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Planning And Managing The Project
 

Planning And Managing The Project

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Module in Software Engineering

Module in Software Engineering

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    Planning And Managing The Project Planning And Managing The Project Presentation Transcript

    • Planning & Managing the Project MODULE 3 In this Module, we look at
      • tracking project progress
      • project personnel and organization
      • effort and schedule estimation
      • risk management
      • using process modeling with project planning
    • TRACKING PROJECT PROGRESS
      • Project tracking is essential to monitor project progress
      • and identify any project slippage or time delay.
      • Treat effective time tracking as an early warning
      • system.
      • Effective project tracking allows the project manager to
      • see emerging problems and deal with them before they
      • become big problems or impact the project schedule.
      • Given the high project failure rate it is important to
      • ensure that a method exists to relate the project plan –
      • schedule, tasks and named resources - to time tracking
      • of that project schedule and its tasks.
    • EFFECTIVE PROJECT TRACKING
      • Clear project tasks with a named resource for ensuring
      • its completion to schedule
      • Commitment of named resource to complete task
      • according to schedule
      • Regular project team meetings to discuss and update
      • on progress and identify any dependencies and
      • potential risks
      • Regular verbal updates of progress with all named
      • resources and identification of any dependencies and
      • risks, especially competing project tasks or worse
      • external factors such as competing projects. These are
      • additional to project team meetings and designed to
      • ensure that the project manager is very closely in touch
      • with project progress
    • TRACKING PROJECT PROGRESS
      • Accurate and regular project reporting of progress and
      • % complete of tasks based on team and individual
      • updates
    • RECORDING TIME TRACKING
      • Projects involving more than a few people quickly
      • develop a long list of tasks and dependencies and these
      • must be held in some dedicated software as opposed to
      • some manual paper-based method or a spreadsheet.
      • This is because it becomes very complex very quickly to
      • keep a project plan up to date.
      • Project time tracking is primarily about recording the
      • time taken by individuals to complete their tasks.
      • Ideally timesheets for recording time are linked into the
      • same software that records the project tasks so that
      • updating the timesheet automatically updates the %
      • complete of the assigned tasks. If not, then the project
      • manager must update the project plan with project
      • progress.
    • MANAGING TIME DELAY Every time delay matters but not every time delay requires corrective action, a simple rule of thumb is:
      • One time delay to an important task triggers an offer of help and if refused the project manager maintains a watching brief and special attention on that task's completion
      2. A second time delay to the same task triggers immediate project manager action help to solve the issue and to mitigate any further risk of a time delay that impacts the project schedule
    • MANAGING TIME DELAY 3. A third time delay to an important task is significant enough to consider re-planning and the project manager should convene a project team meeting of the experts and key stakeholders to consider the options
    • PROJECT MONITORING - All of these project tracking and time tracking activities will ensure that the project manager is in touch with progress and able to react to deviations from the project plan very quickly. - Reacting to a time delay is critical to a successful project and effective project monitoring is an important part of project risk management.
    • WAYS TO MANAGE PROJECTS ON TIME AND ON BUDGET Here are seven suggested ways to manage a project on time and on budget: 1. Clearly Defined Project Scope 2. Properly Identified Resources Requirements 3. Sustained Balance of ‘Process’ and ‘People’ Factors 4. Utility of Tools and Techniques 5. Keeping Responsible Team Members 6. Applying Constant Project Review and Evaluation, and Immediately Address all Setbacks 7. Regular Communication with the Relevant Project Players
    • A FINAL PROJECT INSIGHT - During the post-implementation review, the project is evaluated for client satisfaction, timing and resource effectiveness and individual performance. For a project well done, that is, on time and on budget, it is a fulfilling moment for the team to celebrate. - Managers who use these suggestions are most likely to succeed in their projects. And perhaps even deliver projects ahead of time and under-budget.
    • WHAT MAKES A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT MANAGER? - Good project manager is essential to a successful project but being a successful project manager is more than the result of project management training; it takes ability. - Asking the question -- what makes a successful project manager?
    • GOOD PROJECT MANAGER SKILLS Good project manager skills will include: 1. Understanding and possibly formal training in at least one structured project management (waterfall) methodology such as PMI or PRINCE2 and an iterative method such as Agile 2. Effective leadership skills, primarily the ability to get things done through other people 3. General soft-skills such as communication skills, problem-solving skills 4. General knowledge on related topics such as software development lifecycle, quality management systems, ITIL service management and the like
    • KNOWING-DOING GAP - The knowing-doing gap is like the keen tennis (or chess or project management...) amateur knowing what to do and how to do it but they cannot do it themselves or at least not to the standard that the professionals or world champions do. This knowing-doing gap is what really differentiates between those who can and those who think they can.
    • PROJECT REPORTING ON A PROJECT STATUS CHECKLIST - Project status reporting is a key communication tool for the project. Use a project report checklist to ensure that content is concise and complete for intended audience. - A project status report should be based on a set report format, preferably just one, which is then used for the content targeted at the various stakeholders. - The project should have already identified the various stakeholder groups, the frequency and type of project reporting. Importantly, if more than one report format is used the key project messages should be consistent.
    • PROJECT STATUS REPORT - STAKEHOLDER NEEDS Project reports will be produced for project tracking and project monitoring but it must address the needs of the stakeholders receiving the project report. Those needs typically include: 1. Current, accurate information on project progress and RAG (Red, Amber, Green) Status*
      • RAG Status is a simple way to indicate the project status using a traffic
      • light metaphor:
      • Red = project is either very delayed or significantly over budget or
      • both
      • Amber = project is delayed or over budget or both
      • Green = project is on track to deliver as scheduled and within budget
      • tolerances [such as +/- 10%]
    • PROJECT STATUS REPORT - STAKEHOLDER NEEDS 2. Barriers to successful project delivery and what the project team is doing to remove barriers 3. Understanding of business impact and change 4. What actions stakeholders need to take, if any
    • PROJECT STATUS REPORT CHECKLIST The project status report must focus on being current, accurate, concise, complete and it must address one or more of the stakeholders needs. The checklist of key content should include:
      • Current RAG status
      • Status of outstanding actions from previous
      • reports/meetings
      • Project progress for key project tasks, especially those
      • with significant business impact or involving a significant
      • number of project team members
      • Key third party tasks, especially for vendors or contract
      • resource
    • PROJECT STATUS REPORT CHECKLIST
      • Key dependencies with related projects or programme
      • activities
      • Status of resources and expectations for resource
      • management
      • Key risks regarding people, process and technology and
      • project risk mitigation plan
      • Management of current issues and their status
      • Current progress regarding project deliverables and
      • documentation
      • Status of inter-related or delegated accountabilities
      • such as business change management
      • Clear identification of stakeholder actions needed, if any
      • Actions from project reviews, if any
    • PROJECT REPORTING
      • Project reporting done well will ensure that stakeholders feel well informed and that the project communication is working.
      • Use the checklist in conjunction with a strong emphasis on being concise.
      • Project reports that contain a lot of words but say very little of substance will soon be devalued by being ignored.
      • Brevity is critical to ensuring that stakeholders will take the time to read it and absorb the content.
      • Consequently do not try to report on everything - only those items of real significance to people not interested in the project level of detail.
    • PROJECT EVALUATION AND SELECTING PROJECT METRICS
      • Project management metrics are important to the extent that they are used for project process improvement. The intent of project metrics is clear performance improvement.
      • The reasons for doing a project should be results-oriented and benefit driven and consequently there should be targeted benefit measures to demonstrate success.
      • Ideally, benefits management will start the project and continue when the project has ended. Project metrics are in-process or project execution measures that are collected, analyzed and used to drive project process improvement.
    • REASONS FOR PROJECT METRICS Project metrics require time and effort and so that work is done for usually one of these reasons:
      • To provide clear and tangible project status information about project schedule and cost
      • To identify areas for project process improvement
      • To demonstrate the results of process improvement efforts
      • To collect a database of project metrics to analyze trend information or provide historic comparators and perhaps used for parametric estimates
    • REASONS FOR PROJECT METRICS Key project management metrics include:
      • Schedule - delivery date and slippage in days from
      • original delivery date
      • 2. Cost - actual budget versus original budget key project
      • management metrics include:
      • 3. Resource - effort, how much time people have used on
      • the project
      • 4. Scope - changes to project as measured through
      • number and type of controlled changes made
    • REASONS FOR PROJECT METRICS 5. Quality - quality defects and documentation 6. Software - a specialised subject with many potential measures such as lines of code, code complexity and function point 7. Defects - number and type of problems or issues recorded for the technology project during its test stage and warranty period or a defined time period
    • REASONS FOR PROJECT METRICS 5. Quality - quality defects and documentation 6. Software - a specialised subject with many potential measures such as lines of code, code complexity and function point 7. Defects - number and type of problems or issues recorded for the technology project during its test stage and warranty period or a defined time period
    • PROJECT EVALUATION
      • Project evaluation is a function of meeting original objectives for expected benefits and also the in-process project execution. Benefits should drive project initiation and so the key focus for project metrics should be to improve project processes. That is the real value of project metrics - the positive changes that they can drive, leading to more successful projects.
      • Project closure is the final phase of any project. It is just as important as the other project phases of initiating, planning and monitoring. However, not many companies pay sufficient attention to this phase and others just do not bother with it at all.
    • PROJECT EVALUATION A project can be terminated two (2) ways. Firstly, there is natural closure. This occurs when the project requirements have all been met. Secondly, there is unnatural closure. This occurs when some assumptions prove to be false, performance is inadequate or the project's requirements have changed and are no longer valid. The most frequent causes of unnatural closure are time and money.
    • BENEFITS OF PROJECT CLOSURE Project closure must be recognized and documented. For the best possible project closure, the project team must perform the following activities:
      • Closeout begins on the first day of the planning phase;
      • Review outstanding work packages or activities;
      • Confirm that resources are still available to perform any remaining work;
      • Review change control log to identify any outstanding change requests;
      • Check with sales and marketing to identify any outstanding items with the customers; and
      • Prepare all project documentation for a post-project review.
    • BENEFITS OF PROJECT CLOSURE There are also certain activities which the (overall) company must perform. They are:
      • Identify and release available resources;
      • Notify the transition team of the upcoming turnover;
      • Prepare any necessary performance evaluations; and
      • Notify the accounting section and conduct internal
      • review processes.
    • RISK MONITORING AND CONTROL - Risk control is working the risk management plan while, at the same time, ensuring the plan is still valid. The project team must continuously make sure that assumptions are still valid. - They must also review the risks and probabilities for accuracy. - Risk monitoring control is performed at the concept phase of the project and ends at the close-our phase. It should be included in the regular communication process of the project. - Risk control is also performed prior and the during the risk event. It is performed whenever there are changes to the project scope and on a regularly scheduled basis.
    • RISK MONITORING AND CONTROL - Risk control is working the risk management plan while, at the same time, ensuring the plan is still valid. The project team must continuously make sure that assumptions are still valid. - They must also review the risks and probabilities for accuracy. - Risk monitoring control is performed at the concept phase of the project and ends at the close-our phase. It should be included in the regular communication process of the project. - Risk control is also performed prior and the during the risk event. It is performed whenever there are changes to the project scope and on a regularly scheduled basis.