NCV 2 Language Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 1


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This slide show complements the learner guide NCV 2 Language Hands-On Training by Frieda Wade, published by Future Managers Pty Ltd. For more information visit our website

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NCV 2 Language Hands-On Support Slide Show - Module 1

  1. 1. Language 2
  2. 2. Module 1: Communicate with care <ul><li>After completing this module you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>use strategies to deliver messages and reply appropriately to sustain dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>use strategies to listen to information and meaning in order to respond appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>use language structures and conventions to formulate messages or responses that are grammatically correct messages </li></ul><ul><li>use reading and viewing strategies to determine meaning in written, visual, multi-media texts and non-verbal forms of communication </li></ul><ul><li>develop language use to communicate learning orally and in writing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>In this module we are going to learn how to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>with care. This means we need to consider two things: </li></ul><ul><li>PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>Why am I communicating? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I want to inform, persuade, motivate, entertain, teach? </li></ul><ul><li>AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Who am I communicating with? What are their ages, what is their culture, gender, religion? Do I know them well or are they strangers? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social conversation <ul><li>What do you think the key to the art of good conversation is? </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD LISTENING SKILLS </li></ul>
  5. 5. What does good listening skills entail? <ul><li>Asking questions for more information </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions that show interest and confirm information, e.g. You didn’t do that, did you? </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating part of what the speaker said, e.g. I like apples Apples? So do I. </li></ul><ul><li>Using encouraging filler sounds/words like Uh-huh? Really? Is that true? Wow! </li></ul><ul><li>Using body language like nodding your head, smiling or frowning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Body language <ul><li>How many of the following pictures are examples of good </li></ul><ul><li>communication? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Greet and respond appropriately <ul><li>This is the standard greeting and response in English. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the standard farewell? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Greet and respond appropriately This is a fairly formal greeting. We would tend to use this with an audience not so well known to us or older than us Usually this is accompanied by a handshake – particularly if the people are strangers or if the people haven’t seen each other in a while
  9. 9. Greet and respond appropriately <ul><li>What other greetings can you think of? </li></ul><ul><li>Hello </li></ul><ul><li>Hi </li></ul><ul><li>Hiya </li></ul><ul><li>Howzit? </li></ul><ul><li>Morning </li></ul><ul><li>Hola </li></ul>What other forms of farewell can you think of? <ul><li>Ciao </li></ul><ul><li>See-ya </li></ul><ul><li>Bye-bye </li></ul><ul><li>Cheers </li></ul><ul><li>Ta-ta </li></ul><ul><li>Totsiens </li></ul>
  10. 10. Greet and respond appropriately <ul><li>Discussion time: Greetings </li></ul><ul><li>When would we hug or kiss someone on greeting? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this cultural? </li></ul><ul><li>What about kissing the hand of a woman? </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing someone on the lips? </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing someone on the cheek? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Greet and respond appropriately <ul><li>Discussion time: Greetings </li></ul><ul><li>We also have to make a decision of what to call the person. </li></ul><ul><li>First name or title and surname? Perhaps you would use a </li></ul><ul><li>nickname. </li></ul><ul><li>All of this depends on our relationship with that person and </li></ul><ul><li>what our culture prescribes, e.g. an Afrikaans young person </li></ul><ul><li>is safe calling an older person “Oom” (uncle) or “Tannie” </li></ul><ul><li>(auntie). This is considered respectful. In English you would </li></ul><ul><li>only do this with very close friends of your parents or with </li></ul><ul><li>your relatives. To do it with strangers is disrespectful. Use </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sir” or “Ma’am” if you don’t know their name. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Greet and respond appropriately <ul><li>Discuss the images that follow and try to identify the </li></ul><ul><li>culture or situation each image belongs to </li></ul>
  13. 22. Ask questions respond appropriately <ul><li>There are two basic types of questions that we use in English when we want to ask questions: </li></ul><ul><li>closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>content questions </li></ul><ul><li>A tag question is a type of closed question. </li></ul>
  14. 23. Closed questions <ul><li>What is a closed question? </li></ul><ul><li>A closed question is a question that requires a very short </li></ul><ul><li>response such as Yes, No, Perhaps or I don’t know . It does </li></ul><ul><li>not invite extra information. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we form a closed question? </li></ul><ul><li>We put the linking verb at the beginning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul>
  15. 24. Closed questions <ul><li>What do we use closed questions for? </li></ul><ul><li>For a short specific reply such as Yes , No </li></ul><ul><li>To make requests </li></ul><ul><li>To confirm information </li></ul>
  16. 25. Content questions <ul><li>What is a content question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A content question is a question that requires more information than just a Yes or No response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we form a content question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put a question word before the verb or helping verb. So you simply put the question word in front of the closed question and it becomes a content question. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are six question words. What do you think they are? </li></ul>
  17. 26. Content questions <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul>
  18. 27. Content questions <ul><li>How do we respond to a content question? </li></ul><ul><li>We give the required information (content) </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN are you happy? </li></ul><ul><li>Only when I am with you. </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE does Siya live? </li></ul><ul><li>He lives down the street at no. 16. </li></ul><ul><li>WHY has Zoleka left? </li></ul><ul><li>She got a job in Welkom. </li></ul><ul><li>HOW can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>You can help me by carrying some of these heavy packets. </li></ul>
  19. 28. Content questions <ul><li>WHO is making such a noise? </li></ul><ul><li>The children. </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT is on the table? </li></ul><ul><li>All your notes for the project. </li></ul>
  20. 29. Make verbal requests and respond appropriately <ul><li>Very often we have ask someone for something or to do something. The challenge is to request in such a way that the person will say </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yes”! </li></ul><ul><li>This means asking the question politely. </li></ul>
  21. 30. Make verbal requests and respond appropriately <ul><li>Read the following polite requests and try and identify </li></ul><ul><li>which words or phrases are making the questions polite: </li></ul><ul><li>Could you possibly help me for a few minutes? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind giving me a lift to college on Monday? </li></ul><ul><li>May I go to a party on Friday night? </li></ul><ul><li>Could I borrow your book please? </li></ul>Could you possibly Would you mind May I Could I please
  22. 31. Use the correct level of language <ul><li>The way we speak in a conversation depends on the </li></ul><ul><li>audience and the purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as your greetings changed according to the audience, </li></ul><ul><li>so the general level of language in a conversation changes </li></ul><ul><li>according to the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>For example discuss the differences between speaking to </li></ul><ul><li>your friends, your parents, your teachers and a prospective </li></ul><ul><li>employee. </li></ul>
  23. 32. The communication process <ul><li>Have you ever noticed how communication </li></ul><ul><li>is almost like a table tennis game with </li></ul><ul><li>messages being sent to and fro instead of a </li></ul><ul><li>ball? </li></ul><ul><li>The interesting thing is that we </li></ul><ul><li>communicate not only with words, but also </li></ul><ul><li>by the way we say or write things, and by </li></ul><ul><li>the way we use our bodies. </li></ul>
  24. 33. The communication process <ul><li>Here is a diagram illustrating the communication process: </li></ul>
  25. 34. Communication with words (verbal communication) <ul><li>Verbal communication is any message that is either spoken (face-to-face or telephone) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>written (newspaper, magazine, textbook, brochure, letter, SMS etc) </li></ul>
  26. 35. Difference between speaking and writing <ul><li>Imagine you are sending an SMS inviting a friend to go with </li></ul><ul><li>you to a social place/event. What will you write? </li></ul><ul><li>Now imagine you call your friend on your cellphone and </li></ul><ul><li>invite them to the same event. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the differences. </li></ul>
  27. 36. Differences in the way we write <ul><li>SMSes make use of a lot of abbreviations and </li></ul><ul><li>incorrect spellings. Discuss how you would write </li></ul><ul><li>out the above two SMSes in correct English. </li></ul>
  28. 37. Writing a request <ul><li>When writing requests follow the same basic rules as for oral requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use the modal verbs. They help to make a request polite. May, might, could, would, should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use please </li></ul></ul>
  29. 38. Communicating without words (Non-verbal communication) <ul><li>How many forms of non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>communication can you think of? </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures, cartoons, paintings, photographs, images </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols and signs </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul>
  30. 39. Symbols and signs <ul><li>Look at the symbols and signs that follow and discuss what their meanings are: </li></ul>
  31. 50. Messages sent by clothing <ul><li>Look at the images that follow and discuss what you can find out about the people just by looking at their clothes: </li></ul>
  32. 55. What did you infer from the previous slide? If you guessed male nurse then you are correct! If you guessed male doctor be careful not to stereotype!
  33. 56. Messages sent by facial expression, body language and gesture <ul><li>Look at the images that follow and discuss what you can find out about the people just by looking at their facial expressions and gestures: </li></ul>
  34. 65. Messages conveyed by the voice <ul><li>Effective communication = clear verbal message </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate body language </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>expressive voice </li></ul>
  35. 66. Messages conveyed by the voice <ul><li>The following shows a list of different aspects of the voice that </li></ul><ul><li>help to make it expressive, so that it strengthens the combined </li></ul><ul><li>verbal and body language message. Try to guess what each </li></ul><ul><li>aspect does. </li></ul><ul><li>PACE/TEMPO </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a sentence or part of a sentence needs to be said faster or more slowly than the rest </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUME </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we speak loudly and sometimes softly depending on the feeling we want to get across. Angry words will be said more loudly than loving words </li></ul>
  36. 67. Messages conveyed by the voice <ul><li>INFLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>The rise and fall of the voice. Questions have a rising inflection at the end: “Is he here?” Statements have a falling inflection at the end: “He is here”. </li></ul><ul><li>PITCH </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s voices sound higher than men’s voices. Excitement will be expressed with a higher pitch than sadness. </li></ul><ul><li>STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>“ Point to the important words with a change of inflection or volume, or use a small pause before or after. </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>Say the sounds clearly: use your tongue and your lips. </li></ul>
  37. 68. Messages conveyed by the voice <ul><li>PAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>Pause for effect before or just after an important point; pause to show that a new idea is coming through </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION </li></ul><ul><li>The musical quality of the voice </li></ul><ul><li>TONE </li></ul><ul><li>The feeling or emotion behind the voice </li></ul>
  38. 69. Barriers to communication <ul><li>It is not always easy to get your message across </li></ul><ul><li>exactly as you intend it to be. How often have you </li></ul><ul><li>said or written something and found that the </li></ul><ul><li>other person got quite the wrong message? </li></ul><ul><li>When we get the feedback we realise “Oops! S/he </li></ul><ul><li>didn’t get it!” This happens because there are so </li></ul><ul><li>many barriers to effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to be aware of these </li></ul><ul><li>to avoid them. </li></ul>
  39. 70. Barriers to communication <ul><li>Connect the communication barrier with the probable feedback </li></ul>
  40. 71. Barriers to communication <ul><li>Discussion time: </li></ul><ul><li>In three of these examples the people try to take the barrier away and keep communication going. Which three are those? </li></ul><ul><li>In two of the examples communication breaks down completely. Which two are those? </li></ul>
  41. 72. Different types of barriers <ul><li>The following lists different types of communication barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how they act as barriers and give examples of each. </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL OR PHYSICAL </li></ul><ul><li>A problem that has nothing to do with people who are trying to communicate, which prevents the message from getting through clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. A loud noise; a letter that has fallen in the mud so you can’t read the words anymore. </li></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker/writer uses words or language that the listener/reader does not understand; or s/he uses words that have two meanings, “Is this all from you for my birthday?” </li></ul><ul><li>What two meanings can this sentence have? </li></ul>
  42. 73. Different types of barriers <ul><li>EMOTIONAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>The listener’s/reader’s feelings get in the way of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The listener is angry or too tied up with his own problem to listen and respond properly. </li></ul><ul><li>BIAS (PERCEPTUAL BARRIER) </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker/writer thinks only his/her culture, gender, race, religion, age or point of view is right and (sometimes unconsciously) uses words and body language that the audience either does not understand or regards as hurtful. </li></ul>
  43. 74. Different types of barriers <ul><li>How do we prevent barriers from spoiling our communication? </li></ul><ul><li>Before we speak or write, we must ask ourselves who is my audience and what is my purpose in communicating? </li></ul>
  44. 75. Semantic barriers <ul><li>English is difficult for a non-mother-tongue speaker because it has so many homonyms </li></ul><ul><li>and homophones. Time must be spent on </li></ul><ul><li>learning about and recognising the most common ones </li></ul>
  45. 76. Semantic barriers <ul><li>Read the passage that follows and then do </li></ul><ul><li>the following tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>The words in green are homonyms. Give the meaning of each word and then give another possible meaning for that word. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the words in green are incorrect. They don’t fit the context. The homophone has been given instead of the required word! Listen carefully to the sound of the word and give the correct word spelt correctly. </li></ul>
  46. 77. Communication through the ages <ul><li>People have evolved fancy ways of keeping in touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Today you can be hundreds or even thousands of kilometres from the person you want to communicate with and still make almost instant contact via e-mail, fax and the telephone. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1800s the telegraph, which sent Morse code , was the most important long-distance communication tool, but Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone soon replaced it. Bell made the world’s first telephone call on 10 March 1876 when he used electricity to conduct the sound down a wire. Later people could speak to others thousands of kilometres away. Decades later, the telephone maid the telex, the fax and the Internet possible. Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio soon after 1900. This lead to the development of TV and later opened the weigh for cellphones. The first cellphone call was made 30 years ago but this technology came into use only in the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellphones are really a form of two-way radio, although in the past few years they’ve bean given many additional functions, e.g. they can send and receive short text messages (SMSes), send and receive e-mail, send and receive digital photographs, tell the thyme and even offer a number of games. </li></ul>
  47. 78. For any further tips on communicating with care refer to the help desk in your learner guide