HBO - Job Design & Goal Setting


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HBO - Job Design & Goal Setting

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HBO - Job Design & Goal Setting

  1. 1. Motivating Performance Through Job Design & Goal Setting Presented by: For-Ian V. Sandoval with Team LSPU
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Discuss the background of job design as an applied </li></ul><ul><li>area of work motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Define the various techniques and approaches to job </li></ul><ul><li>design </li></ul><ul><li>Explain goal-setting theory and guidelines from </li></ul><ul><li>research </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the application of goal setting to overall </li></ul><ul><li>systems performance </li></ul>
  3. 3. JOB DESIGN
  4. 4. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at </li></ul><ul><li>reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and </li></ul><ul><li>employee alienation arising from repetitive and </li></ul><ul><li>mechanistic tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Through job design, organizations try to raise </li></ul><ul><li>productivity levels by offering non-monetary </li></ul><ul><li>rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense </li></ul><ul><li>of personal achievement in meeting the </li></ul><ul><li>increased challenge and responsibility of one's </li></ul><ul><li>work. </li></ul>
  5. 5. JOB DESIGN <ul><li>Essential to reduced job stress, motivation can </li></ul><ul><li>be enhanced, and satisfaction of employees and </li></ul><ul><li>their performance can be improved that </li></ul><ul><li>organizations can effectively compete in the </li></ul><ul><li>global market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Various techniques and approaches to job design. JOB DESIGN Job Engineering Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Simplification Social Information Processing Quality of Work Life
  7. 7. JOB ENGINEERING <ul><li>Scientific management / industrial approach </li></ul><ul><li>concerned with product, process, and design </li></ul><ul><li>tool design; plant layout; standard operating </li></ul><ul><li>procedures; wok measurement and standards; </li></ul><ul><li>worker methods; and human-machine </li></ul><ul><li>interactions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. JOB ENLARGEMENT <ul><li>Job design technique in which the number of </li></ul><ul><li>tasks associated with a job is increased (and </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate training provided) to add greater </li></ul><ul><li>variety to activities, thus reducing monotony. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a horizontal restructuring method in that </li></ul><ul><li>the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. Job </li></ul><ul><li>enlargement may also result in greater </li></ul><ul><li>workforce flexibility. </li></ul>
  9. 9. JOB ROTATION <ul><li>Job design technique in which employees are </li></ul><ul><li>moved between two or more jobs in a planned </li></ul><ul><li>manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective is to expose the employees to </li></ul><ul><li>different experiences and wider variety of skills </li></ul><ul><li>to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train </li></ul><ul><li>them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. JOB SIMPLIFICATION <ul><li>Job design technique in which jobs are broken </li></ul><ul><li>into relatively simple tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>It aims at greater productivity through reduced </li></ul><ul><li>application of mental and/or physical effort. </li></ul>
  11. 11. JOB ENRICHMENT <ul><li>Job design technique that is a variation on job </li></ul><ul><li>enlargement, job rotation and job simplification </li></ul><ul><li>concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment adds new sources of job </li></ul><ul><li>satisfaction by increasing the level of </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility of the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a vertical restructuring method in that it </li></ul><ul><li>gives the employee additional authority, </li></ul><ul><li>autonomy, and control over the way the job is </li></ul><ul><li>accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called job enhancement or vertical job </li></ul><ul><li>expansion. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Hackman-Oldham core job characteristics approach to task design. Significance of the Task Core Job Characteristics Variety of Skill Identity of the task Autonomy Feedback Critical Psychological State Experienced Meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of results From work activities Personal & Work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low turnover & absenteeism Moderated by employee growth need strength
  13. 13. DIAGNOSING & MEASURING OF TASK SCOPE <ul><li>Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) </li></ul>Formula: Note: MPS – Motivating Potential Score JDS Link MPS = skill variety + task identify + task significance 3 x autonomy x feedback
  14. 14. GUIDELINES FOR REDESIGNING JOBS Core Job Characteristics Guidelines for Practice Skill Variety Provide cross-training Expand duties requiring more skills Task Identity Give projects Form work modules Task Significance Communicate importance of the job Enhance image of the organization Autonomy Empower to make decisions Give more responsibility & Accountability Feedback Implement information system (IS) Supervisors give objective, Immediate information
  15. 15. SOCIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH (SIPA) Three (3) major causes of a job holder’s perceptions, attitudes and actual behavior: 1. The jobholder’s cognitive evaluation of the real task environment. 2. The jobholder’s past actions including reinforcement history learning. 3. The information that the immediate social context provides
  16. 16. SOCIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH (SIPA) Attributional process combined w/ SIPA: 1. Choice 2. Revocability 3. Publicness 4. Explicitness 5. Social norms and expectations 6. External priming
  17. 17. QUALITY OF LIFE WORK (QLW) & SOCIOTECHNICAL DESIGN <ul><li>More concerned with the overall climate of </li></ul><ul><li>work </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about the impact of work on people </li></ul><ul><li>as well as organizational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of participation in organizational </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>The overriding purpose of QWL is to change </li></ul><ul><li>the climate at work so that the human- </li></ul><ul><li>technological-organizational interface lads to a </li></ul><ul><li>better quality of work life. </li></ul>
  18. 18. QUALITY OF LIFE WORK (QLW) & SOCIOTECHNICAL DESIGN <ul><li>Sociotechnical approach is concerned with the </li></ul><ul><li>interface and harmony between personal, social </li></ul><ul><li>and technological functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>It translates into the redesign of technological </li></ul><ul><li>process and the formation of autonomous, self- </li></ul><ul><li>regulating work groups or teams. </li></ul>
  19. 19. GOAL SETTING
  20. 20. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>Involves establishing specific, measurable and </li></ul><ul><li>time targeted objectives </li></ul><ul><li>It is an effective tool for making progress by </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring that participants are clearly aware of </li></ul><ul><li>what is expected from them, if an objective is to </li></ul><ul><li>be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>On a personal level, setting goals is a process </li></ul><ul><li>that allows people to specify then work towards </li></ul><ul><li>their own objectives - most commonly with </li></ul><ul><li>financial or career-based goals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>It should be tangible, specific, realistic and have a </li></ul><ul><li>time targeted for completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting also requires motivation & </li></ul><ul><li>commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Goals provide a sense of direction and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Goals provide a sense of direction and purpose </li></ul>
  22. 22. GOAL SETTING Four mechanisms through which goal setting is able to affect individual performance: 1. Goals focus attention towards goal-relevant activities and away from goal-irrelevant activities. 2. Goals serve as an energizer; higher goals will induce greater effort while low goals induce lesser effort.
  23. 23. GOAL SETTING 3. Goals affect persistence; constraints with regard to resources will affect work pace. 4. Goals activate cognitive knowledge and strategies which allows employees to cope with the situation at hand.
  24. 24. GOAL SETTING Moderators which indicate the success of goal setting: <ul><li>1. Goal Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>People will perform better when they are committed to achieve certain goals. Goal commitment is dependent of : </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of the expected outcomes of goal attainment and; </li></ul><ul><li>b. Self-efficacy; ones belief that (s) he is able to achieve the goals. </li></ul>
  25. 25. GOAL SETTING 2. Feedback Keep track of performance to allow employees to see how effective they have been in attaining the goals. Without proper feedback channels it is impossible to adapt or adjust to the required behavior. 3. Task complexity More difficult goals require more cognitive strategies and well developed skills. The more difficult the tasks ahead, a smaller group of people will possess the necessary skills and strategies. From an organizational perspective it is thereby more difficult to successfully attain more difficult goals since resources become more scarce.
  26. 26. GOAL SETTING 4. Employee Motivation The more employees are motivated, the more they are stimulated and interested in accepting goals. 5. Macro-economical characteristics The position of the economy in the conjucture puts pressure or simply relieves the organization. This means that some goals are easier set in specific macro-economical surroundings. Depression is for instance the least successful conjucturial phase for goal setting.
  27. 27. GOAL SETTING Guidelines to improve performance through goal setting: 1. Specific goals 2. Difficult, challenging goals 3. “Owned” and accepted goals 4. Objective, timely feedback about progress toward goals
  28. 28. GOAL SETTING Practical limitations in goal setting: 1. Difficult goals increases the level of risk managers and employees are willing to take 2. Inhibited subjects from helping others who were requesting assistance, which has implications for teamwork 3. Difficult goals may lead to stress, put perpetual ceiling on performance, cause the employees to ignore non-goal areas 4. Encourage short-range thinking, dishonesty or cheating.
  29. 29. The application of goal setting to system performance. Set overall objectives &action Develop the organization Set individual Objectives &action plans Conduct final appraisal Of result Conduct periodic appraisal & provide Feedback on progress; make adjustments
  30. 30. Thank You!