the trade name Pyrex® or Vision Ware®.These items are made from a different type of glass to normal bottles and jarscalled Borosilicate glass. Around 10% boric oxide is added to the basic glass rawmaterials enabling the glass to withstand very high temperatures and rapidchanges from hot to cold.If consumers recycle these items with their glass bottles and jars it will becomebroken and mixed in with the other glass where it is visually impossible to tell thedifference.Borosilicate glass does not fully melt in the furnaces used to make glass forbottles and jars and so gets into the finished containers as small hard piecescalled “stones”. These “stones” form weaknesses in the bottles and jars which canlead to them breaking. In the factories making containers there is a range ofinspection equipment which checks every single bottle or jar made and detectsthe “stones”, stopping them going out to be filled with food or drinks.If the factories making glass bottles and jars find lots of “stones” in containersthey have to reduce the amount of recycled glass they are using until the problemstops.
The growth in use plastic in consumer products has occurred because plastic have largely replaced metal and glass as a container material and paper as a packaging material Several advantage -light and reduce shipping costs- durable and often provide a safer container- can formed into a variety of shapes and flexible- good insulator- well suited to wet foods and microwave oven use
Polyethylene terepthalate(P ETE) Mixed and High density multilayer polyethylene plastic (other) (HDFE) Type of plastic nowPolystyrene recycled Polyvinyl (PS) chloride (PVC) Low density Polypropylene polyethylene (PP) (LDPE)
Sorting and granulatorIncoming bales Bale breaker inspection Coloured PETE storage HDPE Mixed flake Washing Flotation tank system PETE detergent Centrifugal separator Spain dryer Air classifier Polypropylene Melt filtration Reclaim Electrostatic extruder separator PETE only Pelletizer Final product: Final product: HDPE pellets PETE flake Type flow diagram for the processing of recovered HDPE and PETE crushed for shipment
Reuse and recycling opportunities Retreading and Remanufacturing-EPA suggested that number of tire discard could be reduced if consumer bough better quality tires and purchase use retreaded tires Rubber-Modified Asphalt-wet process, crumb(finely ground) rubber is blended with asphalt at 400°F to form a chemical bond-dry process, the tire rubber is simply used as a substitute for aggregate Tire-Derived Fuel
Ferrous metal (iron and steel)and Nonferrous metals
Ferrous metals are metals derived from, or containing, iron, which is a highly magnetized, recyclable metal. Principal categories of ferrous metal now recovered from MSW are tin cans and scrap metal Scrap cansCan are often mixed with nonferrous materialNeed to be separated magnetically ,compacted and shipped to a detinning facilityMost detinning plants first shred the cansA vacuum system is used to remove these foreign materialThe shredded material is the sorted magnetically to remove aluminum and non ferrous material
The clean steel is then detinned either by heating in a kiln to votalize or by chemical process using sodium hydroxide and an oxidizing agent.• Copper extraction process
material RequirementBaled can scrap for steel companies Bales should be 2ft x 2ft x 2ft (or 3 ft) in size,with a specific weight of 75 to 80lb/ft³.cans may be baled without removal of paper labels,but must be free of water, palstic, wood and other debrisDensified biscuit scrap for steel Scrap should be stacked and banded into bundlescompanies with a density of 75 to 80lb/ft³. bundle weight is subject to negotiationBaled can scrap for detinning May be of varied dimension. Specific weight should nominally be 30lb/ft³,subject to negotiation. Wire or other steel banding is acceptable.Loose cans Loose cans (whole or flattened) are acceptable, subject to negotiationShredded can Shredded can (loose or baled) are acceptable, subject to negotiation