Moral DevelopmentLooking at the philosophy of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg regarding why and how people justify the decisions they make. S
Why are we learning this?S Learn about what affects us when we make decisionsS What should we be considering?S What are our concerns?
Piaget STAGES Senroi-Motor (birth-2years) Pre-Operational (2-7 years)Concrete Operational (7-11 years)Formal Operational (11 years and up)
Senroi-Motor •Differentiates self from objects(birth-2years) •Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set a mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise. •Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense
Pre- •Learns to use language and toOperational represent objects by images and(2-7 years) words •Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others •Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour
Concrete •Can think logically about objectsOperational and events(7-11 years) •Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) •Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
Formal •Can think logically about abstractOperational propositions and test hypothesis(11 years and up) systematically •Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
Kohlberg Level One: Stage 1: Punishment- •I should get my own way. Pre- Obedience Orientation •To get rewards and avoid punishments.Conventional Morality Stage 2: Instrumental •I should do what I’m told Relativist Orientation •To stay out of trouble
Level Two: Stage 3: Good Boy- •I should look out for myself, but be fair toConventional Nice Girl Orientation those who are fair to me. Morality •What’s in it for me? Stage 4: Law and •I should be a nice person and live up to Order Orientation the expectations of people I know and care about. •So others will think well of me and I can think well of myself.
KohlbergLevel Three Stage 5: Social •I should fulfill my Post- Contract Orientation responsibilities to the social orConventional value system I feel part of. Morality •To keep the system from falling apart and to maintain self- respect as somebody who meets my obligations Stage 6: Universal •I should show the greatest Ethical Principle possible respect for the rights Orientation and dignity of every individual person and should support a system that protects human rights. •The obligation of conscience to act in accordance with the principle of respect for all human beings.
Scenario InstructionsS Read the scenario and make a decision.S Once you have made your decision, link it to one of the stages of moral development.S Provide one supporting sentence that justifies the stage that you have selected.
Case Study – The Heinz DilemmaS Scenario 1 A woman was near death from a unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might save her. The drug costs $4,000 per dosage. The sick womans husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000. He asked the doctor scientist who discovered the drug for a discount or let him pay later. But the doctor scientist refused. Should Heinz break into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not?
Case Study – The Heinz DilemmaS Scenario 2 Heinz broke into the laboratory and stole the drug. The next day, the newspapers reported the break-in and theft. Brown, a police officer and a friend of Heinz remembered seeing Heinz last evening, behaving suspiciously near the laboratory. Later that night, he saw Heinz running away from the laboratory. Should Brown report what he saw? Why or why not?
Case Study – The Heinz DilemmaS Scenario 3 Officer Brown reported what he saw. Heinz was arrested and brought to court. If convicted, he faces up to two years jail. Heinz was found guilty. Should the judge sentence Heinz to prison? Why or why not?
What would you do?S Consider your own experience – Where are you according to the stages of Moral development?