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  • 1. Txt2Smile: a Pilot toDecrease Stressthrough SmilingFrank ChenStanford UniversityTxt2Smile: Methods and Analysis 1
  • 2. 2 Outline  Txt2Sleep pilot study (3 day)  Mindfulness survey / test (2 days)  Txt2Smile as proxy for awareness and emotional happiness (3 days)Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 3. 3 Txt2Sleep Study •  3 Day study to encourage sleep •  7/8 participants accepted invitation • Graduate students & 2 recent graduates in busy lives, sleep sometimes suffers. •  Instructions include both carrot and stick “Studies have shown sleeping more drastically helps manage stress, mood, and weight-loss. I am trying to create better sleep for your schedule. 80% of Americans sleep much less than their bodies need and are in a constant state of sleep deprivation.” •  Asked for >7.5 hrs of sleep. ~ 66% compliance. 2 had early Monday flights, 1 had early Monday meeting, 1 had friends visiting entire weekend.Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 4. 4 Txt2Sleep Protocol •  Participants placed calendar entry to remind themselves to sleep for Friday, Saturday, Sunday. •  Calendar entry: “Go to bed!” Google Calendar lets you send text messages •  Every morning at 9:45 AM I text message each individual to ask how many hours they slept. •  I acknowledge accomplishments or improvements with message back: “Nice!” •  “Each morning I hope you will be able to sleep longer than the previous night! Think of it as a game. :)”Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 5. 5 Txt2Sleep Conclusions   Difficult to focus on results. Focus on awareness of sleeping patterns.   “I did not go to bed immediately … I wasn’t ready to go to bed” [P5, short sleeper, who slept ~ 8 hours a night but did not feel positive or negative effects]   “It allowed me to be somewhat routine about when I slept. [I forced myself to sleep before 1 AM]. Even before the alarm sounded I became aware that I needed to sleep” [P4, who slept slightly more and felt more rested]   Reminder through SMS did not trigger the “slap-on-wrist” response.   Participants placed this reminder themselves. Doing so decreased annoyance and increased efficacy.   Some included the exclamation mark in their calendar. Fun reminder as opposed to taking it seriously.Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 6. 6 Mindfulness Survey & 1-person Pilot •  Surveyed people who practiced meditation and mindfulness to hear attitudes experts took •  Surveyed 10 people, all of whom already meditate. 5 hoped for technologies to aid their meditation. •  Attitudes included “Acceptance”, “Patience”, and “Lovingkindness” as foci for wellness. •  Watched a friend watch Mindfulness tutorial from youtube. Watching 10 minute video did not lead to understanding or result I hoped for.Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 7. 7 Happiness as proxy for wellness •  Separate survey (from Stanford Med.) revealed emotional happiness is key measurement to wellness for n people. •  Instead of designing for meditative processes to increase wellness, focus on happiness, specifically through physical act of smiling. •  First tried a Tweet2Smile, didn’t catch. “RT this is you smiled”Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 8. 8 Txt2Smile Study •  3 day study to increase Smiles •  Text messaging tone very important (MH11). Cannot be too medical or prescriptive, but has to match fun & sexy vibe to have best effect. •  Sent two messages / day through 3 days. •  8 participants total for Txt2Smile •  Messages refined through days and were inspired by tone in BedSider text messages.Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 9. 9 Txt2Smile Protocol   First day messages were simple. Instructional, smiles were returned slowly, over the course of an hour of sending the message.   E.g. “Good morning! Stop for 10 secs. Smile! Text back :) when you do this.”   Second day messages very much in tune with participants. Good mix of fun and frisky tone. Smiles were returned immediately.   E.g. “Cinco de Mayo is spelled Drinko de Mayo. Take a deep breath; smile. Text me :) if you smiled. Stay safe!”   Third day messages were not very witty. Smiles were not returned for 1 of these…   E.g. “Every rule has an exception. Esp this one. Take a deep breath; smile. Text me :) if you smiled. Smiles are contagious.”Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 10. 10 Txt2Smile Results   Participants perhaps thought the purpose was to test jokes instead of a smile behavior training. This is indicated by response time when people returned smiles immediately based upon humor.   Phrasing has to be correct tonality for maximum results for happiness and smiles. Same message over and over again does not work.   Dry asking for smiles gets job done, though slow response time says not sustainable.   Mixing funny and frisky make response time quick which may be an indication of how sticky a text message is.Txt2Smile: Methods and Analysis
  • 11. 11 Find out more?  Research : www.designmindfulness.com  Twitter : @frankc / #CalmingTech  Personal : www.frankc.netTxt2Smile: Methods and Analysis