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The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garbatulla area...
Background <ul><li>80%  of   Kenya land mass ASALs (Northern Kenya contributing the bulk) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot and dry cl...
Importance of the dry lands <ul><li>Support livelihoods of 25% of rural population  </li></ul><ul><li>Support more than 70...
Multiple stresses/challenges  <ul><li>Frequent drought </li></ul><ul><li>Violent conflict and cattle rustling </li></ul><u...
Climate change  <ul><li>Exacerbate problems posed by climate variability </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged and severe drought, f...
Objectives  <ul><li>Critically examine the role of gums and resins in livelihood security and climate change adaptation am...
Gums and resins  <ul><li>Exudates from stems and branches of Acacia, Commiphora and Boswelia species  </li></ul><ul><li>Ac...
Methodology  <ul><li>Study area  (4 villages) </li></ul><ul><li>Malka daka  </li></ul><ul><li>Belgesh </li></ul><ul><li>Ba...
Findings  <ul><li>Income  and livelihood characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>52% derive financial benefits from livestock ke...
<ul><li>Constraints in changing livelihood (shift) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of k...
Findings (cont)
Individual villages
<ul><li>Operational cost </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary : Average of Ksh 990 per month </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence (food, wa...
<ul><li>Income from gums and resins: </li></ul><ul><li>Buy subsistence (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay school fees (24%) </li>...
<ul><li>Trees abundant  </li></ul><ul><li>Currently communities not considering domestication </li></ul><ul><li>65%- gums ...
Collectors <ul><li>Data indicate:  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor people. People with no livestock or few number </li></ul><ul><ul...
Market and value chain  <ul><li>Collectors sell: </li></ul><ul><li>Directly to traders in major centres (who are involved ...
Market and value chain (cont) <ul><li>Collectors: 0.2-20kg to traders per each sale </li></ul><ul><li>Hagar main item of t...
<ul><li>Prices depend: </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity (More Kgs better price at local level) </li></u...
Uses of gums and resins  <ul><li>Hagar </li></ul><ul><li>local  uses- acaricide against ticks, treat snakes and scorpion b...
<ul><li>lack of capital (subsistence)-inefficient collection </li></ul><ul><li>Travel far distance in search of gums and r...
The Camco Group is an international leader in identifying opportunities and providing solutions to carbon risk. This state...
Opportunities  <ul><li>Source of household income and economic development if sustainably exploited  </li></ul><ul><li>Cre...
<ul><li>Thank you   </li></ul>
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Indeginous Raisins and Pastoralism Livelihood Presentation by Yasin Mahadi

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The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garbatulla area of Northern Kenya- A presentation by Yasin Mahadi of Future Agricultures

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Transcript of "Indeginous Raisins and Pastoralism Livelihood Presentation by Yasin Mahadi"

  1. 1. The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garbatulla area of Northern Kenya Yasin Mahadi: Future Agricultures Consortium Early Career Fellow Livestock, land and the changing political economy of pastoralism in Laikipia, 15-16 September 2011, Old house, Nanyuki
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>80% of Kenya land mass ASALs (Northern Kenya contributing the bulk) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot and dry climate, erratic rainfall 150-750 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Sparse vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture Marginal </li></ul><ul><li>Area under developed </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance of the dry lands <ul><li>Support livelihoods of 25% of rural population </li></ul><ul><li>Support more than 70% of livestock population </li></ul><ul><li>Rich biodiversity (90% of gazetted national parks and game reserves) </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism ( contributed to 25% GDP in 2001 ) and wildlife conservation main economic activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Multiple stresses/challenges <ul><li>Frequent drought </li></ul><ul><li>Violent conflict and cattle rustling </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and political marginalisation (Before and after independence) </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate development policies (resource allocation) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation (as a result of disintegration of traditional systems of land stewardships) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climate change <ul><li>Exacerbate problems posed by climate variability </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged and severe drought, floods </li></ul><ul><li>Resource use conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle raids </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate rate of land degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce livestock and crop productivity (huge investment required) </li></ul><ul><li>Woody vegetation may provide opportunity for economic development and safety net </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives <ul><li>Critically examine the role of gums and resins in livelihood security and climate change adaptation among the pastoralists of Garbatulla area of northern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate whether additional income from harvesting indigenous gums and resins is used to support livestock-keeping systems or invested into other economic activities and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the existing policy and value chain on gums and resins and the extent to which it favours sustainable harvesting and economically viable enterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the opportunities that exist for value addition, disabling cartels and domestication of the gums and resins yielding tree species </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gums and resins <ul><li>Exudates from stems and branches of Acacia, Commiphora and Boswelia species </li></ul><ul><li>Acacia-commiphora woodland-major vegetation type in study area </li></ul><ul><li>Gum arabic Acacia senegal </li></ul><ul><li>Acacia seyal </li></ul><ul><li>Hagar/Hur (Opoponax) Commiphora holtziana </li></ul><ul><li>Frankincense Boswelia neglecta </li></ul><ul><li>Myrrh Commiphora myrrha </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methodology <ul><li>Study area (4 villages) </li></ul><ul><li>Malka daka </li></ul><ul><li>Belgesh </li></ul><ul><li>Barambate </li></ul><ul><li>Biliqo </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Household survey questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Key respondent interview (Traders, NGOs and CBOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group discussions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Findings <ul><li>Income and livelihood characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>52% derive financial benefits from livestock keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Gums and resins collection and sell: 59% </li></ul><ul><li>Other minor activities include: </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Selling poles </li></ul><ul><li>Shops (Food stuff) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Constraints in changing livelihood (shift) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Want to remain pastoralist (4%) </li></ul>Findings
  11. 11. Findings (cont)
  12. 12. Individual villages
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Operational cost </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary : Average of Ksh 990 per month </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence (food, water, cigarettes, tobacco, mirra) </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping and storage equipment: axe, panga, knife </li></ul><ul><li>Kind </li></ul><ul><li>Time (15 mins-20 hours to collect 1 Kg of Hagar) </li></ul><ul><li>Travel as far 80 km in search of hagar </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Income from gums and resins: </li></ul><ul><li>Buy subsistence (70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay school fees (24%) </li></ul><ul><li>Buy livestock/Restocking (22%) </li></ul><ul><li>Buy salt and drugs for livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Resource availability </li></ul><ul><li>Average collection per month: 38 Kg </li></ul><ul><li>collection from single tree 40g- 2kg </li></ul><ul><li>majority involved in tapping, damage trees to enhance productivity </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Trees abundant </li></ul><ul><li>Currently communities not considering domestication </li></ul><ul><li>65%- gums and resins resource declining (last years) </li></ul><ul><li>Community consider hagar from their area as the best in East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>No restriction on the harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Community members consider harvesting of gums and resins as environmentally friendly (no adverse effect on tree) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Collectors <ul><li>Data indicate: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor people. People with no livestock or few number </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation analysis: r= -0.00214 (number of goat vs income from gums and resins), -0.5311 (number of cattle vs income) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Herders as they go on the herding business </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunists: cashing on emerging opportunities in addition to their normal livelihood activities </li></ul><ul><li>Men, women and children all involved in collection but selling done by head of household </li></ul><ul><li>Communities mostly rely on gums and resin collection during drought period “safety net” function </li></ul>
  20. 20. Market and value chain <ul><li>Collectors sell: </li></ul><ul><li>Directly to traders in major centres (who are involved in multiple trades) </li></ul><ul><li>Agents placed at major centres by traders (cartel) </li></ul><ul><li>Traders who go round buying from collectors at designated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Prices </li></ul>Type Average price Hagar 100 Frankincense 50
  21. 21. Market and value chain (cont) <ul><li>Collectors: 0.2-20kg to traders per each sale </li></ul><ul><li>Hagar main item of trade due to high market price </li></ul><ul><li>Price dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Collectors: 60-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Agents: 100-120 </li></ul><ul><li>Traders: 180-280 </li></ul><ul><li>Exporters: ? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Prices depend: </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity (More Kgs better price at local level) </li></ul><ul><li>Less extent season and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Prices improved due to demand: Kshs 30-100 in five years </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Competition among traders (new entrant) </li></ul><ul><li>But Stagnated </li></ul>
  23. 23. Uses of gums and resins <ul><li>Hagar </li></ul><ul><li>local uses- acaricide against ticks, treat snakes and scorpion bites, foot rot, mange, appetiser, chest congestions cold treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial uses: essential oils, herbal medicine in china, cosmetics </li></ul><ul><li>Frankincense </li></ul><ul><li>Local uses- chewing gums, incense, </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial- essential oil in perfumery, cosmetics and flavours industries </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>lack of capital (subsistence)-inefficient collection </li></ul><ul><li>Travel far distance in search of gums and resins </li></ul><ul><li>No established market/reliable buyers </li></ul><ul><li>lack of sound market information to guide opportunities, trends, prices </li></ul><ul><li>Trees producing less (drought) </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowledgeable on way to increase production </li></ul><ul><li>Tree damage by camels mostly owned by the intruders “somalis” from Northern Eastern kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul>Constraints faced by collectors
  25. 25. The Camco Group is an international leader in identifying opportunities and providing solutions to carbon risk. This statement will be changeable by the user. The above heading will be static with new headings supplied by the administrator <ul><li>Market dominated by few “cartels” </li></ul><ul><li>Supply does not meet the demand </li></ul><ul><li>lack of operational capital </li></ul><ul><li>lack of storage facility (hagar loose weight if kept for long) </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate of origin (foresters don’t issue) </li></ul><ul><li>Police officers ask for bribe during transportation (attribute gums and resins to explosive manufacturing) </li></ul><ul><li>No issuing of permit-NEMA office not there in Garbatulla </li></ul>Constraints faced by traders
  26. 26. Opportunities <ul><li>Source of household income and economic development if sustainably exploited </li></ul><ul><li>Create new jobs and complimentary/alternative livelihoods for pastoralists in Northern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and social knowledge exist among the somalis which can be taken up by the Boranas alike </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to strengthen local knowledge and indigenous plant based activities can be linked to international programme </li></ul><ul><li>Training programmes can be initiated for collectors on technique to increase production (KEFRI doing on small scale currently) </li></ul><ul><li>Value addition (Factory built in Wajir) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>
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