WBCSD Mobility for Development
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The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) studied the state of mobility in four rapidly growing cities in the developing world – Bangalore, Dar es Salaam, São Paulo and ...

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) studied the state of mobility in four rapidly growing cities in the developing world – Bangalore, Dar es Salaam, São Paulo and Shanghai. Its final report concludes that although mobility opportunities are increasing and are an important driver of economic development in all cities, overall mobility systems are not sustainable and for poorer residents the mobility situation is deteriorating.

The Mobility for Development project set out on a process of research, dialogue and learning in the four abovementioned cities to better understand how public agencies, business and civil society in these rapidly growing cities are working to develop solutions to the mobility opportunity divide and the negative impacts associated with mobility.

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  • This presentation provides an overview of the WBCSD Mobility for Development project, including history/background, lessons learned from case studies/dialogues, messages and next steps. We encourage member companies and partners to adapt the presentation to suit their needs. The presentation was created on 2 November 2009.
  • The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led, global association of some 200 companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development. The Council provides a platform for companies to explore sustainable development, share knowledge, experiences and best practices, and to advocate business positions on these issues in a variety of forums, working with governments, non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations. Members are drawn from more than 35 countries and 20 major industrial sectors. The Council also benefits from a global network of some 60 national and regional business councils and regional partners. The Council’s objectives are to: Be a leading business advocate on sustainable development; Participate in policy development to create the right framework conditions for business to make an effective contribution to sustainable human progress; Develop and promote the business case for sustainable development ; Demonstrate the business contribution to sustainable development solutions and share leading edge practices among members; Contribute to a sustainable future for developing nations and nations in transition. Main industry sectors: 21% electricity, 20% oil & gas, chemicals, forestry and consumer goods
  • The WBCSD’s work program is divided into Focus Areas, Projects and Initiatives. The Sustainable Mobility Project (2000-2004) was an independent project at the WBCSD. The Mobility for Development workstream (2006-2009) sits within the Development Focus Area.
  • The WBCSD began its journey exploring issues around sustainable mobility in 2000. The first milestone was the publication of the Sustainable Mobility 2030 report in 2004. Below are the launches for the publications which followed, leading up to the Mobility for Development Final Report which was launched in 2009. Sustainable mobility report 2030 : the final report of the WBCSD's Sustainable Mobility project (SMP). Twelve international companies from the auto, oil and supplier industries led the initiative. The report provides: a definition of “sustainable mobility” as well as indicators for measuring it a frank assessment of the outlook for 2030 if present trends continue seven goals for improving the outlook a description of the potential contribution of vehicle technologies and fuels to achieving these goals perspective on key factors that will determine the extent to which the goals are realized M4D Facts and Trends: provides an overview of key issues and data related to the challenge of developing sustainability mobility solutions to enable economic and human development. Launched in 2007 M4D Case Studies: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2007), Shanghai, China (2007), Bangalore, India (2008), Sao Paulo, Brazil (2009) M4D Final report : 2009
  • Rapid population growth and urbanization trends raise new dilemmas for mobility. Graph – Population By 2050, the world’s population will reach 9 billion with the vast majority living in rapidly growing cities in today’s developing countries. If these individuals, cities and nations are to reach their goals for development and poverty alleviation there will need to be more efficient growth in trade, agricultural productivity, manufacturing and service industries. Additional facts: The fifty least developed countries accounted for less than 1% of global trade in 2006 Around one billion people globally live in urban slums 900 million rural dwellers are without reliable access to transport (defined as living within 2km of an all weather road.) Graph - Urbanization The graph illustrates urbanization trends from 1970 to 2050. By 2050, the number of people living in cities is expected to reach 6.4 million people. Additional facts: In 1800, only 2% of the world’s population was urban, compared with 30% in 1950 and 47% in 2000 . By 2030, it is expected that 60% of the world population will live in urban areas. Almost 180,000 people are added to the urban population each day Website: www.unhabitat.org
  • The growth in transport activity varies by GDP growth. OECD North America has the most travel per capital (more than 20km per person year) and is expected to increase (in light blue) whereas Africa’s transport activity is the lowest (5km per person per year) and expected to remain constant (in orange).
  • In most developing countries, there has been a rapid increase in vehicle ownership. While demand for mobility solutions rises, investment in infrastructure has not kept pace leaving a grim picture for 2050 for many in the developing world.
  • Developing countries, particularly in Africa, face a number of barriers in increasing transport activity. Lack of all weather roads, high freight costs, and affordable modes of transport are some of the barriers. As the graph illustrates, freight costs are much lower in Western Europe than in Africa. High freight costs decrease the competitiveness of exports and increase the costs of imports. Additional facts: It costs $1000 to ship a 20 foot container to the UK from Accra, Ghana, but $2300 to transport the same container next door to Liberia. (Africa Renewal, 2006). This is due to poor road networks, taxes & transport charges, bribes, etc.
  • Road related deaths are a serious problem, particularly in the developing world. Pedestrians and cyclists make up a large number of the victims of road accidents.
  • High transport activity plus more vehicle ownership means congestion – more time on the road, less efficiency. The economic cost of congestion has reached 4.4% of GDP in Korea and 6% in Bangkok.
  • There are environmental costs to the growing demand for mobility solutions. If we are going to reach emissions targets for 2015 and beyond, transport is a key area for mitigation/reduction of emissions.
  • Meeting the mobility needs of the rapidly growing urbanized population will have consequences on the environment and human health. The graph illustrates the quantity of roads, rail and airports along with the transport related carbon emissions in several countries. Japan and Germany have extensive road and rail infrastructure but emit less than half what the US emits.
  • Mobility is an essential part of society but transport needs to become more efficient, more equitable and less disruptive – both socially and environmentally. Current mobility trends are unsustainable, which means that the growing worldwide demand for transportation cannot be met simply by expanding today’s means of transportation. The key question: how do we meet the mobility needs/demands of the increasingly urbanized populations and the millions living in rural areas in a sustainable way? Definition of Sustainable Mobility : “The ability to meet society’s desires and needs to move freely, gain access, communicate, trade and establish relationships without sacrificing other essential human or ecological values, today or in the future” (WBCSD 2004) The diagram is taken from the WBCSD Sustainable Mobility Project (SMP) and demonstrates how: mobility is essential to economic and social development, but also brings congestion, air pollution, traffic-related accidents and the environmental costs of transportation. For more information on the SMP see: http://www.wbcsd.org/web/mobility.htm The situation is nowhere more acute than in the cities of the developing world where rapid growth, population density, poverty and inequality, limited public capacity and resource shortages add further to the challenge of enabling people and goods to move around sustainably.
  • The Mobility for Development (M4D) project grew out of the Sustainable Mobility Project (SMP) work but takes its starting point from the importance of mobility as an enabler for economic development (see left hand corner of SMP diagram on previous slide.) Lack of access to transportation and information are both symptoms of poverty and key factors in keeping families, communities and nations poor. Definition of the “mobility divide” (or “mobility opportunity divide”): the wide disparity in mobility opportunities that exist at present between those available to the average citizen in the poorest developing nations and regions and those experienced today by the average citizen in the developed world. Narrowing the mobility divide will require new strategies for enabling access to safer, cleaner, more efficient and more affordable motorized and non-motorized vehicles, public transit systems, transport infrastructure, as well as internet and telecommunications services. However just as important as efficiency improvements and mode switching may be innovations in communications, services, public planning and logistics which reduce the amount of travel needed to access other people, jobs, markets or resources. Therefore, the focus is on removing barriers to seizing these opportunities so that people are not held back from jobs, markets, education, services and social activities by the availability, cost, unreliability or safety risk of mobility. What is the role of business?: Members of the business sector are keen to see their products and services penetrate new markets in the developing world. They also recognize that they have to play their part to increase access to mobility and to reduce its negative impacts. They believe that through effective engagement with others these goals are achievable. As a solution provider, business has a role to play and it is in their own self-interest to engage.
  • As mentioned earlier, companies are keen to see their products and services penetrate new markets in the developing world and recognize that business has an important role to play in increasing access to mobility and reducing its negative impacts. The M4D project has three broad objectives: Raise awareness of the importance of mobility as a driver for economic development Investigate ways to narrow the sustainable mobility divide, including business opportunities Discuss sustainable mobility solutions for rapidly growing cities in the developing world, including a strong business voice In order to achieve these objectives, the WBCSD set out a process of research, case studies & dialogues, analysis, advocacy and outreach.
  • BP and Toyota are the co-chairs of the M4D project which consisted of 6 core companies (BP, Toyota, GM, Michelin, Petrobras and Brisa). Other companies, not listed above, were involved in the project at various points throughout the project.
  • Stakeholder dialogues were held and case studies produced in four cities. The dialogues were hosted by WBCSD Regional Network partners (in all cities except for Dar es Salaam where there is no Regional Network partner) and member companies. The dialogues brought together representatives of local government, academia, NGOs, companies and transport authorities for a discussion on the challenges and opportunities for mobility in their respective cities. Criteria for selecting the cities: Interest of member companies in city/ region Availability of quality data and quantity Relevance of case study theme Anticipated results from the case study must be additive to existing work and/or the debate on mobility issues in the developing world High population growth rates towards 2030 Wider relevance of learning; i.e. non-unique circumstances Inclusion of port and non-port cities Involvement now and in the future in international trade The following slides include the main findings of the case studies and dialogues. There are 3 slides per case study: Slide 1 – mobility snapshot of city including transport modal shares Slide 2 – mobility challenges identified during the dialogue and research for the case study Slide 3 – towards solutions to bridging the mobility divide
  • Bangalore is the administrative, industrial and cultural capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Over the past 30 years it has grown from a university city known for its parks and green spaces into a major center for the high-tech industry. average per capita monthly income is 4,600 Rupees or 95 USD (2001) the poor, with household income of 2.00-4,000 Rupees, spend 15-25% of their income on travel every month bus travel is the most common form of transport in Bangalore Information about the dialogue and case study: The Dialogue took place on 12 September 2007 at the TERI (the Energy and Resources Institute) Southern Regional Center in Bangalore. There were 62 participants. Dialogue theme: Challenges and possible solutions to making mobility in the city more sustainable and socially inclusive, while supporting the city’s bid for continuing international competitiveness. Key question: Can Bangalore tackle the congestion that now threatens the city’s ability to attract business, and to improve the quality of life of all its citizens? The case study was prepared by TERI. Toyota Motor Corporation and Renault S.A. supported the preparation of the case study and contributed to organizing the stakeholder dialogue in Bangalore.
  • Getting around Bangalore’s expansive city area demands long journeys, generally by road, as there are few facilities for suburban rail travel and no metro, as of yet. As the city grows, it is becoming increasingly dispersed which means long travel times and oftentimes, long waits. The average trip length is reported to be 12-13 km and most employees in the IT and industrial sectors commute about 25 km per day. A survey conducted in 2006 revealed that more than 90% of the people had a journey time that exceeded 60 minutes and most had to wait between 15-30 minutes for their bus Aging infrastructure and urban planning have not kept pace with an exploding population, increasingly sophisticated expectations and the sheer numbers of vehicles and people on the road Traffic congestion, environmental pollution and accidents have increased despite motorization being in its infancy in the city, and are now impinging on the image of the city, the productivity of its companies and the happiness of its residents With the growth in the IT industry, income levels have increased for many in the city and there are increasing numbers of residents who travel by private car, motor scooter or company shuttle bus. For many who travel regularly by public transport, the situation is getting worse. The rates of mobility are very low (1 trip per day) and while bus provides subsidized fare for some sections of society, the fare is still not affordable for many poor.
  • After years of underinvestment, Bangalore’s municipal government recognizes the urgent need to improve its road infrastructure and traffic management. But building more roads alone will not solve the city’s problems and citizens are concerned about the corresponding loss of green space. Governance: In 2005 the government of India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), a seven-year program of investment in 63 of India’s cities. In 2006 the government also laid out its National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP), providing a framework for pro-public transport policy and emphasizing moving people and not vehicles. The NUTP prescribes the setting up of an umbrella body called Unified Metropolitan Transport Authorities in all million-plus cities in India. Towards solutions: Infrastructure development: Progress is being made through the construction of a belt highway that will tie together the industrially built up areas and the transportation hubs. Citizens are concerned that green spaces are being removed to make way for more roads. Public transport improvements: In addition to the comprehensive bus system, a bus rapid transport (BRT), metro and suburban rail system are also planned. Despite these efforts, very little is being done to encourage a mode shift to public transport and the development of new suburbs is not coordinated with public transport. Intelligent transportation systems to improve transport flow: The Bangalore City Police is implementing an integrated traffic improvement program to reduce congestion, crashes and pollution levels in the city and to improve traffic enforcement and accident response. Pollution control: Between 1994 and 2000, India removed lead from gasoline and sulfur from diesel. Its emissions norms currently lag behind Europe’s by four to five years for all vehicle categories except for two-and three-wheelers where it has some of the world’s most stringent standards.
  • Dar es Salaam is a fast-growing city providing commercial, cultural, trade and transport support across Tanzania and neighboring land-locked states. Annual GDP growth rose from less than 1% in 1993 to 6% 12 years later. The GDP per capita in 2005 amounted to 750 USD (ppp.) Unplanned settlements have sprung up to accommodate people migrating to the city. ¾ of Dar es Salaam residents live in these settlements, often in self built houses The rapid increase in population in the city has not been matched by expansion of schools, so children must join the peak hour commute to the city center Close to half of the working age population is officially unemployed In Dar es Salaam public transport currently is provided almost exclusively by 9,000 privately owned dala dalas Information about the dialogue and case study: The dialogue was held on the 3 April 2007 at the Kempinski Kilimanjaro Hotel in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It was opened by the Minister of Transport and was attended by 70 representatives from different parts of Tanzania’s government, civil society and the private sector, from neighboring countries and the international development community Key question: Can the city overcome current low infrastructure levels and decades of poor maintenance to grow as the trading hub for the wider region? The case study was prepared by the consultants' bureau at the University of Dar es Salaam (led by Dr. Lucy Mboma) and benefited from input from many institutions and organizations in Tanzania and elsewhere: Ministry of Infrastructure Development, Ministry of Planning, economy and empowerment, Ministry of Energy and Minerals, BP Tanzania, ERB – University of Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es Salaam, United Nations (studies/documents), REPOA
  • Traveling by road is the only way to get around in Dar es Salaam but the roads offer chaotic and poorly planned conditions for pedestrians, drivers and public transport users. There are very few safe road crossings, very little street lighting and bicycle paths are nonexistent. The city has grown much faster than its infrastructure Despite a relatively low rate of motorization, congestion, accidents and pollution are growing problems Vulnerable travelers including women, the elderly and the disabled are particularly disadvantaged by the lack of mobility opportunities Rural residents face even more severe mobility problems, with lack of all-weather roads and transportation 95% of roads have no functioning storm water drainage and only one quarter are paved Road accidents are also a serious problem – it is estimated that 8% of deaths in hospitals are caused by road accidents. Road accidents cost the country 34% of GDP.
  • The city’s mobility challenges are recognized by the government, business and residents and the government is taking a number of steps to address the mobility deficit. Towards solutions: National infrastructure improvements: Together with international donors and investors, Tanzania has embarked on a major road and rail transport infrastructure development program, the objective of which is to open up the country to economic development and to provide reliable communication between different regions and efficient transport for passengers and goods. Dar es Salaam city planning : The City Council has initiated an integrated transport program to improve mobility in the city. Important elements are increasing private sector investment in the transport system and increasing the capacity of the municipality to plan, manage and regulate its public transport system. Public transport improvement: The Dar es Salaam City Council also has plans to introduce high-capacity modern buses, bus stops and ticketing systems to enable modal integration and improved facilities for nonmotorized travel. Driver education and regulatory enforcement: Education campaigns are being undertaken around road safety and environmental controls and the Tanzanian police force is working to improve the quality of driver education, with mandatory training, a revised curriculum and the import of dual control instruction vehicles Coordination: Make institutions effective: The best technical solutions to mobility challenges can be undermined, by excessive bureaucracy, corruption and organizational territorialism or by a lack of resources and professional capacity
  • São Paulo is the industrial and financial center of Brazil. Despite its extensive bus network and efficient metro system, public transport use is falling and car use rising. With tailbacks up to 200 km long during rush hour, the mayor and the city’s highest earners have taken to traveling across the city by helicopter. The city is relatively dense yet the real growth is in the peripheral neighborhoods (3% per year) The train fare for the very poor in São Paulo increased 3.5x between 1977- 97 Public transport share of all motorized trips range from 45% in São Paulo to 71% in Dar es Salaam To reduce congestion, São Paulo prohibits up to 20% of the fleet from circulating each day of the week (by license plate). Information about dialogue and case study The d ialogue was held on May 15, 2008, co-hosted by Conselho Empresarial Brasileiro para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável (CEBDS – the WBCSD partner organization in Brazil), Brisa auto-estradas de Portugal, General Motors, Michelin and Petrobras. There were 85 participants from business, NGOs and government. Key questions: • Can São Paulo avoid permanent grid-lock? • Is the mobility system in São Paulo adequately addressing the mobility needs of all citizens? • What more can be done to reduce the adverse health and environmental impacts from transportation in São Paulo The case study was prepared by TTC-Engenharia de Tráfego e de Transportes S/C Ltda.
  • São Paulo is struggling to meet the mobility needs of its citizens in a sustainable way and close the mobility opportunity divide between the low income segments and the relatively well served middle- and high-income groups. Rapid expansion in automobile ownership and use : In the last few decades, São Paulo, like other major Brazilian cities, has seen a rapid expansion in automobile ownership and use. Public transport use is falling: Despite having an extensive bus system and a well-established metro, public transport use is falling while the price, particularly for the metro, is prohibitive for the low-income segment. Congestion : Congestion is a major concern for citizens and expectations are high that the city, state and federal governments can find innovative ways to mitigate this, through road and public transport system construction and innovation and through the mobilization of private sector investment. The city has also made some efforts at transport demand management through its “rodizio“ system, but is still struggling to control the growth of private vehicles on the road. Infrastructure for non-motorized transport is not well developed and pedestrians’ needs are poorly addressed. The dialogue participants stated that the environmental and health impacts of transportation tend to be accepted as part of life in the city and do not tend to get as much attention as congestion problems, either from São Paulo citizens or municipal government.
  • Addressing the city’ s mobility challenges includes a complex mix of actions by city, state and federal governments and the private sector. Dialogue participants expressed concern that the level of investment and political will are not sufficient to tackle the challenges and agreed that most of the investment is disproportionately addressing the needs of the middle class over lower income groups. Towards solutions Cleaner, greener fuels and vehicles: In 1986 the National Environmental Council (CONAMA) created the Brazilian Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Program (PROCONVE), which established emission limits. Reducing the number of vehicles on the road: The city government has already invested US$ 3 billion in new roads, overpasses and tunnels, but this has not allowed them to keep up with growing demand and congestion is a serious problem. Since 1996 São Paulo has operated the “rodizio” system, which prohibits vehicles from traveling on the major streets during rush hour once a week (license plates ending 1 and 2 on Mondays, 3 and 4 on Tuesdays and so on). In its early stages it successfully reduced the number of vehicles in circulation by 12% Public-Private Partnerships: Following these early road concessioning projects, the Brazilian government approved a new PPP-law to encourage further local and foreign private sector investment in transport and other infrastructure. Improving public transport: Encouraging people back to use public transport is a key part of the city’s strategy for tackling congestion. Between 2002 and 2004 the city restructured its bus system with new busways: the development of the “passa-rápido”, or fast lane, system Growth Acceleration Plan : The main set of federal government projects related to Brazil’s infrastructure, including transportation, is under the Growth Acceleration Plan (PAC). Launched in 2007, PAC provides for a total infrastructure investment of R$ 504 billion from 2007 through 2010, R$ 58 billion of which is for land transportation (including urban transportation), airports and ports.
  • Shanghai and the Yangtze Delta region have been the power house of China’s economic growth and a gateway to international trade. Shanghai is a dense city with winding lanes, bursting with people, and on the brink of suburban industrial development and mass vehicle ownership. Huge investments infrastructure in the early 1990s helped kick start the city’s economic boom and improve livelihoods for millions. In the next 25 years the urban population is expected to double, the urban economy to quadruple, and the motor vehicle fleet to grow by a factor of six. Shanghai has 45,000 registered taxis which carry 3 million passengers each day – more than the metro system Information about the dialogue and case study: The dialogue was held on 14 November 2007 and brought together 47 members of the business community, government and academia. The China Business Council for Sustainable Development and Michelin contributed to the organization of the dialogue. Key questions: • Are the economic and environmental impacts of road transportation threatening to get in the way of economic growth? • What additional role might rail-based transport play in improving sustainable mobility in China? • How important is it to pursue an integrated approach to achieving sustainable mobility in China? The case study was prepared by the Department of Urban Planning at Tongji University (Dr. Pan Haixiao)
  • Shanghai boasts the world’s longest bridge, its most extensive bus system, and the first commercial maglev train, to name but a few of its exceptional claims. However, this city of superlatives is in danger of climbing up the league table of the world’s biggest traffic jams, worst air pollution and most dangerous roads. While Shanghai’s economic boom has improved living standards for many, the poorest sectors of society have paid the greatest cost for urban development, in terms of negative transport impacts. Congestion : Car ownership has been rising by over 20% a year for the past ten years. As fast as Shanghai’s infrastructure develops, demand rises faster. During rush hour, 60% of the intersections in the city center are congested Air pollution : Pollution resulting from vehicle emissions in the city center is becoming more and more serious. It is estimated that 86% of Cos is from urban vehicle emissions in Shanghai. Accidents : During the 1980s and 1990s road related deaths and accidents increased along with the growing number of cars on the road. Following the introduction of a traffic accident surveillance system in 2002, traffic safety measures have been gradually strengthened and the number of reported deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents has decreased in recent years. The squeeze on rail capacity : In China the railway system generally caters for long distance service designed for inter-province travel but there is a lack of high speed rail options for shorter distances. The stretch on transport governance capacity: The Shanghai Municipal Government exercises the functions of both a city and a province (or state) and has a governmental unit focused specifically on its urbanized areas. However, it does not have an overall regional transport authority able to oversee multi-modal integration or coordination between transport and land-use planning The stretch on fuel resources : The YDR is an area short on energy and resources.
  • Shanghai continues to invest in key transport infrastructure but are also placing more emphasis on transport demand management policies. Towards solutions: Infrastructure development and planning: The Shanghai government has made massive investments of both capital and political will into transport infrastructure and public transport systems over the past ten years, investing an average of 2.9% of its GDP. However, it still can’t keep pace with the demands. Governing for mobility: Recognizing that a coordinated approach is needed to meet the transport demands of Shanghai’s growing population and economy, the Shanghai Metropolitan Transport White Paper was produced in 2002. It is the first comprehensive transport plan for the city and country and it outlines current and future transportation needs and sets objectives and actions for city planners and managers. Environmental controls: On 1 October 1997, unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles was promoted in Shanghai. On 1 July 1999, the European I emission standards for light vehicles was implemented, two years ahead of schedule. In 1998, taxis began to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) was promoted on buses. The use of low-olefin unleaded petrol was promoted for motorized vehicles in March 2000 ahead of national implementation. On 1 March 2003, the European II emission standard for motorized vehicles was implemented in the city. According to new regulations implemented in the city center since 15 February 2006, high-polluting vehicles (i.e., those not meeting European I emission standards) that have not received “the green license” are restricted on the elevated expressways. This restriction was extended to the surface roads within the inner-ring road on 1 October 2006. License plate auctioning: Since 1994, license plates for private cars in Shanghai have only been available by auction Parking charges: Shanghai guides the planning, construction and management of its parking facilities by area. The specific measures are that the central business district provide few parking spaces and charge a higher price to discourage vehicles from entering the area.
  • LESSONS LEARNED In general, mobility opportunities are expanding: Significant investments in road building and metro projects have improved the level of mobility available to the general population in the four cities. However, fewer resources have been devoted to improving and maintaining other means of transport, including non motorized transport and bus services. … but for the poor the mobility situation is deteriorating.: In the four cities the mobility opportunity divide between rich and poor is substantial – and widening. Pedestrians, cyclists and bus passengers have to travel on increasingly congested city streets. Informal settlements are poorly served by public transport systems, and paratransit services, that fill the gaps, are unsafe, unreliable and polluting. Subsidized fares and special ticket systems for the poor and elderly have helped. Transport-related health and safety risks remain a serious problem: Each city suffers from a high number of transport-related deaths and injuries – as a result poor roads, vehicles and inexperienced drivers. Often intersections are poorly controlled and sidewalks nonexistent or obstructed. Bicycle lanes are extremely rare. Efforts to reduce pollution through stricter controls over vehicles and fuels are being offset by growth in the total volume of transport activity. … and congestion is getting worse.: At each of the dialogues, skepticism was expressed about road expansion to reduce congestion. Cities promote public transport: Shanghai is controlling the ownership, São Paulo the use of private cars. Bangalore, Shanghai and São Paulo each have experimented with dedicated lanes to give priority for buses. But more enforcement is needed. Cities are investing in public transport but compete with “informal” paratransit service providers.
  • BARRIERS TO BRIDGING THE MOBILITY DIVIDE • Securing adequate stakeholder support: The mobility concerns of businesses and residents are not always translated into political will and action at the municipal level. In particular, the concerns of poorer residents are rarely prioritized. While governments seem to recognize the problems of congestion, poor road infrastructure, etc in most of the cities, most attempts to improve the situation have focused on concerns of wealthier residents • Coordination and integrated planning: The cities’ lack of capacity to integrate urban and transport development has led to unplanned sprawl and misaligned public transport options. There is also a lack of government integration/coordination and a clearn need for an overarching transport authority. Capacity to implement: Cities are suffering from a skills shortage and limited enforcement and control over building practices. Dar es Salaam, has still not implemented the BRT system although steps have been taken to expand roads to accommodate it. This is due to key institutional challenges such as: change in personnel, no modern local bus corporations, weak legal and regulatory frameworks. Due to a lack of capacity in the country, many projects are being developed with overseas labor. Sao Paulo’s single ticket system successfully brought together key players and demonstrated the benefits of coordination. • Capacity to finance and maintain mobility investments: While each city’s financial capacity is different, they are all struggling to balance improvements to transportation with other human needs. Some of the cities have successfully harnessed private investment but more could be done. The pressure on expected returns makes it difficult to tap private investment. In Bangalore, there is no investment earmarked for non-motorized transport infrastructure. In Dar es Salaam, 70% of financing for infrastructure is provided by international donors. In Shanghai, 2-4% of GDP per year has been invested in transport infrastructure since 1996.
  • No study limited to just four cities can claim to provide a complete picture of the mobility challenges faced by rapidly growing developing country cities and how they are responding to these challenges. But we believe that this study of the four cities is helpful in identifying issues to which business, government and individuals need to pay attention. As the cities strive to improve mobility for their citizens, each one is aware of the disparities in mobility opportunities that exist between its citizens of different income levels. All are trying to address these disparities, though with different degrees of urgency and of success. Each city is trying to tackle the growing transport congestion it faces. Each is spending considerable sums (relative to its resources) in trying to build its way out of trouble, through increasing the number and quality of roads and/or through enlarging and improving the quality, safety and attractiveness of its public transport system. There are no easy answers. Messages to business: Provide innovative products and services that create value for an expanding number of customers: this includes technologies and transport systems that provide efficient, safe and clean transport infrastructure Reduce the mobility related impacts of own operations: take site and sourcing decision sand investments in logistics and employee transport into consideration Engage with other stakeholders from the earliest stage of mass-motorization to promote collaboration: support an integrated and inclusive approach to land use and transport planning Educate, empower and incentivize citizens/employees to take up safe, more efficient and less environmentally damaging mobility opportunities
  • Key Messages for government: Take an integrated and inclusive approach to urban land use and transport planning . In setting policy for transport systems, urban planning, regulation and financing, national, regional and local governments should prioritize sustainable economic growth and quality of life improvements. Urban regions should consider setting up a single, accountable agency to coordinate action on mobility, to facilitate intermodal integration and to monitor and share comprehensive data on the mobility situation. Ensure mechanisms for stakeholder education and collaboration . Work with local and international business, civil society organizations and community groups, environment, development and mobility experts to develop mobility plans and strategies. Educate citizens on mobility issues and skills, in particular prioritizing key groups including children, new drivers, city migrants and paratransit service providers. Align incentives with goals for sustainability . Establishing long-term institutional frameworks is crucial to enabling business investment. Public-private partnerships offer a key tool to facilitate infrastructure delivery. By making good use of proven delivery models, as well as learning from cases of failure, public-private partnerships can align private incentives with public goals. Care must be taken in awarding contracts and concessions for public services to ensure that the terms are sustainable, fair and efficient and that social goals and commercial concerns can be reconciled. Financing needs to consider ongoing maintenance and capital expenditure, and care needs to be taken to ensure that the poor are not overlooked. Provide incentives to individuals to make safer, more efficient and less environmentally damaging transport and travel choices, for example through education and traffic regulation and enforcement and the use of intelligent transport systems, fuel taxes, tolls, congestion charging, park and ride facilities and parking regulations, and through the provision of safe, comfortable, attractive and competitive public transport services. Build effective capacity to implement national and regional policies , regulations and urban plans. It is critical that plans be supported by the capacity to promote, implement, enforce and finance them. Stakeholders such as development agencies, research institutions and civil society organizations have key roles to play in this respect, providing expertise, information and capacity building for citizens and their public institutions. Learn from other cities. Recognize the need for new thinking on urban planning and mobility to avoid developing cities that use ever more resources, including land, materials, energy, time and money, to sustain. Get involved in regional and global learning networks, such as the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, the Plus Network on sustainable cities and others.
  • Website statistics for M4D-related materials: - Mobility for Development report – accessed 5’500 times - Mobility for Development - Executive Summary – accessed 3’500 times - Mobility for Development: Facts & Trends briefing – accesses 17’000 times   Website statistics for individual M4D cases: - Mobility as a Driver of Economic Development: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – accessed 9’800 times - Mobility as a Driver of Economic Development: São Paulo, Brazil – accessed 3’000 times - Mobility as a Driver of Economic Development: Bangalore, India – accessed 8’000 times Mobility as a Driver of Economic Development: Shanghai, China – accessed 10’000 times   Sustainable Mobility monthly e-newsletter has 15’500 subscribers

WBCSD Mobility for Development Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 3.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 4. What is the WBCSD?
    • A CEO-led coalition of some 200 companies with a shared commitment to Sustainable Development via the three pillars of economic growth, ecological balance and social progress.
  • 5. WBCSD Regional Network
  • 6. WBCSD areas of work Eco Patent Commons Urban Infrastructure Eco Patent Commons Urban Infrastructure Water Energy Efficiency in Buildings Cement Chemicals Electricity Utilities Forest Products Maritime Mining Mobility Tires
  • 7. Mobility journey at the WBCSD M4D Final Report Sustainable Mobility 2030 Report M4D Facts & Trends 2000-2004 2007 2007-2009 2009 Dialogues & Case Studies Bangalore Dar-es Salaam Shanghai S ão Paulo Mobility for Development Project
  • 8.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 9. Historic shifts: Population & urbanization In 2050, 85% of the world’s 9 billion people will live in today’s developing countries In 2050, it is expected that 70% of the world population will live in urban areas
  • 10. State of mobility: Transport activity Per capita transport activity
    • North Americans
    • travel: average of 40 miles/day (car and plane)
    • emit: 6 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year
    • Brazilians
    • travel: average of 7 miles/day (car and bus)
    • emit: 0.7 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year
    • Tanzanians
    • travel: average of 3 miles/day (foot, bus and bicycle)
    • emit: 0. 1 tonnes of transport-related CO2 a year
  • 11. State of mobility: Vehicle ownership Vehicle ownership is rising at a rate of 15-20% annually in much of the developing world
  • 12. State of mobility: Transport costs It costs $1000 to ship a 20 foot container to the UK from Accra, Ghana, but $2300 to transport the same container next door to Liberia.
  • 13. State of mobility: Road safety Around 1.2 million people are killed and 50 million injured in road accidents, most of them in developing countries
  • 14. State of mobility: Congestion In Bangkok, Manila, S ão Paulo and Shanghai, downtown weekday traffic speeds average 15 km per hour
  • 15. State of mobility: Energy consumption Transportation uses ½ of the world’s petroleum production and produces 20% of GHG emissions
  • 16. State of mobility: Pollution Urban air pollution causes 800,000 premature deaths each year. In the most heavily polluted cities, economic losses from air pollution are estimated to reach 10% of GDP
  • 17.
    • Sustainability Mobility 2030 concluded:
    • “ Today’s system of mobility is not sustainable. Nor is it likely to become so if present trends continue.”
    Outlook
  • 18. The sustainable mobility dilemma Sustainable mobility: “ The ability to meet society’s desires and needs to move freely, gain access, communicate, trade and establish relationships without sacrificing other essential human or ecological values, today or in the future” (WBCSD 2004)
  • 19.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 20.
    • Mobility is an enabler for economic development
    • Lack of access to transportation and information are symptoms of poverty
    • The Mobility Divide is widening in and between countries
    • There are business opportunities in helping narrow the divide: new products and services to enable access to sustainable transport systems and means of communication
    The “Mobility Divide”
  • 21. M4D project - objectives
    • Raise awareness of the importance of mobility as a driver for economic development
    • Investigate ways to narrow the sustainable mobility divide , including business opportunities
    • Discuss sustainable mobility solutions for rapidly growing cities in the developing world , including a strong business voice
  • 22.
    • Global context
    • Mobility challenges in four cities:
      • Bangalore
      • Dar es Salaam
      • São Paulo
      • Shanghai
    • Lessons and barriers to progress
    • Key messages to stakeholders
    Mobility for Development final report
  • 23.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 24. Dialogues and case studies
    • Dar-es-Salaam,Tanzania
    • Dialogue: BP
    • Case Study: University of Dar es Salaam
    • Bangalore, India
    • Dialogue: TERI-BCSD India, Renault & Toyota
    • Case study: TERI
    • Shanghai, China
    • Dialogue: China BCSD & Michelin
    • Case study: Tongji University
      • São Paulo , Brazil
    • Dialogue: Brazil BCSD, Brisa, GM, Michelin & Petrobras
    • Case study: TTC
    Engagement of 3 Regional Network partners: Brazil BCSD, China BCSD, TERI-BCSD India
  • 25. Snapshot of the four cities
    • Bangalore
    • Increasingly dispersed city; strong IT industry
    • Majority of travel by bus (41%)
    • Challenges
    • Aging infrastructure – cannot meet demands
    • Long travel and wait times
    • Solutions
    • Introducing bus rapid transport and intelligent transport systems to reduce congestion and accidents
    • Dar es Salaam
    • Growth of unplanned settlements; high unemployment
    • Most of public transport provided by privately operated minibuses (dala dalas)
    • Challenges
    • Lack of paved and all weather roads
    • Road accidents; vulnerable travelers
    • Solutions
    • Plans for high capacity modern bus system
    • Driver education and regulatory enforcement
    • São Paulo
    • Dense city; most growth on periphery
    • High income inequality
    • Challenges
    • Congestion due to increase in vehicle ownership
    • Personal safety and security
    • Affordability of public transport for poor residents
    • Solutions
    • Ban 20% of fleet from circulating each day of the week
    • Emission limits and fast lane bus system
    • Shanghai
    • Rapid economic growth; urban migration
    • Majority of travel by bus (41%)
    • Challenges
    • Major increase in car ownership
    • Lack of high speed rail options for short distances
    • Stretch on energy resources
    • Solutions
    • Metro system; emission limits and parking charges
  • 26. Bangalore – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: Bus travel makes up 41% of all travel Vehicle ownership: Automobiles: 40 per 1,000 people Motorcycles: 204 per 1,000 people Expenditure on transport: The poor spend15-25% of income on travel per month Public transport basic fares: Bus: US$ 0.004 - 0.4 non-motorized = 18%
  • 27.
    • Increasingly dispersed city with few options for suburban rail travel
    • Aging infrastructure and lack of urban planning
    • Exploding population and increasing number of people on the road
    • Severe traffic congestion and environmental pollution
    • The city’s poorer residents suffer disproportionately from the negative effects of transport activities
    Bangalore – mobility challenges “ I look forward to the formulation of a practical policy for this wonderful city which should include views of all stakeholders including government, industry and the people, and a practical implementation action plan.” (Participant, Bangalore dialogue, 12 September 2007)
  • 28. Bangalore – towards solutions
    • Infrastructure development:
    • Public transport improvement
    • Intelligent transportation system
    • Pollution control
  • 29. Dar es Salaam – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 9 000 Privately operated minibuses (dala-dalas) Vehicle ownership : 16 per 1,000 people Trip frequency: 4 trips/person/day Expenditure on transport: 9.7% of household spending Public transport basic fare: 1 dala-dala ride: US$ 0.19 non-motorized = 50%
  • 30. Dar es Salaam – mobility challenges
    • The city has grown much faster than its infrastructure
    • Chaotic and poorly planned conditions for pedestrians, drivers and public transport users
    • Congestion, accidents and pollution are growing problems
    • Vulnerable travelers are disadvantaged by the lack of mobility opportunities
    • Rural residents face even more severe mobility problems, with lack of all-weather roads and transportation
    • The majority of roads have no functioning storm water drainage
    “ Mobility is a crucial aspect of sustainable development. It is more so for developing countries like Tanzania which need to move faster to achieve economic prosperity.” (Participant, Dar es Salaam dialogue, 3 April 2007)
  • 31.
    • National infrastructure improvements
    • City planning
    • Public transport improvements
    • Education & regulatory enforcement
    • Greater coordination among institutions towards an integrated approach
    Dar es Salaam – towards solutions
  • 32. São Paulo – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 32% of travel is by motorized private transport means and 37% of travel is by foot Vehicle ownership: Automobile: 314 per 1 000 people Trip frequency: 2.1 trips/days/person Public transport basic fare: Metro or Bus: US$ 1.3 non-motorized = 38%
  • 33.
    • Rapid expansion in automobile ownership and use
    • Public transport use is falling
    • Investment in new roads has not been able to reduce congestion
    • Reported cases of attacks on personal security while waiting or riding public transport
    São Paulo - mobility challenges “ We have to reinvent the city to create areas where people are closer to what they need.” (Participant, São Paulo dialogue, 15 May 2008)
  • 34. São Paulo – towards solutions
    • Cleaner fuels and vehicles
    • Cutting congestion
    • Private investment in infrastructure through private-public partnerships
    • Improving public-transport
    • Growth Acceleration Plan
  • 35. Shanghai – mobility snapshot Public and paratransit transport: 5 metro lines with plans for 6 more lines by 2010. 25% of travel is by bike Vehicle ownership: Automobile: 39 per 1 000 people Expenditure on transport : 15.8% of total expenditure compared with 3% in 1990 Public transport basic fares: Bus: US$ 0.3; Metro: US$ 0.4 non-motorized = 56%
  • 36.
    • Poorest sectors pay the greatest price and receive the least benefit from Shanghai’s urban development
    • The city is in danger of having the world’s biggest traffic jams, worst air pollution and most dangerous roads
    • Limited rail capacity
    • Stretch on transport governance capacity
    • Stretch on fuel resources
    Shanghai – mobility challenges “ Many of the issues related to land use and transport integration in Shanghai are similar to the rest of China. There is a feeling that if this can be solved in Shanghai, the outlook for sustainable mobility in other urban cities in China may also improve.” (Participant, Shanghai dialogue, 14 November 2007)
  • 37. Shanghai – towards solutions
    • Infrastructure development and planning
    • Governing for mobility
    • Transport demand management
    • Environmental controls
  • 38.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 39.
    • Improvement in the range of mobility opportunities available to the general public
    • Widening mobility divide between rich and poor
    • Major problems with traffic congestion
    • Growing transport-related health and safety risks
    • Cities promote public transport yet they struggle to adapt and meet the needs and lifestyles of residents
    Lessons learned from the four cities
  • 40.
    • Inadequate stakeholder consultation
    • Lack of coordination and integrated planning
    • Weak capacity to implement
    • Lack of capacity to finance and maintain investments
    Barriers to bridging the mobility divide
  • 41.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 42.
    • Provide innovative products and services that create value for an expanding number of customers
    • Reduce the mobility related impacts of own operations
    • Engage with other stakeholders from the earliest stage of mass-motorization
    • Educate, empower and incentivize
    Key messages for business
  • 43. Key messages for government
    • Take an integrated and inclusive approach to urban land use and transport planning
    • Ensure mechanisms for stakeholder education and collaboration
    • Align incentives with goals for sustainability and encourage individuals to make safer, more efficient and less environmentally damaging transport and travel choices
    • Build effective capacity to implement national and regional policies, regulations and urban plans
    • Learn from other cities
  • 44.
    • Introduction of the WBCSD
    • Sustainable Mobility context
    • Mobility for Development (M4D) project
      • Dialogues and case studies
      • Lessons learned and barriers to progress
      • Key messages
      • Advocacy and outreach
    Contents
  • 45.
    • Reports and case studies available on the website
    • http://www.wbcsd.org/web/m4d.htm
    • Montly Sustainable Mobility e-newsletter
    • Executive summary translated into Japanese, Chinese and Portuguese
    • Launch events 2009-2010: Brazil, Portugal, Washington D.C., India, China and Tanzania
    • WBCSD initiative on Urban Infrastructure
    Advocacy and outreach
  • 46.