Impacts of agricultural development projects on gender relations in farming households
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  • 1. Impacts of Agricultural Development Projects on Gender Relations in Farming Households (A Case Study of Blantyre rural, Malawi) Presented at the Agricultural Investments, Gender and Land in Africa Conference in Cape town, South Africa By Loveness Msofi
  • 2. Presentation Outline ▪ Background information ▪ Research problem ▪ Objectives ▪ Methodology ▪ Results and discussion ▪ Conclusions ▪ Recommendations 2
  • 3. Background Information (1/3) ▪ Agriculture remains the backbone of Malawi's economy. The sector contributes over 30% to GDP, over 80% of the country’s employment most of whom are women. (GOM, 2010) ▪ All the gender categories (men, women and youth) are involved in Malawian agriculture though in different activities depending on the gender roles and the priorities of these gender categories . (Hirschmann and Vaughan, 1984) 3
  • 4. Background Information (2/3) Women farmers Subsistence food production Commercial Production Agricultural labour force Food security Household welfare Economic development Figure 1. The Roles of Women Farmers in Malawian Agriculture, NSO (2010) 4
  • 5. Background Information (3/3) Worldwide, there are things that are no longer a dispute, women are involved more in agriculture and they spend more time farming than men (World Bank, 1991; Saito, Mekonnen, and Spurling, 1994) In Malawi, 70% of full time farmers are women (GOM, 2010) GOM and NGOs have generated interventions to empower women and to improve their conditions in the agricultural sector since their role is crucial for the improvement of people’s livelihoods and for economic growth of the country. 5
  • 6. Research Problem ▪ Donors have been called to mainstream gender issues in projects. But what is not known is how such gender framing translate into project actions and the impacts of such actions on gender relations. ▪ It was therefore the aim of this research to determine the extent to which gender is mainstreamed in the projects implemented by the government and other donors in the agriculture sector. ▪ The study involved a critical look at the gender components articulated in the project documents of the selected projects, investigated the translation of this articulation on the ground and also determined the impacts brought about by the projects on gender relations at household level. 6
  • 7. Research Objectives Main objective •The main purpose of this research was to analyse the impacts of agricultural development projects on gender relations within the farming households in the rural area of Blantyre district where different agricultural development programs/projects are being implemented Specific objectives •To analyse the gender components in the project documents of the projects being implemented in the study area in relation to the situation on the ground. •To analyse the gender relations existing among different gender categories in the households in the study area. •To understand the impact of agricultural development programmes on gender relations in farming households in the study area. 7
  • 8. Methodology Study area Lunzu EPA and Ntonda EPA - Blantyre Respondents Farmers = 58 extension workers =3 Sampling techniques Purposive sampling Systematic random sampling Sampling plan Data Primary and secondary Survey instruments Questionnaire and checklist Data collection methods Individual face to face interviews, focus group discussion and key informant interviews Data collection SPSS frequencies and percentages, cross- tabulations and Chi- square Statistical analysis 8
  • 9. Figure 2: ASWAp Focus Areas, Support Services and Crosscutting Issues 9 Description of the Projects
  • 10. Irrigation, Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Development Project ▪ GOM project funded by the World Bank and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) ▪ The major project development objectives are ▪ To raise agricultural productivity, and net incomes of poor rural households in the targeted districts in a sustainable manner by providing an integrated package of support covering irrigation, agricultural/irrigation advisory services, marketing and post-harvest support. ▪ To strengthen recipient institutional capacity for long- term irrigation development. ▪ Components ▪ Irrigation Rehabilitation and Development ▪ Farmer Services and Livelihoods Fund (FSLF) ▪ Institutional Development and Community Mobilization ▪ Project Coordination Unit, and Monitoring and Evaluation 10
  • 11. Gender Narratives in ASWAP and IRLADP ASWAP •Developing gender analysis and mainstreaming at all levels starting with focal points •Providing gender training to frontline staff •Promote research and extension that is gender sensitive •Gender sensitivity during targeting •Advocate for gender mainstreaming in agricultural policies. •Production of gender policy strategies and enforcing the implementation IRLADP • Awareness on gender issues during project community sensitization and mobilization • Gender data collection during Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) • Identify gender empowerment opportunities for vulnerable groups and resource poor farmers • Gender issues included during targeting and monitoring 11
  • 12. Table 1: Gender Division of Labour Before and After the Projects ACTIVITIES ASWAp IRLADP Productive activities Crop production Livestock production Before After Before After Men and women All gender categories All gender categories All gender categories Men All gender categories Men and women Men and women Reproductive activities Women Men and women Men, women and girls Men and women Community activities Men and women Men and women Men and women Men and women 12 Results and Discussion (1/4)
  • 13. Table 2: Control and Access to Resources and Benefits Before and After the Projects GENDER ROLES ASWAp IRLADP Before After Before After Control over resources Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Control over benefits Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Access to resources Men and women Men and women Men and women Men and women Access to benefits All gender categories All gender categories All gender categories All gender categories 13 Results and Discussion (2/4)
  • 14. Table 3: Decision Making Before and After the Projects DECISION ASWAP IRLADP Before After Before After Crops to be grown Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Livestock to be kept Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Selling farm produce Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Buying farm equipment and inputs Men Men and women Men and women Men and women How to use farm income and other farm products Men Men and women Men and women Men and women Land use Men Men and women Men and women Men and women 14 Results and Discussion (3/4)
  • 15. Table 4: Impacts of the Projects on Gender Relations Gender Relations ASWAp IRLADP Gender division of labour Yes No Control over resources and benefits Yes No Access to resources and benefits Yes No Decision making Yes No 15 Results and Discussion (4/4)
  • 16. Conclusions ▪ Gender narratives were well articulated in the ASWAp project document and they give a clear direction for the implementation of the specific activities to address gender issues and they are budgeted for. ▪ In the IRLADP project document, the gender issues are mentioned but they do not give a clear guide for implementation and the only emphasis is on participation of women in the project activities which cannot be clearly tracked on the ground. ▪ ASWAp unlike IRLADP has had an impact on the gender relations regarding division of labour, control and access to resources and benefits and decision making such that after the project, there is improved participation of the gender categories in the different activities ▪ There are other very important factors such as culture which may have an impact on the gender relations and other factors such as gender of household head which also have a great impact on the gender relations. 16
  • 17. Recommendations ▪ To achieve gender mainstreaming the gender narratives should clearly be articulated in the project documents including specific strategies and guidelines for implementation which should be provided to the project implementers. ▪ The projects should also provide clear mechanisms to track the actual implementation of the activities and the impact on the ground ▪ Other important factors such as culture should be taken into consideration when planning for gender mainstreaming activities since they play a great role in influencing the gender relations. 17
  • 18. Thank you for listening 18