Sibanda A tale of two peoples the influence of race relations on agricultural patterns among zimbabwean young people
Mandlenkosi Sibanda Presentation
A Tale of two peoples: the influence of race relations on agricultural patterns among Zimbabwean young people Sibanda M, Chirinda N, Nyathi D
Introduction• Land-based livelihoods systems have been resilient in Africa even under the onslaught of chaotic land reforms, insecure tenure systems, conflicts, commercial land pressures and climate change.• The discourse on agriculture and food production in Africa is comprehensive and focused; however, race relations is often excluded from the analyses.• This paper addresses this gap by exploring the land reform-race nexus, particularly how post-land reform youth-level race relations influence agricultural patterns.
Background to Zimbabwe’s Agrarian Structure• The land reforms in Zimbabwe have received prominent attention globally, especially its devastating effects on agriculture, human security, rule of law, property rights, national economy, and on international relations.• Land Reforms in Zimbabwe occurred in two phases• (a) Phase 1: 1980/3-87 - market driven.• (b) Phase 2: 1999/00-2009 (to date???) – compulsory acquisition.
Why Land Reforms in Zimbabwe• To address systematic historical land imbalances• The need to deracialise access to and ownership of land• Mainly to redress the agrarian structure created by the colonial administration since 1890• To decongest communal lands, formerly called Native Reserves• To reduce poverty and improve food security
The Fast Track Land Reform Programme• The Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was launched on 15 July 2000 and by 2002 the Government of Zimbabwe had managed to acquire more than 4.000 white owned farms for resettlement purposes (GoZ; 2002). Logan (2006) notes that the land acquisition policy ushered in by the FTLR marked the final transition in the evolution of Zimbabwe’s land reform model
Objective of the Study• This study explores the interaction of race and youth, particularly the role of this interface in influencing agricultural outcomes in the post-land reform Zimbabwe. Specifically, the study aimed at answering the following questions:• What role has race played amongst youths in determining access to land, choice of farming systems and agrarian support mechanisms in Zimbabwe?• How did the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) transform race relations amongst youths in agriculture since 2000?• What are the policy challenges emerging from the study, and with anecdotal implications?
How was the study done?• We randomly selected one study district of Bubi in Matebeleland North• We purposely selected 10 young black farmers and 5 young white farmers in the district. These 5 young farmers helped us in identifying 5 more white farmers involved in agro-businesses in the City of Bulawayo.• Six FGDs and twelve interviews were then used to collect/generate data
What did we find out?• Young white farmers do not view the FTLRP as a racist policy, and acknowledge its necessity• Race relations among young farmers are healthy. Alliances and networks are emerging• Increasing occurrence of inter-racial land deals (leases, fronting, contract farming, land sharing, land sales), and agro-project partnerships• More young white farmers involved in community support initiatives
Findings cont...• The young black farmers livelihoods continue to be vulnerable and less diversified• Young white farmers who are shunning agro- productive activities are turning to agro- dealerships and other city-based initiatives• Young white farmers and young black farmers are forming, structuring and implementing ‘alliances/ partnerships’ without the state (farmer-to-farmer alliances)
Policy and Research• Need to re-think agricultural policy to be youth-centred, racially inclusive and responsive to new governance challenges• Need to support and strengthen new forms of agricultural organisation/alliances so as to maximise on emerging value chains and broaden inter-racial youth participation in agriculture.• In research, we question the sustainability and implication of new inter-racial farmer synergies to land tenure, food security, and youth in agriculture in Zimbabwe