122bconcepts2bto2banimation 1226180265277870-9


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122bconcepts2bto2banimation 1226180265277870-9

  1. 1. 12 Concepts to Animation Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston in their book “The Illusion of Life”
  2. 2. Squash and Stretch <ul><li>This action gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as it moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A bouncing ball expands on impact </li></ul><ul><li>Feet appear longer and flatter when hitting pavement </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2. ANTICIPATION <ul><li>This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform such as starting to run, jump or change expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Jumping character would bend knees and swing arms back </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3. STAGING <ul><li>A pose or action that clearly communicates to the audience the attitude, mood, reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing a character in the distance with their head in their hands sets the stage for a sad mood </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4. STRAIGHT AHEAD AND POSE TO POSE ANIMATION <ul><li>Strategy for developing your animation </li></ul><ul><li>Straight ahead animation - start at the first drawing and work drawing to drawing to the end of a scene </li></ul><ul><li>Pose to Pose - planned out and charted drawings with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. The gaps are filled in. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 5. FOLLOW THROUGH AND OVERLAPPING ACTION <ul><li>Follow Through - when the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Arms or long hair move after character has stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping Action - when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs Bunny stops turns around, but his legs continue in the opposite direction </li></ul>
  7. 7. 6. SLOW-OUT AND SLOW-IN <ul><li>As action starts, we have more drawings near the starting pose, one or two in the middle, and more drawings near the next pose. Slow-ins and slow-outs soften the action, making it more life-like </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer drawings make the action faster </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Old lady driving should take many frames for slow action </li></ul><ul><li>More drawings make the action slower. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Car chase should take few frames for fast action </li></ul>
  8. 8. 7. ARCS <ul><li>All actions, with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device), follow an arc or slightly circular path </li></ul><ul><li>Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A thrown ball travels in a curve, not a straight line </li></ul>
  9. 9. 8. SECONDARY ACTION <ul><li>This action adds to and enriches the main action </li></ul><ul><li>Adds more dimension to the character animation, supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Small yawn = small cheek movements </li></ul><ul><li>Big yawn = exaggerated arm movements and several facial movements </li></ul>
  10. 10. 9. TIMING <ul><li>The pace of the action </li></ul><ul><li>The more drawings between poses, the slower and smoother the action. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in timing comes with experience and experimentation, use the trial and error method. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 10. EXAGGERATION <ul><li>Exaggeration is a caricature of facial features, expressions, poses, attitudes and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs Bunny sees a girl and his eyes bug out of his head. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 11. SOLID DRAWING <ul><li>The basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. The way you draw cartoons, you draw in the classical sense, using pencil sketches and drawings for reproduction of life </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Your drawing should be proportionate, head not too large, legs not too long </li></ul>
  13. 13. 12. APPEAL <ul><li>A live performer has charisma. An animated character has appeal. Appealing animation does not mean just being cute and cuddly. All characters have to have appeal whether they are heroic, villainous, comic or cute. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Ursula in Little Mermaid is a character you love to hate </li></ul><ul><li>Ariel is lovable </li></ul>
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