0
Ins to FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL
   truc r:
            fvs nd va ya o o
               a o l@ ho .c m
 http w .s e ha .ne a o l...
 A d ta a em d l is a the ry o s e ific tio d s rib
     a bs oe              o r p c a n e c ing
  ho ad ta a eiss ture ...
1. Hie rc a Mo e
      ra hic l    dl
2 Ne o Mo e
 . tw rk       dl
3 Re tio l Mo e
 . la na        dl
4 Entity-Re tio hip...
1. Fla Mo e
      t   dl
2 As o ia Mo e
 . s c tive d l
3 C nc p
 . o e t-Orie dMo e
                nte  dl
4 Entity-Attr...
 A hie rc a d ta m d l is a d ta m d l in w h the
       ra hic l a  oe         a    oe       hic
    d taiso a dinto atr...
An o a tio ha re o s o e p ye s in a ta le
      rg niza n d c rd f m lo e                     b
(entity typ ) c lle "Em l...
EmpNo      Designation    ReportsTo
   10       Director
   20       Senior Manager   10
   30       Typist           20
 ...
 A tre s tureis a w y o re re e
       e truc       a f p s nting thehie rc a
                                        ra ...
A tre s ture s w
      e truc    ho ing the p s ib hie rc a
                            o s le   ra hic l
o a tio o a e yc...
1. Inte t: Us ne hie rc Do um nt Ob c Mo e
       rne   e t ra hy,   c e      je t d l's
     lo ic l s ture Ya o s je t i...
The a m ny w ys o vis lly re re e
         re re a      a   f    ua    p s nting tree
s ture . Alm s a a , the e b il d w ...
C s ic l no e
        la s a    d -link d g m , tha c nne t no e
                           ia ra s   t o c      ds
to e r...
Ne te s ts tha us e lo ure o inm nt to s w
        s d e       t e nc s /c nta e         ho
p re
 a ntho d
       o


    ...
La re "ic le d g m tha us a nm nt/a ja e y:
  ye d ic " ia ra s t e lig e d c nc


     +-------------------+
           |...
Lis o d g m tha us ind nta n, s m tim s c lle
   ts r ia ra s t e e tio o e e a d
"outline " o "tre vie s
        s r     ...
Ne te p re s s ac rre p nd nc firs no e b Sir
   s d a nthe e , o s o e e t tic d y
 Arthur C yle
         a y



science,...
 A hie rc a q ry isatyp o SQL q ry tha ha le
       ra hic l ue      e f     ue     t nd s
 hie rc a m d l d ta
    ra hi...
SELECT select_list
FROM table_expression
[ WHERE ... ]
[ START WITH start_expression ]
CONNECT BY { PRIOR parent_expr = ch...
SELECT LEVEL, LPAD (' ', 2 * (LEVEL - 1)) || ename "employee", empno, mgr
 FROM emp START WITH mgr IS NULL
 CONNECT BY PRI...
 Theo ut o theq ry w uldlo k like
      utp f     ue   o     o      :
          level | employee     | empno | mgr
      ...
 The network model is a d ta a e m d l c nc ive a a
                          a bs oe o e d s
  fle le w y o re re e
    ...
 The ne o m d l is a va tio o the hie rc a
        tw rk o e       ria n n       ra hic l
  m d l.
    oe
 Theo e tio o ...
1. Turb IMAGE
       o
    IMAGE is the p a re s n tha the HP 0 0 w s a
                     rim ry a o       t      30 a
...
2 IDMS(Inte ra d Da b s Ma g m nt Sys m
 .           g te    ta a e na e e      te )
   IDMS (Inte ra d Da b s Ma g m nt S...
3 RDM Em e d d
 .          bde
   RDM Embedded (fo Raima Database Manager) is
                      r
   a hig p rfo ing A...
4 RDM Se r
 .         rve
   RDM Se r isAC
            rve   ID-c m lia c nt/s rve
                      o p nt lie e r
  ...
 A d ta a e b s d o the re tio l m d l d ve p d b
     a b s ae n            la na o e e lo e y
  E.F. C d .
        od
...
1. Va sa a m
     lue re to ic
2 Ea h ro isuniq
 . c w          ue
3 C lum va so thes m kind
 . o n lue f        a e
4 The...
 This p p rty im lie tha c lum in a re tio l ta le
        ro e     p s t o ns            la na b
  a no re e tingg upo a...
 This p p rty e ure tha no tw ro s in a re tio l
        ro e    ns s t        o w          la na
  ta lea id ntic l.
   ...
 In re tio l te sthism a tha a va sin ac lum
       la na rm        e ns t ll lue     o n
  c m fro thes m d m in.
   o e...
 This p p rty s te tha the o e
        ro e    ta s t       rd ring o the c lum in
                                      ...
 This p p rty is a lo o the o a o b a p s to
        ro e       na g us    ne b ve ut p lie
  ro sins a o c lum .
    w  ...
 Be a e the s q nc o c lum is ins nific nt,
    c us      e ue e f o ns       ig    a
  c lum m t b re re e b na e a no b...
Example of Relational Model
 An o je t-re tio l
      b c la na        d ta a e (ORD), o o je t-
                        a bs               r b c
  r...
 An o je t-re tio l d ta a e c n b s id to p vid a
      b c la na a b s a e a                  ro e
 m d g und b tw e re...
Example of Object-Relational Model
In c m uting o je t m d l ha tw re te b d tinc
     o p      , b c o e s o la d ut is t
  ma e ning :
           s
1. The ...
2 A c lle tio o o je ts o c s e thro h w h a
 .      o c n f b c r la s s              ug     hic
  p g m cn e m
   ro ra ...
Example of Object Model for Paint Application
 The Entity-Re tio hip (ER) m d l w s o ina
               la ns          o e a rig lly
  p p s d b P te in 19 [C n76 a a...
 It m p w ll to there tio l m d l. Thec ns tsus d
      as e            la na o e         o truc  e
  in the ER m d l c n...
The ER m d l vie s the re l w rld a a c ns t o
           oe     w      a o        s  o truc f
entitie a a s c tio b tw e ...
9 Type
 .
10 Existence
   .
11. Generalization Hierarchies
12 ER Notation
  .
 Entitie a the p ip l d ta o je t a o w h
         s re    rinc a a    b c b ut hic
 info a n isto b c lle te .
     rm t...
 An entity o c nc (a o c lle a ins nc ) is a
             c urre e ls a d n     ta e      n
 ind ua o c nc o a e
    ivid...
 As o ia
    s c tive entitie (a o kno n a inte e tio e
                    s ls     w s      rs c n ntitie )
           ...
 A Re tio hip re re e a a s c tio b tw e tw o
      la ns      p s nts n s o ia n e e n o r
 m ree
  o ntitie .
         ...
 Attrib s d s rib the e
        ute e c e       ntity o w h the a
                               f hic   y re
 a s c te ....
 Id ntifie , m re c m o
    e      rs  o    o m nly c lle ke , uniq ly
                             a d    ys     ue
 id ...
 Re tio hip
    la ns s       are c s ifie
                        la s d b   y the ir d g e
                            ...
 The d g e o a re tio hip is the num e o e
       e re f     la ns              b r f ntities
 a s c te w there tio hip
 ...
 A te ry re tio hip invo s thre e
      rna   la ns        lve    e ntitie a is us d
                                    ...
 Thec nne tivity o are tio hip d s rib sthem p ing
      o c          f   la ns     ec e        ap
 o a s c te e
  f s o ...
 A one-to-many (1:N) re tio hip isw n fo o
                        la ns s     he r ne
 ins nc o e
    ta e f ntity A, th...
 A many-to-many (M:N) re tio hip s m tim sc lle
                         la ns , o e e a d
 no p c , isw n fo o ins nc o ...
 The d c n o a re tio hip ind a s the o ina
       ire tio f  la ns       ic te     rig ting
 entity o ab ry re tio hip
 ...
 If b th e
       o ntitie a ind p nd nt, thed c n isa itra
               s re e e e          ire tio     rb ry.
W   it...
 An id ntifying re tio hip is o in w h o o the
       e           la ns        ne   hic ne f
 childentitie isa oad p nd n...
 Exis nc d no s w the the e te e o a e
      te e e te he r        xis nc f n ntity
 ins nc is d p nd nt up n the e te e ...
 If theins nc o thee
           ta e f    ntity isno re uire , it iso tio l.
                               t q d        ...
 A g ne liza n hie rc is a fo o a s c n tha
     e ra tio      ra hy      rm f b tra tio t
 s e ifie tha tw o m re e
  p ...
 Fo e m le W g s
    r xa p , a e _Em lo e a
                    p ye s nd
  C s ifie _Em lo e re re e c te o so thes m
 ...
 Thec m le ne sc ns int re uire tha a ins nc s
      o p te s o tra       q s t ll ta e
  o thes typ b re re e d in thes ...
 The is no s nd rd fo re re e
     re      ta a     r p s nting d ta o je ts in ER
                                   a b...
 Ea h s
    c tyle us s a s e ia s t o s b ls to re re e the
             e     p c l e f ym o          p s nt
 c rd lity...
 Thes b lsus d fo theb s ER c ns tsa :
      ym o   e r       a ic   o truc re
1. Entities a re re e d b la e d re ta le ...
4 Cardinality o m ny is re re e d b a line e ing in
 .              f a       p s nte y            nd
   a c w fo t. If th...
Exa p o ER No tio
   m le f    ta n
05 Database Models
05 Database Models
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05 Database Models

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Transcript of "05 Database Models"

  1. 1. Ins to FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL truc r: fvs nd va ya o o a o l@ ho .c m http w .s e ha .ne a o l ://w w lid s re t/fvs nd va
  2. 2.  A d ta a em d l is a the ry o s e ific tio d s rib a bs oe o r p c a n e c ing ho ad ta a eiss ture a us d w a bs truc d nd e .  Als kno n a Database Schema o w s  Sc m s a g ne lly s re in a d ta d tio ry a he a re e ra to d a ic na nd o n us d to re r to a g p a d p tio o the fte e fe ra hic l e ic n f d ta a es ture a b s truc .  It a o d fine a s t o o e tio tha c n b p rfo e ls e s e f p ra ns t a e e rm d o thed ta n a .
  3. 3. 1. Hie rc a Mo e ra hic l dl 2 Ne o Mo e . tw rk dl 3 Re tio l Mo e . la na dl 4 Entity-Re tio hipMo e . la ns dl 5 Ob c la na Mo e . je t-Re tio l dl 6 Ob c Mo e . je t dl
  4. 4. 1. Fla Mo e t dl 2 As o ia Mo e . s c tive d l 3 C nc p . o e t-Orie dMo e nte dl 4 Entity-Attrib -Va Mo e . ute lue d l 5 Info a n Mo e . rm tio dl 6 Multi-Dim ns na Mo e . e io l dl 7. Se a Da Mo e m ntic ta d l 8 Se i-Struc . m tureMo e dl 9 Sta Sc m Mo e . r he a d l 10 XML Da b s Mo e . ta a e d l 11. C nte Mo e o xt dl
  5. 5.  A hie rc a d ta m d l is a d ta m d l in w h the ra hic l a oe a oe hic d taiso a dinto atre -likes ture a rg nize e truc .  All a ute o a s e ific re o a lis d und r a ttrib s f pc c rd re te e n entity typ . e  An e ntity typ isthee uiva nt o ata le e q le f b .  Ea h ind ua re o is re re e d a a ro a a c ivid l c rd p s nte s w nd n a utea ac lum ttrib s o n.  Entity typ s a re te to e c o r us e re la d a h the ing 1: N m p ing a okno n a o -to a re tio hip . a p , ls w s ne -m ny la ns s  IMS is the m s re o nize a us d hie rc a o t c g d nd e ra hic l d ta a ed ve p db IBM. a b s e lo e y
  6. 6. An o a tio ha re o s o e p ye s in a ta le rg niza n d c rd f m lo e b (entity typ ) c lle "Em lo e ". In the ta le the w uld e a d p ye s b re o b a ute /c lum s h a Firs Na e La t Na e J b e ttrib s o ns uc s t m, s m, o Na e a W g . The c m a a o ha d ta a o the m nd a e o p ny ls s a b ut e p ye ’ c re in a s p ra ta le c lle "C re m lo e s hild n e a te b a d hild n" w a ute s h a Firs Na e La t Na e a d teo ith ttrib s uc s t m , s m , nd a f birth. TheEm lo eta lere re e ap re s g e a p ye b p s nts a nt e m nt nd the C re ta le re re e a C hild n b p s nts hild s g e The e tw e m nt. s o s g e fo a hie rc w re a e p ye m y ha e m nts rm ra hy he n m lo e a ve m ny c re b e c c a hild n, ut a h hildm y o ha o p re a nly ve ne a nt.
  7. 7. EmpNo Designation ReportsTo 10 Director 20 Senior Manager 10 30 Typist 20 40 Programmer 20 •W n theP a Ke a ac m o fie , it isc lle a he rim ry y s o m n ld a d foreign key in thes c nd ta le eo b .
  8. 8.  A tre s tureis a w y o re re e e truc a f p s nting thehie rc a ra hic l natureo as turein ag p a fo . f truc ra hic l rm  It is na e a "tre s ture b c us the c s ic md e truc " e a e la s re re e tio lo ks a b like a tre , e n tho h the p s nta n o it e ve ug tre is g ne lly s w up id d w c m a d w a e e ra ho n s e o n o p re ith re l tre ; tha is to s y w the ro t a the to a the a e t a ith o t p nd le ve a theb tto . a s t o m
  9. 9. A tre s ture s w e truc ho ing the p s ib hie rc a o s le ra hic l o a tio o a e yc p d . rg niza n f n nc lo e ia
  10. 10. 1. Inte t: Us ne hie rc Do um nt Ob c Mo e rne e t ra hy, c e je t d l's lo ic l s ture Ya o s je t ind x, Op n g a truc , ho ! ub c e e Dire to P je t c ry ro c 2. Info a n m na e e De e De im l Sys m rm tio a g m nt: w y c a te 3. Ma g m nt: hie rc a o a tio l s ture na e e ra hic l rg niza na truc s 4. C m ute Sc nc : b ry s a h tre Re -Bla k Tre o p r ie e ina e rc e d c e AVL tre e 5. Bio g e lutio ry tre lo y: vo na e 6. Bus s : p m s llings he e ine s yra id e c m 7. P je t m na e e w rk b a o n s ture ro c a g m nt: o re kd w truc 8. Ling tic (s x): P s s turetre s uis s ynta hra e truc e
  11. 11. The a m ny w ys o vis lly re re e re re a a f ua p s nting tree s ture . Alm s a a , the e b il d w to va tio , o truc s o t lw ys s o o n ria ns r c m ina ns o afe b s s s o b tio , f w a ic tyle : 1. C s ic l no e la s a d -link d g m ia ra s 2 Ne te s ts . s d e 3 La re "ic le d g m . ye d ic " ia ra s 4 Outline a tre vie s . s nd e w 5 Ne te p re s s . s d a nthe e
  12. 12. C s ic l no e la s a d -link d g m , tha c nne t no e ia ra s t o c ds to e r w lines g e : g the ith e m nts encyclopedia / science culture / art craft
  13. 13. Ne te s ts tha us e lo ure o inm nt to s w s d e t e nc s /c nta e ho p re a ntho d o +------encyclopedia------+ | +--culture--+ | | science |art craft| | | +-----------+ | +------------------------+
  14. 14. La re "ic le d g m tha us a nm nt/a ja e y: ye d ic " ia ra s t e lig e d c nc +-------------------+ | encyclopedia | +---------+---------+ | science | culture | +---------+---+-----+ |art|craft| +---+-----+
  15. 15. Lis o d g m tha us ind nta n, s m tim s c lle ts r ia ra s t e e tio o e e a d "outline " o "tre vie s s r e w ": encyclopedia science culture art craft
  16. 16. Ne te p re s s ac rre p nd nc firs no e b Sir s d a nthe e , o s o e e t tic d y Arthur C yle a y science, ((art, craft)culture)encyclopedia
  17. 17.  A hie rc a q ry isatyp o SQL q ry tha ha le ra hic l ue e f ue t nd s hie rc a m d l d ta ra hic l o e a .  Sta a SQL s e ifie hie rc a q rie b w y o nd rd p c s ra hic l ue s y a f re urs common table expressions (C ). Re urs c ive TEs c ive CTEs a s p rte b s te s inc ing IBM DB2 re up o d y ys m lud , Mic s ft SQL Se r, Fire ird 2 nd P s re ro o rve b .1a o tg SQL 8 . .4  An a rna lte tive s x is the no ta a C ynta n-s nd rd ONNECT BY c ns t. "CONNECT BY is s p rte b o truc " up o d y Ente ris DB a Ora led ta a e rp e nd c a bs.
  18. 18. SELECT select_list FROM table_expression [ WHERE ... ] [ START WITH start_expression ] CONNECT BY { PRIOR parent_expr = child_expr | child_expr = PRIOR parent_expr } [ ORDER SIBLINGS BY column1 [ ASC | DESC ] [, column2 [ ASC | DESC ] ] ... [ GROUP BY ... ] [ HAVING ... ] ...
  19. 19. SELECT LEVEL, LPAD (' ', 2 * (LEVEL - 1)) || ename "employee", empno, mgr FROM emp START WITH mgr IS NULL CONNECT BY PRIOR empno = mgr;
  20. 20.  Theo ut o theq ry w uldlo k like utp f ue o o : level | employee | empno | mgr -------+-------------+-------+------ 1 | KING | 7839 | 2 | JONES | 7566 | 7839 3 | SCOTT | 7788 | 7566 4 | ADAMS | 7876 | 7788 3 | FORD | 7902 | 7566 4 | SMITH | 7369 | 7902 2 | BLAKE | 7698 | 7839 3 | ALLEN | 7499 | 7698 3 | WARD | 7521 | 7698 3 | MARTIN | 7654 | 7698 3 | TURNER | 7844 | 7698 3 | JAMES | 7900 | 7698 2 | CLARK | 7782 | 7839 3 | MILLER | 7934 | 7782 (14 rows)
  21. 21.  The network model is a d ta a e m d l c nc ive a a a bs oe o e d s fle le w y o re re e xib a f p s nting o je ts a b c nd their re tio hip . la ns s  The ne otw rk m d l o a s d ta us oe rg nize a ing two fund m nta c ns ts c lle re o sa s ts a e l o truc , a d c rd nd e .  Re o s c nta fie s (w h m y b o a d c rd o in ld hic a e rg nize hie rc a ra hic lly, a in the p g m ing la ua e s ro ra m ng g  C ts (no to b c nfus d w m the a a s ts d fine SeOBOL) t e o e ith a m tic l e ) e o -to a re tio hip b tw e re o s o o ne ne -m ny la ns s e e n c rd : ne w r, m ny m m e . a e b rs
  22. 22.  The ne o m d l is a va tio o the hie rc a tw rk o e ria n n ra hic l m d l. oe  Theo e tio o thene o m d l a na a na in p ra ns f tw rk o e re vig tio l s : a p g m m inta tyle ro ra a ins a c nt p s n, a urre o itio nd na a s fro o re o to a the b fo w the vig te m ne c rd no r y llo ing re tio hip in w h there o p rtic a s la ns s hic c rd a ip te .  Re o sc n a ob lo a d b s p c rd a ls e c te y up lyingke va s y lue .
  23. 23. 1. Turb IMAGE o IMAGE is the p a re s n tha the HP 0 0 w s a rim ry a o t 30 a s c s . It is a re b , s p , fa t d ta a efo MP uc e s lia le im le s a b s r E. Afte a o a d c d o e nc m nts it w s re m d r b ut e a e f nha e e a na e Turb IMAGE, the Turb IMAGE/XL a r the P o n o fte A- RISC m ra n. P g m c n a c s a up a ig tio ro ra s a c e s nd d te re o s us IMAGE intrins s To a it is kno n a c rd ing ic . d y w s IMAGE/SQL b c us it inc e a SQL (Struc d ea e lud s n ture Que La ua e fro nd a c nt-s rve s p rt ry ng g ) nte nd lie e r up o fo P a c s o . r C c e s rs
  24. 24. 2 IDMS(Inte ra d Da b s Ma g m nt Sys m . g te ta a e na e e te ) IDMS (Inte ra d Da b s Ma g m nt Sys m is a g te ta a e na e e te ) (ne o C tw rk) ODASYL d ta a e m na e e s te a bs a g m nt ys m firs d ve p d a B.F. Go d h a la r m rke d b t e lo e t o ric nd te a te y C ullina Da b s Sys m (re m d C ne ta a e te s na e ulline in t 19 3 Sinc 19 9 the p d t ha b e o ne b 8 ). e 8 ro uc s en w d y C m ute As o ia s w re m dit C o p r s c te , ho na e A-IDMS.
  25. 25. 3 RDM Em e d d . bde RDM Embedded (fo Raima Database Manager) is r a hig p rfo ing AC h e rm ID-c m lia o p nt e b d e medd d ta a e m na e e lib ry d s ne fo b th d k a b s a g m nt ra e ig d r o is bsd a ae nd in-m m ry e b d e s te s a e o m e d d ys m nd a p a ns RDM Em e d d c n run p ly in m in p lic tio . bde a ure a m m ry (a o kno n a a in-m m ry d ta a e o e o ls w s n e o a bs, r IMDB), p ly o d k, o in m d m d s ring p rts ure n is r ixe o e to a o the d ta e in-m m ry a p rts o is RDM f a st e o nd a n-d k. Em e d d ha a p ve tra k re o firs re a e in bde s ro n c c rd t le s d 19 4 c unting o r 2 ,0 0 0 ins lla ns in a 8 o ve 5 0 ,0 0 ta tio ll kind o e b d e s te sa a p a ns s f m e d d ys m nd p lic tio .
  26. 26. 4 RDM Se r . rve RDM Se r isAC rve ID-c m lia c nt/s rve o p nt lie e r e b d e d ta a es te d s ne fo b th d k m e d d a b s ys m e ig d r o is b s da in-m m ry e b d e s te sa a e nd e o m e d d ys m nd a p a ns p lic tio .
  27. 27.  A d ta a e b s d o the re tio l m d l d ve p d b a b s ae n la na o e e lo e y E.F. C d . od  Re tio l d ta a e a w the d finitio o d ta la na a b s llo s e n f a s ture , s ra e a re va o e tio a inte rity truc s to g nd trie l p ra ns nd g c ns ints o tra .  A d ta a e the d ta a re tio b tw e the a a bs a nd la ns e e n m re o a d in ta le . rg nize b s  A ta le is a c lle tio o re o s a e c re o in a b o c n f c rd nd a h c rd ta lec nta thes m fie s b o ins a e ld .
  28. 28. 1. Va sa a m lue re to ic 2 Ea h ro isuniq . c w ue 3 C lum va so thes m kind . o n lue f a e 4 Thes q nc o c lum isins nific nt . e ue e f o n ig a 5 Thes q nc o ro isins nific nt . e ue e f w ig a 6 Ea h c lum ha auniq na e . c o n s ue m
  29. 29.  This p p rty im lie tha c lum in a re tio l ta le ro e p s t o ns la na b a no re e tingg upo a ys re t p a ro r rra .  Suc ta le a re rre to a b ing in the "firs no a h b s re fe d s e t rm l fo " (1NF). rm  The a m va to ic lue p p rty o re tio l ta le is ro e f la na b s im o nt b c us it is o o the c rne to s o the p rta e a e ne f o rs ne f re tio l m d l. la na o e  The ke b ne o the o va y e fit f ne lue p p rty is tha it ro e t s p sd tam nip tio lo ic im lifie a a ula n g .
  30. 30.  This p p rty e ure tha no tw ro s in a re tio l ro e ns s t o w la na ta lea id ntic l. b re e a  The is a le s o c lum o s t o c lum , the re t a t ne o n, r e f o ns va so w h uniq ly id ntify e c ro in theta le lue f hic ue e ah w b .  Suc c lum a c lle p a ke . h o ns re a d rim ry ys  This p p rty g ra e tha e ry ro in a re tio l ro e ua nte s t ve w la na ta le is m a b e ning a tha a s e ific ro c n b ful nd t pc w a e id ntifie b s e ifyingthep a ke va . e d y pc rim ry y lue
  31. 31.  In re tio l te sthism a tha a va sin ac lum la na rm e ns t ll lue o n c m fro thes m d m in. o e m a e o a  A d m in isas t o va sw h ac lum m y ha . o a e f lue hic o n a ve  This p p rty s p s d ta a c s b c us d ve p rs ro e im lifie a c e s e a e e lo e a us rs c n b c rta o thetyp o d ta c nta d in nd e a e e in f e f a o ine ag n c lum ive o n.  It a o s p sd tava a n. ls im lifie a lid tio  Be a e a va s a fro the s m d m in, the c us ll lue re m a e o a d m in c n b d fine a e rc d w the Da o a a e e d nd nfo e ith ta Definitio La ua e(DDL) o thed ta a es ftw re n ng g f a bs o a .
  32. 32.  This p p rty s te tha the o e ro e ta s t rd ring o the c lum in f o ns there tio l ta leha no m a la na b s e ning .  C lum c n b re ve in a o e a in va us o ns a e trie d ny rd r nd rio s q nc s e ue e .  It e b s m ny us rs to s re the s m ta le w ut na le a e ha a e b itho c nc rn o ho theta leiso a d o e f w b rg nize .  It a o p rm the p ic l s ture o the d ta a e to ls e its hys a truc f a bs c ng w ut a c ha e itho ffe tingthere tio l ta le . la na b s
  33. 33.  This p p rty is a lo o the o a o b a p s to ro e na g us ne b ve ut p lie ro sins a o c lum . w te d f o ns  Ad inginfo a n to are tio l ta leiss p d a d rm tio la na b im lifie nd d e no a c e tingq rie . o s t ffe t xis ue s  Ad inginfo a n to are tio l ta leiss p d a d rm tio la na b im lifie nd d e no a c e tingq rie . o s t ffe t xis ue s
  34. 34.  Be a e the s q nc o c lum is ins nific nt, c us e ue e f o ns ig a c lum m t b re re e b na e a no b o ns us e fe nc d y m nd t y  p so n. n na e ne d no b uniq w o itio A c lum m e t e ue ithin a e n ntire d ta a eb o w a b s ut nly ithin theta letow h it b lo s b hic e ng .
  35. 35. Example of Relational Model
  36. 36.  An o je t-re tio l b c la na d ta a e (ORD), o o je t- a bs r b c re tio l d ta a e m na e e s te (ORDBMS), is la na a b s a g m nt ys m a d ta a e m na e e s te (DBMS) s ila to a a b s a g m nt ys m im r re tio l d ta a e la na a b s  An o je t-o nte d ta a e m d l: o je ts c s e a b c rie d a b s o e b c , la s s nd inhe nc a d c s p rte in d ta a e s he a rita e re ire tly up o d a b s c ms a in theq ry la ua e nd ue ng g .  It s p rts e ns n o the d ta m d l w c to up o xte io f a o e ith us m d ta e a m tho s a -typ s nd e d .
  37. 37.  An o je t-re tio l d ta a e c n b s id to p vid a b c la na a b s a e a ro e m d g und b tw e re tio l d ta a e a o je t- id le ro e e n la na a b s s nd b c o nte d ta a e (OODBMS). rie d a b s s  In o je t-re tio l d ta a e , thea p a h ise s ntia b c la na a b s s p ro c s e lly tha o re tio l d ta a e : the d ta re id s in the t f la na a b s s a s e d ta a e a is m nip te c lle tive w q rie in a b s nd a ula d o c ly ith ue s aq ry la ua e ue ng g ;  a the o r e m a OODBMSe in w h the t the xtre e re s hic d ta a e is e s ntia a p rs te o je t s re fo a bs s e lly e is nt b c to r s ftw re w n in a o je t-o nte p g m ing o a ritte n b c rie d ro ra m la ua e w a p g m ing AP fo s ring a ng g , ith ro ra m I r to nd re ving o je ts a little o no s e ific s p rt fo trie b c , nd r pc up o r q rying ue .
  38. 38. Example of Object-Relational Model
  39. 39. In c m uting o je t m d l ha tw re te b d tinc o p , b c o e s o la d ut is t ma e ning : s 1. The p p rtie o o je ts in g ne l, in a s e ific ro e s f b c e ra pc c m ute p g m ing la ua e te hno g no tio o p r ro ra m ng g , c lo y, ta n o m tho o g tha us s the . Fo e m le the J va r e d lo y t e m r xa p , a o je t m d l, the C b c oe OM o je t m d l, o the o je t b c oe r b c m d l o OMT. Suc o je t m d ls a us lly d fine oe f h b c o e re ua e d us ing c nc p s h a c s , m s a e inhe nc , o e ts uc s la s e s g , rita e p lym rp m a e a s tio The is a e ns o o his , nd nc p ula n. re n xte ive lite tureo fo a d o je t m d ls a a s s t o the ra n rm lize b c o e s ub e f fo a s m ntic o p g m ingla ua e . rm l e a s f ro ra m ng g s
  40. 40. 2 A c lle tio o o je ts o c s e thro h w h a . o c n f b c r la s s ug hic p g m cn e m ro ra a xa ine a m nip te s m s e ific nd a ula o e p c p rts o its w rld In o r w rd , the o je t-o nte a f o . the o s b c rie d inte c to s m s rvic o s te . Suc a inte c is rfa e o e e e r ys m h n rfa e s id to b theo je t m d l o there re e d s rvic o a e b c oe f p s nte e e r s te . Fo e m le the Do um nt Ob c Mo e ys m r xa p , c e je t dl (DOM) isac lle tio o o je tstha re re e ap g in o c n f b c t p s nt a e a w b b w e us d b s rip p g m to e m a e ro s r, e y c t ro ra s xa ine nd d m a c ng thep g . The isaMic s ft Exc l yna ic lly ha e ae re ro o e o je t m d l fo c ntro b c oe r o lling Mic s ft Exc l fro ro o e m a the p g m a the ASC no r ro ra , nd OM Te s o e Drive is le c p r a o je t m d l fo c ntro n b c oe r o lling a a tro m a n s no ic l te s o e le c p .
  41. 41. Example of Object Model for Paint Application
  42. 42.  The Entity-Re tio hip (ER) m d l w s o ina la ns o e a rig lly p p s d b P te in 19 [C n76 a a w y to unify ro o e y e r 76 he ] s a thene o a re tio l d ta a evie s tw rk nd la na a b s w  ER m d l isa c nc p l d ta m d l tha vie sthere l oe o e tua a oe t w a w rld a e o s ntitie a re tio hip . s nd la ns s  A b s c m o nt o the m d l is the Entity- a ic o p ne f oe Re tio hip d g mw h isus d to vis lly re re e la ns ia ra hic e ua p s nt d tao je ts a b c .
  43. 43.  It m p w ll to there tio l m d l. Thec ns tsus d as e la na o e o truc e in the ER m d l c n e s o e a a ily b tra fo e into e ns rm d re tio l ta le . la na b s  It is s p a e s to und rs nd w a m im le nd a y e ta ith inim o um f training The fo , the m d l c n b us d b the . re re oe a e e y d ta a e d s ne to c m unic te the d s n to the e a b s e ig r o m a e ig nd us r. e  In a d n, the m d l c n b us d a a d s n p n b d itio o e a e e s e ig la y the d ta a e d ve p r to im le e a d ta m d l in a b s e lo e p m nt a oe s e ificd ta a em na e e s ftw re pc a b s a g m nt o a .
  44. 44. The ER m d l vie s the re l w rld a a c ns t o oe w a o s o truc f entitie a a s c tio b tw e e s nd s o ia n e e n ntitie . s 1. Entities 2 Special Entity Types . 3 Attributes . 4 Relationships . 5 Classifying Relationships . 6 Degree of a Relationship . 7. Connectivity and Cardinality 8 Direction .
  45. 45. 9 Type . 10 Existence . 11. Generalization Hierarchies 12 ER Notation .
  46. 46.  Entitie a the p ip l d ta o je t a o w h s re rinc a a b c b ut hic info a n isto b c lle te . rm tio e o c d  Entitie a us lly re o niza le c nc p , e r s re ua cg b o e ts ithe c nc te o a s c s h a p rs n, p c s thing , o o re r b tra t, uc s e o la e , s r e ntsw h ha re va eto thed ta a e ve hic ve le nc a bs.  Entitie a c s ifie a ind p nd nt o d p nd nt (in s re la s d s e e e r e e e s m m tho o g s the te s us d a s ng a o e e d lo ie , rm e re tro nd w a re p c ly). e k, s e tive  An ind p nd nt e ee e ntity is o tha d e no re o ne t o s t ly n a the fo id ntific tio no r r e a n.  A d p nd nt e e e e ntity is o tha re s o a the fo ne t lie n no r r id ntific tio e a n.
  47. 47.  An entity o c nc (a o c lle a ins nc ) is a c urre e ls a d n ta e n ind ua o c nc o a e ivid l c urre e f n ntity.  An o c nc is a lo o to a ro in the re tio l c urre e na g us w la na ta le b .
  48. 48.  As o ia s c tive entitie (a o kno n a inte e tio e s ls w s rs c n ntitie ) s a e re ntitie us d to a s c te tw o m re e s e s o ia o r o ntitie ins o e to re o ileam ny-to a re tio hip rd r c nc a -m ny la ns .  Sub e e typ s ntitie a us d in g ne liza n hie rc s s re e e ra tio ra hie to re re e a s s t o ins nc s o the p re e p s nt ub e f ta e f ir a nt ntity, c lle the s e e b w h ha a ute o a d up rtyp , ut hic ve ttrib s r re tio hip tha a p o tothes s t. la ns s t p ly nly ub e
  49. 49.  A Re tio hip re re e a a s c tio b tw e tw o la ns p s nts n s o ia n e e n o r m ree o ntitie . s  An e m leo are tio hipw uld b : xa p f la ns o e e p ye sa a s ne top je ts m lo e re s ig d ro c p je tsha s ta ks ro c ve ub s d p rtm ntsm na eo o m rep je ts ea e a g ne r o ro c  Re tio hip a c s ifie in te so d g e la ns s re la s d rm f e re , c nne tivity, c rd lity, a e te e o c a ina nd xis nc .
  50. 50.  Attrib s d s rib the e ute e c e ntity o w h the a f hic y re a s c te . s o ia d  A p rtic r ins nc o a a uteisava . a ula ta e f n ttrib lue  Fo e m le "J ne R. Ha w y" is o va o the r xa p , a tha a ne lue f a uteNa e ttrib m.  The d m in o a a ute is the c lle tio o a o a f n ttrib o c n f ll p s ib va s a a ute c n ha . The d m in o o s le lue n ttrib a ve o a f Na eisac ra te s m ha c r tring.  Attrib sc n b c s ifie a id ntifie o d s rip rs ute a e la s d s e rs r e c to .
  51. 51.  Id ntifie , m re c m o e rs o o m nly c lle ke , uniq ly a d ys ue id ntify a ins nc o a e e n ta e f n ntity.  A d s rip r d s rib s a no e c to e c e n-uniq c ra te tic o a ue ha c ris f n entity ins nc . ta e
  52. 52.  Re tio hip la ns s are c s ifie la s d b y the ir d g e e re , c nne tivity, c rd lity, d c n, typ , a e te e o c a ina ire tio e nd xis nc .  No a t ll m d ling m tho o g s us a oe e d lo ie e ll the e s c s ific tio . la s a ns
  53. 53.  The d g e o a re tio hip is the num e o e e re f la ns b r f ntities a s c te w there tio hip s o ia d ith la ns .  Then-a re tio hip istheg ne l fo fo d g en. ry la ns e ra rm r e re  Sp c l c s s a the b ry, a te ry, w re the e ia a e re ina nd rna he d g eis2 a 3 re p c ly. e re , nd , s e tive  Bina ry re tio hip , the a s c tio b tw e tw la ns s s o ia n e e n o entitie isthem s c m o typ in there l w rld s ot o mn e a o .  A re urs b ry re tio hip o c w n a e c ive ina la ns c urs he n ntity is re te to its lf. An e m lem ht b "s m e p ye s la d e xa p ig e o e m lo e a m rrie to o r e p ye s re a d the m lo e ".
  54. 54.  A te ry re tio hip invo s thre e rna la ns lve e ntitie a is us d s nd e w n ab ry re tio hipisina e ua . he ina la ns d q te  Many m d ling a p a he re o nize o oe p ro c s c g nly b ry ina re tio hip . la ns s  Te ry o n-a re tio hip a d c m o e into tw rna r ry la ns s re e o p s d o o m reb ry re tio hip . r o ina la ns s
  55. 55.  Thec nne tivity o are tio hip d s rib sthem p ing o c f la ns ec e ap o a s c te e f s o ia d ntity ins nc sin there tio hip ta e la ns .  Theva so c nne tivity a "o " o "m ny". lue f o c re ne r a  The c rd lity o a re tio hip is the a tua num e o a ina f la ns c l br f re te o c nc sfo e c o thetw e la d c urre e r a h f o ntitie . s  Theb s typ s o c nne tivity fo re tio a : o -to a ic e f o c r la ns re ne - o , o -to a a m ny-to a ne ne -m ny, nd a -m ny.  A one-to-one (1:1) re tio hip is w n a m s o la ns he t o t ne ins nc o a e ta e f ntity A is a s c te w o ins nc o s o ia d ith ne ta e f entity B. Fo e m le "e p ye s in the c m a a r xa p , m lo e o p ny re e c a s ne the o n o e Fo e c e p ye the a h s ig d ir w ffic . r a h m lo e re e ts a uniq o e a fo e c o e the e ts a xis ue ffic nd r a h ffic re xis uniq e p ye . ue m lo e
  56. 56.  A one-to-many (1:N) re tio hip isw n fo o la ns s he r ne ins nc o e ta e f ntity A, the a ze , o , o m ny re re ro ne r a ins nc so e ta e f ntity B, b fo o ins nc o e ut r ne ta e f ntity B, the iso o ins nc o e re nly ne ta e f ntity A. An e m leo a xa p f 1:N re tio hip is la ns s ad p rtm nt ha m ny e p ye s ea e s a m lo e e c e p ye isa s ne to o d p rtm nt a h m lo e s ig d ne e a e
  57. 57.  A many-to-many (M:N) re tio hip s m tim sc lle la ns , o e e a d no p c , isw n fo o ins nc o e n-s e ific he r ne ta e f ntity A, the re a ze , o , o m ny ins nc so e re ro ne r a ta e f ntity B a fo o nd r ne ins nc o e ta e f ntity B the a ze , o , o m ny re re ro ne r a ins nc so e ta e f ntity A. An e m leis xa p : e p ye sc n b a s ne tono m retha tw m lo e a e s ig d o n o p je tsa thes m tim ; ro c t a e e p je tsm t ha a s ne a le s thre ro c us ve s ig d t a t e e p ye s m lo e
  58. 58.  The d c n o a re tio hip ind a s the o ina ire tio f la ns ic te rig ting entity o ab ry re tio hip f ina la ns .  The entity fro w h a re tio hip o ina s is the m hic la ns rig te p re e a nt ntity; the e ntity w re the re tio hip he la ns te ina sisthec rm te hild entity.  The d c n o a re tio hip is d te ine b its ire tio f la ns e rm d y c nne tivity. o c  In a o -to ne re tio hip the d c n is fro the ne -o la ns ire tio m ind p nd nt e e e e ntity to ad p nd nt e e e e ntity.
  59. 59.  If b th e o ntitie a ind p nd nt, thed c n isa itra s re e e e ire tio rb ry. W ith o -to a re tio hip , the e ne -m ny la ns s ntity o c c urring o eisthep re nc a nt.  Thed c n o m ny-to a re tio hip isa itra ire tio f a -m ny la ns s rb ry.
  60. 60.  An id ntifying re tio hip is o in w h o o the e la ns ne hic ne f childentitie isa oad p nd nt e s ls e e e ntity.  A no e n-id ntifying re tio hip is o in w h b th la ns ne hic o entitie a ind p nd nt. s re e e e
  61. 61.  Exis nc d no s w the the e te e o a e te e e te he r xis nc f n ntity ins nc is d p nd nt up n the e te e o a the ta e ee e o xis nc f no r, re te , e la d ntity ins nc . ta e  Thee te eo a e xis nc f n ntity in a re tio hip is d fine a la ns e d s e r m nd to o o tio l. ithe a a ry r p na  If a ins nc o a e n ta e f n ntity m t a a o c fo a us lw ys c ur r n entity to b inc e in a re tio hip the it is e lud d la ns , n m nd to An e m le o m nd to e te e is the a a ry. xa p f a a ry xis nc s te e "e ry p je t m t b m na e b a s le ta m nt ve ro c us e a g d y ing d p rtm nt". ea e
  62. 62.  If theins nc o thee ta e f ntity isno re uire , it iso tio l. t q d p na An e m le o o tio l e te e is the s te e xa p f p na xis nc ta m nt, "e p ye sm y b a s ne tow rk o p je ts m lo e a e s ig d o n ro c ".
  63. 63.  A g ne liza n hie rc is a fo o a s c n tha e ra tio ra hy rm f b tra tio t s e ifie tha tw o m re e p c s t o r o ntitie tha s re c m o s t ha o m n a ute c n b g ne lize into a hig r le l e ttrib s a e e ra d he ve ntity typ c lle as e eo g ne e e a d up rtyp r e ric ntity.  The lo e ve o e w r-le l f ntitie b c m the s typ , o s eo e ub e r c te o s to the s e e Sub e a d p nd nt a g rie , up rtyp . typ s re e e e entitie . s  Ge ra tio o c ne liza n c urs w n tw o m re e he o r o ntities re re e c te o so thes m re l-w rld o je t. p s nt a g rie f a e a o b c
  64. 64.  Fo e m le W g s r xa p , a e _Em lo e a p ye s nd C s ifie _Em lo e re re e c te o so thes m la s d p ye s p s nt a g rie f a e entity, Em lo e . In thise m le Em lo e w uld b p ye s xa p , p ye s o e thes e e W g s up rtyp ; a e _Em lo e a p ye s nd C s ifie _Em lo e w uldb thes typ s la s d p ye s o e ub e .  Sub e c n b e r m typ s a e ithe utua e lus (d jo lly xc ive is int) or o rla p (inc ive ve p ing lus ).  Amutua e lus c te o isw n a e lly xc ive a g ry he n ntity ins nc ta e c n b in o o c te o a e nly ne a g ry.  An o rla p c te o isw n a e ve p ing a g ry he n ntity ins nc m y ta e a b in tw o m re s typ s An e m le w uld b a e o r o ub e . xa p o e p rs n w w rks fo a unive ity c uld a o b a e o ho o r rs o ls e s e a tha s m unive ity. tud nt t t a e rs
  65. 65.  Thec m le ne sc ns int re uire tha a ins nc s o p te s o tra q s t ll ta e o thes typ b re re e d in thes e e f ub e e p s nte up rtyp .  Ge ra tio hie rc s c n b ne te . Tha is a ne liza n ra hie a e s d t , s typ o o hie rc c n b a s e e o a the ub e f ne ra hy a e up rtyp f no r. The le l o ne ting is lim d o b the c ns int o ve f s ite nly y o tra f s p ity. Sub ee im lic typ ntitie m y b thep re e s a e a nt ntity in a re tio hipb no thec . la ns ut t hild
  66. 66.  The is no s nd rd fo re re e re ta a r p s nting d ta o je ts in ER a b c d g m . Ea h m d ling m tho o g us s its o n ia ra s c oe e d lo y e w no tio ta n.  The o ina no tio us d b C n is w e us d in rig l ta n e y he id ly e a a e ic te a jo c d m s xts nd urna b ra ly s e in e r ls ut re e n ithe C ASE to lso p lic tio b no c d m s o r ub a ns y n-a a e ic .  To a the a a num e o no tio us d a o the d y, re re b r f ta ns e ; m ng m rec m o a Ba hm n, c w fo t, a IDEFIX. o o m n re c a ro 's o nd  All no tio l s s re re e e ta na tyle p s nt ntitie a re ta ula s s c ng r b xe a re tio hip a line c nne tingb xe . o s nd la ns s s s o c o s
  67. 67.  Ea h s c tyle us s a s e ia s t o s b ls to re re e the e p c l e f ym o p s nt c rd lity o ac nne tio a ina f o c n.
  68. 68.  Thes b lsus d fo theb s ER c ns tsa : ym o e r a ic o truc re 1. Entities a re re e d b la e d re ta le . Thela e re p s nte y b le c ng s bl is the na e o the e m f ntity. Entity na e s uld b m s ho e s ula no . ing r uns 2 Relationships a re re e d b as lid linec nne ting . re p s nte y o o c tw e o ntitie . The na e o the re tio hip is w n s m f la ns ritte a o theline Re tio hipna e s uld b ve s b ve . la ns m s ho e rb . 3 Attributes, w n inc e , a lis d ins e the e . he lud d re te id ntity re ta le Attrib s w h a c ng . ute hic re id ntifie e rs a re und rline . Attrib na e s uld b s ula no . e d ute m s ho e ing r uns
  69. 69. 4 Cardinality o m ny is re re e d b a line e ing in . f a p s nte y nd a c w fo t. If the c w fo t is o itte , the ro 's o ro 's o m d c rd lity iso . a ina ne 5 Existence is re re e d b p c . p s nte y la ing a c le o a irc r p rp nd ula b r o the line Ma a ry e te e is e e ic r a n . nd to xis nc s w b the b r (lo ks like a 1) ne to the e ho n y a o xt ntity for a ins nc is re uire . Op na e te e is s w b n ta e q d tio l xis nc ho n y p c ac lene tothee la ing irc xt ntity tha iso tio l. t p na
  70. 70. Exa p o ER No tio m le f ta n
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