Kihoro.E., Maina.I., Miruka.M., Murithi.F.CLIMATE CHANGE: THE HIDDEN ADAPTATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE AGRIFOOD SECTOR, A CASE STUDY OF THE KENYAN CONTEXT.
Introduction Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change and variability: to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences 75% of Kenyans are food insecure Agriculture contributes 26% to the GDP and accounts for approximately 75% of the employed Currently, 78.31% of Kenyans are below 34 years old. Approximately 67% of the unemployed in the country are the youth This paper identifies opportunities in transformative agriculture for climate adaptation that young people have taken up and exploited as producers, entrepreneurs and as consumers. The needed policy environment and infrastructure are also evaluated
Objectives• To analyze the effects of climate change in Kenya and identify opportunities in the agri-food sector that the youth can use to improve their livelihoods and enhance food security.• To assess the enabling factors that have assisted the youth to better adapt and cope with the climate change effects in the agri-food sector.
Conceptual framework Inefficient Agricultural Older farmers, sector Young farmers, no innovation, less involved in less adaptive, agriculture, high low skills Appropriate Policies, adoptive capacity Effects skills, innovation,•Increased technology, temperature Aspirations•GHG •Drought•deforestation •Diseases•Increased use of •Flooding fossil fuels •Food insecurity•Industrialization •Acidification of lakes •Loss of genetic Climate change resource
Data Sources• Desk study• Field interviews• Various youth groups initiatives and individual innovative enterprises in the agri sector were interviewed and their initiatives contribution to sustainability in the agri sector analyzed
Innovative contributions to the food value chain: Case study IInitiative Brief summaryAgri vijana The Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) and Amiran Kenya LtdLoan have partnered to support young farmers in acquiring a tailor made Amiran Farmers Kit (AFK) and get involved in Agribusiness The AgriVijana Amiran Farmer’s Kit, contains 2 greenhouses, a drip irrigation system, a water tank, plant support system, seeds, fertilizers, crop protection products for one season, a farmer’s sprayer, nursery set, health and safety protective gear, training, agro-support, and AFK insurance.
Innovative contributions to the food value chain: Case Study IIInitiative Brief summeryFruit Ms. Ann Nyaga a graduate of biomedical Science and technology from Egerton University in 2007 is practicing farming on her father’s 20-acre piece of land. Shefarming dedicates three acres to water melon farming through irrigation.throughscheduled In a year, she manages two major seasons which are well planned so that they peak at a time when the rain relying growers are out of season - a move thatplanting earns her optimum prices. In a good season each acre produces over 20 tonnes of watermelon. Usually, a kilogramme of the produce goes for between Ksh. 20 to Ksh. 25. This translates to ksh. 800, 000 to 1 million gross earnings in just three months.
Innovative contributions to the food value chain:Case study IIIInitiative Brief summeryDrought New Site Youth Group in Mbeere South District ,tolerant crops Kenya is one of the target farmers’ groups working- New Site in collaboration with the project “Making agri-foodYouth Group systems work for the rural poor in Eastern andin Mbeere Southern Africa.” The project is beingSouth District implemented by KARI with funding from the IDRC. Newsite Initiative Youth Self Help Group is engaged in of planting of drought tolerant crops. It is expected that members of the group will learn about improved agricultural technologies from KARI scientists that they can apply on their farms.
ICTs: Case Study IApplication Brief summeryiCow This is an application designed to track individual cows per farmer to maintain all relevant information specific to each cow. It gives the farmer access to: • Comprehensive gestation calendar, • Health information services • Nutrition information services • Disease services and • Costs of production • Customizable calendar and calculator
ICTs: Case Study IIApplication Brief summerym-Farm M-Farm Limited is a software solution designed to get the farmers information pertaining to the retail price of their products, input costs directly from the manufacturers, and find buyers online.
Results I: Increased production and changing consumption patterns
Results II: EntrepreneurshipEngagement of youth at various nodes along the agricultural value chain;• Extension services provision• Marketing• Processing• Scheduled production leading to higher incomes• Bulking• Reporting• Sharing of success stories and changing perceptions through social media leading to increasing interest in youth investments in agricultureNote: Youth targeted interventions and general enabling environment
Results IV: Enabling environment• Capacity Development and training Need for relevant training Relevant remuneration and opportunities• Policy Vision 2030 The enactment of the Consolidated Agricultural Reform Bill to provide the necessary legal framework for the desired change in the legal framework governing agriculture. (2) Increased Agricultural Productivity (3) Transforming Agricultural Land Use (4) Agricultural Marketing and (5) ASAL development• Infrastructure Funding Roads, storage, airports, rail, cooling systems ICT, Post harvest processing
Conclusions• Youth involvement in agriculture is driven by varying motivations ; rewarding benefits, filling a need or part of the adaptive system, or just a need to do old things differently• Supporting and up-scaling innovation: There are many initiatives been successful however many lack financial capacity to be done at a sustainable scale. There is need for the government to support these initiatives and facilitate rolling out of the successful ideas to all parts of the country.• Skills development and relevant training (e.g. ICTS, entrepreneurship) is needed to motivate the youth to engage in agriculture and to achieve agricultural transformation.• Enabling policies and good infrastructure that facilitate funding, lower transaction costs and markets access costs are important for improved efficiency and effectiveness of the agricultural sector.