Keynote rj simons17-11

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Keynote rj simons17-11

  1. 1. Metaphors of learning and (computer) gaming 21-11-11 P. Robert-Jan Simons the Netherlands School of Educational Management (NSO) & Utrecht University
  2. 2. We wanted to device a system that escapes from problems of learning styles research: <ul><ul><li>Overlapping patterns instead of styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational + noneducational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate and spontaneous learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without learning cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to prevailing learning theories </li></ul></ul>21-11-11
  3. 3. Sfard <ul><li>objective facts, </li></ul><ul><li>transmission, </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>from experts, </li></ul><ul><li>research based, </li></ul><ul><li>explicit learning, </li></ul><ul><li>from theory to practice </li></ul><ul><li>dialogue, </li></ul><ul><li>with others, </li></ul><ul><li>enculturation, </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration, </li></ul><ul><li>discourse, </li></ul><ul><li>conversation, </li></ul><ul><li>in practice </li></ul>21-11-11 Acquisition metaphor Participation metaphor
  4. 4. Paavola, Lipponen & Hakkarainen: in need of a 3rd metaphor <ul><li>Dynamic knowledge creation / newness </li></ul><ul><li>Mediating elements to the process of knowledge creation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is fundamentally social </li></ul><ul><li>Yet individuals play important roles </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge is an essential resource </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on modelling, theory, symbols and risk-taking, uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery metaphor: </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning, deep understanding, inspiration, design based learning, critical reflection, innovation, creation </li></ul>21-11-11
  5. 5. Two more metaphors from practice and theory: <ul><li>role models, </li></ul><ul><li>imitation, </li></ul><ul><li>best-practice, </li></ul><ul><li>real-life, </li></ul><ul><li>pressure, </li></ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul><ul><li>safe experimentation, </li></ul><ul><li>deliberate practice, </li></ul><ul><li>skill training, </li></ul><ul><li>explicit learning, </li></ul><ul><li>role-playing </li></ul><ul><li>games </li></ul>21-11-11 Observation / imitation Practicing
  6. 6. 15 components: <ul><li>situations in which one learns </li></ul><ul><li>relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>dealing with mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>the role of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>acquiring knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>guidance preferences </li></ul><ul><li>allergies for ways of learning of others </li></ul><ul><li>preferences in training </li></ul><ul><li>who determines learning </li></ul><ul><li>how to organize learning </li></ul><ul><li>what is annoying in learning </li></ul><ul><li>what makes you think </li></ul><ul><li>reaction to unknown situations </li></ul><ul><li>what is knowledge </li></ul>21-11-11
  7. 7. Example 2: Allergies <ul><li>Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>People who withdraw from collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Acting without feeling competent </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of room for initiatives </li></ul>21-11-11
  8. 8. Learning metaphors <ul><li>Defining patterns of learning preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Describing patterns in learning environments </li></ul>21-11-11
  9. 9. Overlap 21-11-11 observation / imitation participation the need for others observation / imitation acquisition focus on goals, results observation / imitation exercising respecting experience observation / imitation discovery learning in the real world participation acquisition avoiding mistakes participation exercising safety and trust participation discovery meaning construction acquisition exercising explicit focus on learning acquisition discovery focus on content exercising discovery focus on personal growth
  10. 10. Differences 21-11-11 observation / imitation participation observing versus participating observation / imitation acquisition experience or expertise observation / imitation exercising tension versus safety observation / imitation discovery what works versus what ’ s new participation acquisition proces versus content participation exercising collective learning versus learning with others participation discovery collective meaning versus personal meaning acquisition exercising knowledge versus experience acquisition discovery objectivity versus subjectivity of knowledge exercising discovery guided versus self-directed
  11. 11. Games (Leemkuil, de Jong & Ootes (2000): <ul><li>Players have to reach certain goals . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes they choose goals themselves; sometimes the game determines the goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is competition with other players or a computer; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes players try to improve their own previous results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are rules and barriers . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a context that makes the game realistic or attractive and contributes to motivation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These contexts refer to a story, realistic developments/impediments, division of roles, or availability of information. </li></ul></ul>21-11-11
  12. 12. Are all necessary to make it a game? <ul><li>Goals, competition, rules, & context? </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred boundaries with cases and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps not all equally important? </li></ul>21-11-11
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  15. 15. 4 categories of games <ul><li>entertainment games, </li></ul><ul><li>multiplayer online games, </li></ul><ul><li>serious games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epistemic games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>designing a game </li></ul>21-11-11
  16. 16. Mallone (1981): <ul><li>4 characteristics of motivating entertainment games </li></ul><ul><li>challenge, </li></ul><ul><li>fantasy, </li></ul><ul><li>player control </li></ul><ul><li>curiosity </li></ul>21-11-11
  17. 17. Judy Herz: online multiplayer games <ul><li>5 main principles: </li></ul><ul><li>constructive learning, </li></ul><ul><li>participatory design, </li></ul><ul><li>acknowledgement of contributions, </li></ul><ul><li>peer acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>group identity. </li></ul>21-11-11
  18. 18. Serious games <ul><li>raise awareness, </li></ul><ul><li>instruct a new generation of good citizens, </li></ul><ul><li>create new business models, </li></ul><ul><li>train military personnel, </li></ul><ul><li>educate students </li></ul><ul><li>model surgery for doctors. </li></ul>21-11-11
  19. 19. Example <ul><li>Frequency 1550 </li></ul><ul><li>How was Amsterdam in 1550 </li></ul><ul><li>Using gps, gsm and video </li></ul><ul><li>Teams of children discovering the city </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between teams </li></ul>21-11-11
  20. 20. Epistemic games <ul><li>Simulation of a profession such as journalism or engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Using the tools of the profession </li></ul><ul><li>Solving real life but simulated professional problems </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the ways of thinking of this professions: epistemic frames </li></ul>21-11-11
  21. 21. Designing a game <ul><li>boys and girls enjoy making games for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>does not require expensive technologies to provide learners with the opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop their programming skills and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to design rich and interesting gameworlds and characters. </li></ul></ul>21-11-11
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  23. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>All learning metaphors show up in a kind of game. </li></ul><ul><li>Some kinds of games can trigger all kinds of learning depending on the way they are designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Other kinds of games are more closely related to one or 2 of the metaphors. </li></ul>21-11-11
  24. 24. Using the metaphors: <ul><li>Game designers: deliberately trigger certain ways of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers; for specific groups of students or to broaden their teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Theorists: clarify the functions of and distinctions between kinds of games. </li></ul>21-11-11

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