What Hath Wikipedia
         Wrought:
 Crowds Remaking the News

       Wikisym    Andrew Lih
Gdansk, Poland    http://and...
Gdansk



Why is Wikisym/Wikimania
       in Gdansk?



          by bored-now@flickr, licensed under Creative Commons Attr...
THE WIKIPEDIA REVOLUTION
                                                                                                 ...
11
Rundown



Wikipedia health
Impact on news
 A new project



     by bored-now@flickr, licensed under Creative Commons Attr...
Wikipedia’s impact


  ComScore: Top 5
    Alexa: Top 6

Since 2006, overtaken
 NY Times, Amazon,
Fox Interactive, eBay,
 ...
Wikipedia Stats




380 million unique visits a day
   980 million clicks a day
       Source: Wikimedia Foundation, July ...
Arabic blogosphere
                                    secular reform
       Kuwait
                                      ...
Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
Arabic blogosphere
                                    secular reform
       Kuwait
                                      ...
Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
The Crowd at work




Given enough eyeballs,
 all bugs are shallow
Wikipedia Culture
  Norms evolving over time
AGF
 IAR
       NPOV
Gen1
Gen2

                     3RR
         Dispute
        resolution
                     RfA CSD
       AGF              Se...
Gen2

                     3RR
        Dispute
       resolution
                    RfA CSD
                             ...
Gen2                           Pending                     Gen4
                                        changes
          ...
Wikipedia norms


  Policies not necessarily
          additive

Norms depend on entry time
     into community

         ...
Brad Patrick, Wikimedia




 Wikipedia:Five pillars



              Photo by: User:Zzubnik, Creative Commons
Contributors en: Wikipedia
(!!!!"




'!!!!"




&!!!!"

                                                                 ...
Article “supply”

• Fruit on the ground
  • [[Dog]], [[Music]]
• Low hanging fruit
  • [[History of England]]
• Higher han...
Articles in en: Wikipedia, Projections

            (#$"
!"##"$%&'




              ("



            '#$"
              ...
Hypotheses

• Human knowledge always expanding,
  but...

  • Steep exponential curve 2001-2005
    a “catchup” phase to e...
The Singularity is Not Near: Slowing Growth of Wikipedia (PARC)
Articles in en: Wikipedia, Projections
                        Based on Chi, Suh (PARC Augmented Social Cognition group)

...
User Friendliness
   Editing and Usability
90/9/1 communities



  90% lurkers
 9% contributors
  1% hard core


          Photo by: Susan NYC@flickr, Creative Commons
Editing/saving (WMF)




            Photo by: User:Zzubnik, Creative Commons
Editing followthrough

• Wikitravel: only 5% of those who press
  “edit” actually save
• Wikipedia: 1/5 to 2/5
• WikiHow: ...
Wikimania presentations


Why do Editors Leave Wikipedia? A
  Survey of Casual Contributors
   Howie Fung - exit interview...
Wikimedia Usability Study



     “Every user in this study struggled
      to get a basic grasp of the editing
      inte...
Losing Ground?



   “But not even our youngest and
  most computer savvy participants
 accomplished these tasks with ease...
Example: Wikia Muppet Wiki page
Example: Editing in MediaWiki markup mode
Example: Editing in Wikia-developed WYSIWYG mode
Example: Editing in WYSIWYG not always possible
Ideas




Guillaume Paumier, Cormac Lawler,
  Ariel Glenn, Panagiota Alevizou




                  Photo by: Susan NYC@fli...
Scenarios


    Slow steady quality decline
 Pending changes, quality increase
Inability to update in timely manner
  Tric...
Wikipedia Lessons




How has “the crowd” become
 part of the news process?
User generated content




 Audience-created media
           vs
Community-curated works
Citizen journalists




Are bloggers journalists?
 Some are, most aren’t.
Pro-Am Journalism?
                 Amateur    Professional
                standards    standards


Noncommercial
  (amat...
Pro-Am Journalism?
                   Amateur       Professional
                  standards       standards

            ...
Pro-Am Journalism?
                   Amateur       Professional
                  standards       standards

            ...
Pro-Am Journalism?
                   Amateur       Professional
                  standards       standards

            ...
Pro-Am Journalism?
                   Amateur       Professional
                  standards       standards

            ...
Pro-Am Journalism?
                   Amateur       Professional
                  standards       standards

            ...
OpenStreetmap



Like Wikipedia of maps
Contribute GPS “trails”
 and traces to project
  Creative Commons
        license
OpenStreetmap
OpenStreetmap - Haiti

                                                        Using:
                                    ...
Content Creation vs Curation




 Works
Creation




              Works Curation
Content Creation vs Curation




 Works
Creation




              Works Curation
Content Creation vs Curation




 Works
Creation




              Works Curation
Content Creation vs Curation




 Works
Creation




              Works Curation
Content Creation vs Curation




 Works
Creation




              Works Curation
Lostpedia




Wikipedia-like reference
to the popular TV show
   Original research/
   theories welcome!
Dan Gillmor



   Journalism is no longer a
              lecture.
      It is a conversation
Lawrence Lessig


      “weirdly totalitarian”
    communications of the
     20th century yields to
         “read/write”
Leo Laporte, TWiT

     Mass media is not
    natural to the human
         condition...
    An artifact of a certain
    ...
Jay Rosen



     The people, formerly
    known as the audience
Information Pyramid


      wisdom



     knowledge



     Information



        data
Information Pyramid

               ?
            wisdom


  context, historical analysis
           knowledge

 press rel...
Impact of Internet Media

                 ?
              wisdom


    context, historical analysis
             knowledg...
Impact of Internet Media

                                 ?
                              wisdom


                    co...
Journalism Values

                                 ?
                              wisdom


                    context, ...
Journalism Values

            editing
                                      ?
          research
         storytelling   ...
Journalism Values

            editing                                         fairness
                                  ...
Wikipedia and the News


"Trying to determine what
is going on in the world by
reading newspapers is like
trying to tell t...
Values




What is true or credible?
 Arbiters, processes,
        systems
Working the crowd




     Content...
creation vs curation
Citizen Journalists




      CNN iReport
  YouTube, Ustream.tv
   Flickr, Wikimedia
       Commons

Creative Commons Attr...
Crowdsourcing - Discrete tasks



      Open Streetmap
     NASA Clickworkers
       Guardian UK
      TPM Muckraker
NASA Clickworkers


        Volunteers,
     identifying and
      classifying the
      age of craters
         on Mars

...
Clickworkers vectorizing craters


             “accomplished in a week
              what a single graduate
             ...
Crowdsourcing - Document dump



     UK expenses scandal
         (Guardian)

      US DOJ attorneys
      (TPM Muckraker)
UK Parliament expenses scandal



              20,000
            volunteers
           comb through
          PDF docume...
Guardian experiences


 Your workers are unpaid, so
        make it fun.
Speed: use a framework, Django
  Burst: have serv...
Wisdom of Crowds
(James Surowiecki)



   Diversity
 Independence
Decentralization
  Aggregation


               Photo by...
Wisdom of Crowds Online
(Derek Powazek, SXSW2009)



 Small simple tasks
Large diverse groups
Design for selfishness
 Resul...
Wikinews difficulties




Complex narrative writing
Hyperlocalized knowledge
   Deadline-oriented


                    Pho...
Attorneys scandal


                   TPM Muckraker readers
                  combed thru 3,000 emails
                  ...
Theme Park Insider




 Early whistleblower site
Report accidents, first-hand
  accounts, photos to TPI


    http://www.oj...
Robert Niles (Theme Park Insider)



          “Crowdsouring...
         will stand along the
      traditional ‘big three...
Journalism Values

   editing                                         fairness
                             ?
 research   ...
Clay Shirky



  The problem is filter failure,
   not information overload
A new model for
understanding the crowd,
 creation and curation
Understanding
                      Content | Curation
...
wisdo
m
context, historical
analysis
knowledge
press releases, ...
Understanding
                                                          Content   Curation
                               ...
Understanding
                                                            Content   Curation
                             ...
Understanding
                                                            Content   Curation
                             ...
Understanding
                                                            Content   Curation
                             ...
Understanding
                                                                        Content   Curation
                 ...
Understanding
                                                                        Content   Curation
                 ...
Understanding
                                                                        Content   Curation
                 ...
Understanding
                                                                                  Content   Curation
       ...
Understanding
                                                                                  Content   Curation
       ...
Understanding
                                                                                  Content   Curation
       ...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Understanding
                                                                                         Content   Curation
...
Impact of Internet Media

                 ?
              wisdom


    context, historical analysis
             knowledg...
News industry

  Journalism not doomed but
  it is shifting to a permanent
      disruptive beta mode

   Fortune at the t...
Journalism Values

   editing                                         fairness
                             ?
 research   ...
Journalism’s problems




   Journalism is not
     stenography.
       Too often it is.


  http://www.ojr.org/ojr/storie...
Wikipedia relevance




     WP:V and WP:RS
What if the sources aren’t
 checking themselves?


   http://www.ojr.org/ojr/s...
Sources and facts


  Military commentators
         (MSNBC)
  Irresponsible reporting
          (FOX)
Sunday Morning talk...
http://www.politifact.com/subjects/abc-news-week/
Sources and facts



  Meet The Press, David
        Gregory:
"People can fact-check 'Meet
  the Press' every week on
    ...
WikiFactCheck.org




Adapt the fact checking
 culture of Wikipedia,
  {{citationneeded}}



  http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stor...
Kevin Drum: Bush v Kerry
Kevin Drum: Bush v Kerry
WikiFactCheck.org



 Garbage in, garbage out
Templates/examples exist
 Apply the wiki method/
      community
Understanding
                      Content | Curation
...
wisdo
m
context, historical
analysis
knowledge
press releases, ...
Understanding
                                                          Content   Curation
                               ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
Understanding
                                                                      Content   Curation
                   ...
WikiFactCheck.org




Garbage in, garbage out
Andrew Lih
                                                                                                               ...
What Hath Wikipedia
         Wrought:
 Crowds Remaking the News

       Wikisym    Andrew Lih
Gdansk, Poland    http://and...
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news
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What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news

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What Hath Wikipedia Wrought:
Crowds Remaking the News by Andrew Lih

Closing keynote at Wikisym 2010 in Gdansk, Poland. An update on the health of Wikipedia, its implications on the news industry and a description of a new project: Wikifactcheck.

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  • Jodi, thanks much for the comment. Yes, I'm not totally satisfied with the dichotomy: 'crowd/audience' and 'corporate/government'

    I'm eager to hear of other ways to characterize the entities while still keeping the chart readable. :) As discussed earlier in the slides, I'm not happy with 'pro' and 'am' as the distinction. But I'm still searching for a better way to describe this and welcome more ideas.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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  • I really like the vision from slide 124 -- categorizing by who’s supplying the content, and who’s curating (government/business vs. crowd). These colors, blue and red, don’t really signify crowd and professionals to me -- so I hope you find an even better way to present this idea, which seems to be a/the core message of the talk. Your model is great because it makes sense of 'we need journalists' and 'harnass the crowd' both at once -- while indicating the complexity.
       Reply 
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  • 25-28 are really interesting for policy. Any timeline for the policy 'generations'?
       Reply 
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  • My favourites: 50, 58, 70, 88-89, 124.
       Reply 
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  • On slide 51: Yes, that would be really cool. Good working example to look at are annotations at PLoS.
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  • 20 minutes for presentation , 10 minutes for Q&A
  • Famous saying in the community

    Works in practice, but not in theory

    No better starting point, no worse ending point

    Wikipedia is the worst place to start, except for every other web site










  • Famous saying in the community

    Works in practice, but not in theory

    No better starting point, no worse ending point

    Wikipedia is the worst place to start, except for every other web site

  • What started conventional, 7 step process, top editors, copy editor, PhDs required
  • Only sites that consistently rank above it globally are Google, Yahoo and Microsoft. Oftentimes Facebook. Depending on locales and language groups, one other property ranks above Wikipedia, such as T-sites in Germany, France Telecom. Korea: cyworld, daum, naver

  • "Functional MRI of the social mind"
    (attentive clusters)
    Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, wants strictly Islamic state
    Levant - Lebanon, more Western sensibilities

  • Al Jarida, Kuwaiti newspaper, all color, started in 2007

  • Human rights site, secular bloggers in Egypt
  • NY Times, Kuwaiti, Levant, secular reform bloggers

  • Al Jazeera the only one that is consistently cited across the Arabic blogosphere -- secular, religious, Arab-oriented, Western, et al.

  • As an emergent phenomenon that shows the influence and perceived reliability of Wikipedia
  • Famous saying in the world of Linux and open source software










































































  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24













  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24
  • The idea is that depending on the situation, sometimes the crowds is the better “filter” or the “MSM”

    One irreverent addition that delivers you to wisdom? Lostpedia
    Heroes, 24


  • 20 minutes for presentation , 10 minutes for Q&A
  • What Hath Wikipedia Wrought? Crowds remaking the news

    1. 1. What Hath Wikipedia Wrought: Crowds Remaking the News Wikisym Andrew Lih Gdansk, Poland http://andrewlih.com July 7-9, 2010 Wikipedia/Twitter: Fuzheado Associate professor University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
    2. 2. Gdansk Why is Wikisym/Wikimania in Gdansk? by bored-now@flickr, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NC License
    3. 3. THE WIKIPEDIA REVOLUTION U.S. $ 2 4.9 9 HOW A BUNCH OF NOBODIES CREATED THE WORLD’S “Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of GREATEST ENCYCLOPEDIA all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing.” —Jimmy Wales With more than 2,0 0 0,0 0 0 individual articles on everything from Aa! (a Japanese pop group) to Zzyzx, California, written by an army of volunteer contributors, Wikipedia is the # 8 site on the World Wide Web. Created (and corrected) by anyone with access to a computer, this impressive assemblage of knowledge is growing at an astonishing rate of more than 3 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 words a month. Now for the How a Bunch of Nobodies Greatest Encyclopedia Created the World’s first time, a Wikipedia insider tells the story of how it all happened—from the first glimmer of an idea to the global phenomenon it’s become. Andrew Lih has been an administrator (a trusted user who is granted access to technical features) at Wikipedia for more than four years, as well as a ANDREW LIH regular host of the weekly Wikipedia podcast. In The Wikipedia Revolution, he details the site’s inception in 2 0 01, its evolution, and its remarkable growth, while also explaining its larger cultural repercussions. Wikipedia is not just a website; it’s a global commu- ANDREW LIH nity of contributors who have banded together out of a shared passion for making knowledge free. Featuring a Foreword by Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales and an Afterword that is itself a Wikipedia creation.
    4. 4. 11
    5. 5. Rundown Wikipedia health Impact on news A new project by bored-now@flickr, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NC License
    6. 6. Wikipedia’s impact ComScore: Top 5 Alexa: Top 6 Since 2006, overtaken NY Times, Amazon, Fox Interactive, eBay, Time Warner sites Comscore: Nov 2009 Alexa: Feb 2009 Photo by: victoriapeckham@flickr, Creative Commons
    7. 7. Wikipedia Stats 380 million unique visits a day 980 million clicks a day Source: Wikimedia Foundation, July 2010 Photo by: victoriapeckham@flickr, Creative Commons
    8. 8. Arabic blogosphere secular reform Kuwait Egypt Levant Brotherhood Syria Saudi Arabia Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    9. 9. Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    10. 10. Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    11. 11. Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    12. 12. Arabic blogosphere secular reform Kuwait Egypt Levant Brotherhood Syria Saudi Arabia Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    13. 13. Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    14. 14. Images courtesy: Morningside Analytics
    15. 15. The Crowd at work Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow
    16. 16. Wikipedia Culture Norms evolving over time
    17. 17. AGF IAR NPOV Gen1
    18. 18. Gen2 3RR Dispute resolution RfA CSD AGF Semi- protection IAR NPOV Gen1
    19. 19. Gen2 3RR Dispute resolution RfA CSD CSD G1-12 Semi- AGF protection CSD R1-3 CSD I1-8 IAR NPOV CSD C,U,T,P Reliable BLP Unsourced sources nontagged Gen1 Anonymous article fair use images creation No spoiler tags Gen3
    20. 20. Gen2 Pending Gen4 changes 3RR RfA Dispute gauntlet resolution CSD Flagged CSD G1-12 revisions Semi- AGF protection CSD R1-3 CSD I1-8 IAR NPOV CSD C,U,T,P Reliable BLP Unsourced sources nontagged Gen1 Anonymous article fair use images creation No spoiler tags Gen3
    21. 21. Wikipedia norms Policies not necessarily additive Norms depend on entry time into community Photo by: User:Zzubnik, Creative Commons
    22. 22. Brad Patrick, Wikimedia Wikipedia:Five pillars Photo by: User:Zzubnik, Creative Commons
    23. 23. Contributors en: Wikipedia (!!!!" '!!!!" &!!!!" '" #!" $'" #!!" %!!!!" $'!" #!!!" $'!!" #!!!!" $!!!!" $'!!!" #!!!!" !" )*+,!%" )*+,!&" )*+,!'" )*+,!(" )*+,!-" )*+,!." )*+,!/"
    24. 24. Article “supply” • Fruit on the ground • [[Dog]], [[Music]] • Low hanging fruit • [[History of England]] • Higher hanging fruit/deletion • [[Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets]]
    25. 25. Articles in en: Wikipedia, Projections (#$" !"##"$%&' (" '#$" Higher '" hanging fruit &#$" &" Low hanging fruit %#$" %" Fruit on !#$" the ground !" )*+,!%" )*+,!&" )*+,!'" )*+,!(" )*+,!$" )*+,!-" )*+,!." )*+,!/" )*+,!0" )*+,%!" )*+,%%" )*+,%&" )*+,%'" )*+,%("
    26. 26. Hypotheses • Human knowledge always expanding, but... • Steep exponential curve 2001-2005 a “catchup” phase to existing knowledge • Will settle into a less dramatic curve, even linear?
    27. 27. The Singularity is Not Near: Slowing Growth of Wikipedia (PARC)
    28. 28. Articles in en: Wikipedia, Projections Based on Chi, Suh (PARC Augmented Social Cognition group) (#$" !"##"$%&' (" '#$" Analysis, '" maintenance, &#$" Higher news, hanging fruit popular culture &" Low hanging %#$" fruit %" Fruit on !#$" the ground !" )*+,!%" )*+,!&" )*+,!'" )*+,!(" )*+,!$" )*+,!-" )*+,!." )*+,!/" )*+,!0" )*+,%!" )*+,%%" )*+,%&" )*+,%'" )*+,%("
    29. 29. User Friendliness Editing and Usability
    30. 30. 90/9/1 communities 90% lurkers 9% contributors 1% hard core Photo by: Susan NYC@flickr, Creative Commons
    31. 31. Editing/saving (WMF) Photo by: User:Zzubnik, Creative Commons
    32. 32. Editing followthrough • Wikitravel: only 5% of those who press “edit” actually save • Wikipedia: 1/5 to 2/5 • WikiHow: 30% with guided editing • Wikia: WYSIWYG editor >> 50% Sources: Jack Herrick, WikiHow; Erik Zachte, Wikimedia Foundation
    33. 33. Wikimania presentations Why do Editors Leave Wikipedia? A Survey of Casual Contributors Howie Fung - exit interviews Trends in Wikipedia Communities Ronald Beelaard- activity before leaving Photo by: Susan NYC@flickr, Creative Commons
    34. 34. Wikimedia Usability Study “Every user in this study struggled to get a basic grasp of the editing interface... largely failed to make edits correctly without repeated attempts and efforts” http://usability.wikimedia.org/wiki/Usability_and_Experience_Study#Feeling_Stupid Photo by: Susan NYC@flickr, Creative Commons
    35. 35. Losing Ground? “But not even our youngest and most computer savvy participants accomplished these tasks with ease” http://blog.wikimedia.org/2009/04/24/usability-study-results-sneak-preview/ Photo by: Stevenfruitsmaak@commons.wikimedia, Creative Commons generic 2.5
    36. 36. Example: Wikia Muppet Wiki page
    37. 37. Example: Editing in MediaWiki markup mode
    38. 38. Example: Editing in Wikia-developed WYSIWYG mode
    39. 39. Example: Editing in WYSIWYG not always possible
    40. 40. Ideas Guillaume Paumier, Cormac Lawler, Ariel Glenn, Panagiota Alevizou Photo by: Susan NYC@flickr, Creative Commons
    41. 41. Scenarios Slow steady quality decline Pending changes, quality increase Inability to update in timely manner Trickling in of spam, POV, non- neutral content
    42. 42. Wikipedia Lessons How has “the crowd” become part of the news process?
    43. 43. User generated content Audience-created media vs Community-curated works
    44. 44. Citizen journalists Are bloggers journalists? Some are, most aren’t.
    45. 45. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Noncommercial (amateur) Commercial (pro)
    46. 46. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Most blogs and Noncommercial usergen (amateur) content Commercial (pro)
    47. 47. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Most blogs and Noncommercial usergen (amateur) content Commercial (pro)
    48. 48. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Most blogs and Noncommercial usergen (amateur) content Commercial (pro)
    49. 49. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Most blogs and Noncommercial usergen (amateur) content Commercial (pro)
    50. 50. Pro-Am Journalism? Amateur Professional standards standards Most blogs and Noncommercial usergen (amateur) content Commercial (pro)
    51. 51. OpenStreetmap Like Wikipedia of maps Contribute GPS “trails” and traces to project Creative Commons license
    52. 52. OpenStreetmap
    53. 53. OpenStreetmap - Haiti Using: Yahoo imagery CIA maps AFTER GeoEye BEFORE http://brainoff.com/weblog/2010/01/14/1518
    54. 54. Content Creation vs Curation Works Creation Works Curation
    55. 55. Content Creation vs Curation Works Creation Works Curation
    56. 56. Content Creation vs Curation Works Creation Works Curation
    57. 57. Content Creation vs Curation Works Creation Works Curation
    58. 58. Content Creation vs Curation Works Creation Works Curation
    59. 59. Lostpedia Wikipedia-like reference to the popular TV show Original research/ theories welcome!
    60. 60. Dan Gillmor Journalism is no longer a lecture. It is a conversation
    61. 61. Lawrence Lessig “weirdly totalitarian” communications of the 20th century yields to “read/write”
    62. 62. Leo Laporte, TWiT Mass media is not natural to the human condition... An artifact of a certain technological age
    63. 63. Jay Rosen The people, formerly known as the audience
    64. 64. Information Pyramid wisdom knowledge Information data
    65. 65. Information Pyramid ? wisdom context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports stats, weather metrics, financial data
    66. 66. Impact of Internet Media ? wisdom context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data
    67. 67. Impact of Internet Media ? wisdom context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, commodity photos user generated Information multiple sources sports, weather, financial data
    68. 68. Journalism Values ? wisdom context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, commodity photos user generated Information multiple sources sports, weather, financial data
    69. 69. Journalism Values editing ? research storytelling wisdom curation context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, commodity photos user generated Information multiple sources sports, weather, financial data
    70. 70. Journalism Values editing fairness ? research accuracy storytelling wisdom balance curation transparency context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, commodity photos user generated Information multiple sources sports, weather, financial data
    71. 71. Wikipedia and the News "Trying to determine what is going on in the world by reading newspapers is like trying to tell the time by watching the second hand of a clock." -Ben Hecht
    72. 72. Values What is true or credible? Arbiters, processes, systems
    73. 73. Working the crowd Content... creation vs curation
    74. 74. Citizen Journalists CNN iReport YouTube, Ustream.tv Flickr, Wikimedia Commons Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike 3.0 Wikimedia User:Didoundp
    75. 75. Crowdsourcing - Discrete tasks Open Streetmap NASA Clickworkers Guardian UK TPM Muckraker
    76. 76. NASA Clickworkers Volunteers, identifying and classifying the age of craters on Mars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clickworkers
    77. 77. Clickworkers vectorizing craters “accomplished in a week what a single graduate student would have needed a year to complete” The Future of the Internet--And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain
    78. 78. Crowdsourcing - Document dump UK expenses scandal (Guardian) US DOJ attorneys (TPM Muckraker)
    79. 79. UK Parliament expenses scandal 20,000 volunteers comb through PDF documents http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/06/four-crowdsourcing-lessons-from-the-guardians-spectacular-expenses-scandal-experiment/
    80. 80. Guardian experiences Your workers are unpaid, so make it fun. Speed: use a framework, Django Burst: have servers ready - Amazon EC2
    81. 81. Wisdom of Crowds (James Surowiecki) Diversity Independence Decentralization Aggregation Photo by: victoriapeckham@flickr, Creative Commons
    82. 82. Wisdom of Crowds Online (Derek Powazek, SXSW2009) Small simple tasks Large diverse groups Design for selfishness Result aggregation Photo by: iskanderbenamor@flickr, Creative Commons
    83. 83. Wikinews difficulties Complex narrative writing Hyperlocalized knowledge Deadline-oriented Photo by: iskanderbenamor@flickr, Creative Commons
    84. 84. Attorneys scandal TPM Muckraker readers combed thru 3,000 emails In hours, crowd ID’ed “compromising passages” Result: MSM news stories, Polk Award http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9083501
    85. 85. Theme Park Insider Early whistleblower site Report accidents, first-hand accounts, photos to TPI http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070731niles/
    86. 86. Robert Niles (Theme Park Insider) “Crowdsouring... will stand along the traditional ‘big three’ of interviews, observation and examining documents” http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070731niles/
    87. 87. Journalism Values editing fairness ? research accuracy storytelling wisdom balance curation transparency context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data
    88. 88. Clay Shirky The problem is filter failure, not information overload
    89. 89. A new model for understanding the crowd, creation and curation
    90. 90. Understanding Content | Curation ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    91. 91. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    92. 92. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    93. 93. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    94. 94. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    95. 95. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    96. 96. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    97. 97. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    98. 98. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    99. 99. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    100. 100. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker s Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    101. 101. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open s Streetmap Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    102. 102. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open s Streetmap Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    103. 103. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open s Streetmap Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    104. 104. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open s Streetmap Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    105. 105. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM s Streetmap Muckraker attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    106. 106. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM s Streetmap Muckraker attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    107. 107. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM s Streetmap Muckraker attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    108. 108. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM s Streetmap Muckraker attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    109. 109. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM ThemePark s Streetmap Muckraker Insider attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    110. 110. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM ThemePark s Streetmap Muckraker Insider attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    111. 111. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM ThemePark s Streetmap Muckraker Insider attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    112. 112. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information CNN Wikipedia iReport sports, weather, financial data NASA Clickworker Open TPM ThemePark s Streetmap Muckraker Insider attorneys scandal Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    113. 113. Impact of Internet Media ? wisdom context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data
    114. 114. News industry Journalism not doomed but it is shifting to a permanent disruptive beta mode Fortune at the top of the pyramid
    115. 115. Journalism Values editing fairness ? research accuracy storytelling wisdom balance curation transparency context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data
    116. 116. Journalism’s problems Journalism is not stenography. Too often it is. http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070731niles/
    117. 117. Wikipedia relevance WP:V and WP:RS What if the sources aren’t checking themselves? http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070731niles/
    118. 118. Sources and facts Military commentators (MSNBC) Irresponsible reporting (FOX) Sunday Morning talk shows (NBC)
    119. 119. http://www.politifact.com/subjects/abc-news-week/
    120. 120. Sources and facts Meet The Press, David Gregory: "People can fact-check 'Meet the Press' every week on their own terms."
    121. 121. WikiFactCheck.org Adapt the fact checking culture of Wikipedia, {{citationneeded}} http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070731niles/
    122. 122. Kevin Drum: Bush v Kerry
    123. 123. Kevin Drum: Bush v Kerry
    124. 124. WikiFactCheck.org Garbage in, garbage out Templates/examples exist Apply the wiki method/ community
    125. 125. Understanding Content | Curation ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    126. 126. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    127. 127. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    128. 128. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    129. 129. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    130. 130. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, WikiFactCheck financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    131. 131. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, WikiFactCheck financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    132. 132. Understanding Content Curation Crowd/ Audience Content | Curation Corporate/ Govt ... wisdo m context, historical analysis knowledge press releases, live coverage, photos Information Wikipedia sports, weather, WikiFactCheck financial data Credit: Andrew Lih, University of Southern California
    133. 133. WikiFactCheck.org Garbage in, garbage out
    134. 134. Andrew Lih andrew@andrewlih.com THE WIKIPEDIA REVOLUTION Twitter: Fuzheado cle disc ussion view sourc e history U.S. $ 2 4.9 9 pedia Revolution HOW A BUNCH OF NOBODIES pedia, the free encyclopedia CREATED THE WORLD’S “Imagine a world in which every single person navigation, search on the planet is given free access to the sum of s article is about the book. For the different, similar terms related to Wikipedia, see GREATEST ENCYCLOPEDIA all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing.” —Jimmy Wales ipedia (terminology). Wikipedia’s non-encyclopedic visitor introduction, see Wikipedia:About. With more than 2,0 0 0,0 0 0 individual articles on Revolution (pronunciation ) is the story of the free, [1] multilingual ency- roject supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. The website’s name everything from Aa! (a Japanese pop group) to anteau of the words wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites) and Zzyzx, California, written by an army of volunteer dia. Wikipedia’s 1 0 million articles have been written collaboratively by volun- contributors, Wikipedia is the # 8 site on the World nd the world, and almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone who can Wide Web. Created (and corrected) by anyone with Wikipedia website. [2] Launched in 2 0 0 1 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, [3] it access to a computer, this impressive assemblage y the largest and most popular[1] general reference work on the Internet. [4][5][6] of knowledge is growing at an astonishing rate of edia Revolution traces Wikipedia’s phenomenal success back to its roots, and more than 3 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 words a month. Now for the How a Bunch of Nobodies Greatest Encyclopedia Created the World’s e people who have contributed to its stated mission of giving every single person first time, a Wikipedia insider tells the story of how s to the sum of all human knowledge. it all happened—from the first glimmer of an idea to the global phenomenon it’s become. e Introduction to The Wikipedia Revolution Andrew Lih has been an administrator (a trusted edia founder, Jimmy Wales user who is granted access to technical features) at Wikipedia for more than four years, as well as a ANDREW LIH regular host of the weekly Wikipedia podcast. In The ow, it’s hard not to use the Internet without experiencing Wikipedia in Wikipedia Revolution, he details the site’s inception s and surfing. It has become an incredibly useful Internet resource in in 2 0 01, its evolution, and its remarkable growth, nguages. Yet when you use Wikipedia, you may not understand the while also explaining its larger cultural repercussions. phy behind it. Wikipedia is not just a website; it’s a global commu- book tells the story of how Wikipedia began and evolved from a traditional pedia into the intricate global community that it is today. ANDREW LIH nity of contributors who have banded together out of a shared passion for making knowledge free. ISBN: 978-1-4013-0371-6 Featuring a Foreword by Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales and an Afterword that is itself a Wikipedia creation.
    135. 135. What Hath Wikipedia Wrought: Crowds Remaking the News Wikisym Andrew Lih Gdansk, Poland http://andrewlih.com July 7-9, 2010 Wikipedia/Twitter: Fuzheado Associate professor University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
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