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Session 2 communicztion
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Session 2 communicztion




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  • 1. Barriers to effective communication
  • 2. PHYSICAL BARRIERs • • • • Noise: Another conversation (within hearing distance), loud music, traffic noise (in the background), crows cawing, plane overhead can drown message. Environmental stress: High temperature plus humidity, poor ventilation, vibrations felt, strong glare can contribute to distractions (in sending and receiving messages). Subjective stress: Sleeplessness, ill health, effects of drugs, mood variations give rise to stress, leading to difficulty in listening and interpretation Ignorance of medium: The various media for communication are oral, written, audio, visual, audio-visual. Use of a medium, which the communicator is not familiar with could turn the medium itself into barrier (e.g. maps, charts used to instruct workers who have not been taught to read maps will alienate workers immediately).
  • 3. PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS • • • Self Image: Involved in the ‘frame of reference’ is the self-image or self- concept of a person. Owing to this self-image people establish their point of view, and interpret messages in accordance with their self concepts. They interpret 'reality' in the light of these preconceived notions. As a part of this system, people tend to listen and interpret favourably towards those messages, which give a further their self-image and reject those messages, which threaten that image. Resistance to change: The risk of being changed is one of the most frightening prospects many of us can face. It is a human tendency to resist change and new ideas. Defensiveness and fear: This is strongly allied to the barrier raised by a ‘resistance to change’. One of man’s most compelling needs is to justify himself.
  • 4. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL BARRIERS • Language is an expression of thoughts/expression of people in terms of cultural environment. When same language is used in different cultures, it takes another colour.Language can be appropriated to suit varied situations e.g. financial terms, medical terms, psychological terms etc. Language facilitates understanding, but it can also prove to be a barrier to communication. A language, whether verbal or nonverbal, is ambiguous in nature. Words are mere symbols. Symbols are comprehended differently by participants in communication. Cultural differences have an impact on language and meanings.
  • 5. MECHANICAL BARRIERS • Mechanical barriers are those raised by channels employed for interpersonal or mass communication. Channels become barriers when the message is impeded by disturbances. In such a case, it a) increases the difficulty in reception or b)prevents some elements of the message reaching its destination or both. Absence of communication facilities can also be mechanical barrier. Technically such barriers are clubbed as 'channel noise'. These include any disturbance, which interferes with the fidelity of physical transmission of a message. Some examples of mechanical barriers are static on radio, smeared ink on newspaper, a rolling screen on TV, a barely readable point size or a film projector, video/DVD that does not function properly.
  • 6. Overcoming Communication Barriers. The 7C’s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conciseness Concreteness Completeness Correctness Clarity Credibility Courtesy
  • 7. Conciseness • • • • • • The message to be communicated should be as brief and concise as possible. Only simple and brief statements should be made. It is both time-saving and cost saving Underlines &highlights main points Avoids unnecessary & needless words Short and brief Non-repeatitive
  • 8. Concreteness • Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. • It is supported with specific facts and figures • It makes use of words that are clear • Concrete messages are not misinterpreted
  • 9. Completeness • • • • • • Complete communication Conveys all facts required by the audience Develops & enhances reputation of an organisation Cost saving Provides additional information Helps in decision making Persuades the audience
  • 10. Correctness • Correct communication is error free • Message is exact, correct and well-timed • Correct communication boosts up confidence of the receiver
  • 11. Courtesy • Courtesy in message implies the message should show respect for the receiver • Sender of the message should be sincere,judicious,reflective and enthusiastic
  • 12. Credibility • Credibility depends on the trust factor between the sender and receiver • Sender should exude confidence that the receiver will receive the intended message • Receiver should maintain constant interaction with the sender and display trust in the sender's credibility • Receiver should accept the sender's messages as the truth.
  • 13. Clarity • Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time rather than trying to achieve too much at once • It makes understanding easier • It enhances the meaning of the message