Processes of word formation


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Processes of word formation

  1. 1. Processes of Word Formation
  2. 2. Word formation processes <ul><li>Appear to be straightforward but are deep </li></ul><ul><li>Were once considered barbaric misuse of language </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tasteless innovation ”, a term used to describe them </li></ul><ul><li>Are signs of constant evolution of languages </li></ul><ul><li>Are re-assuring signs of vitality and creativeness in the way language shapes our needs </li></ul>
  3. 3. … <ul><li>How new words are being formed in the language </li></ul><ul><li>May vary from language to language </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed description of each necessary to understand the languages </li></ul><ul><li>Have specific meta-language for description </li></ul>
  4. 4. Processes <ul><li>Coinage </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding </li></ul><ul><li>Clipping </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Affixation </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul><ul><li>Backformation </li></ul><ul><li>Acronym </li></ul><ul><li>Reduplication </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Coinage <ul><li>Invention of totally new terms </li></ul><ul><li>Invented trade names as typical examples </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirin, nylon, zipper etc </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, obscure technical origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teflon as a complex term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Te(tra)-fl(uor)-on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After coinage, these become everyday words in the language </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Borrowing <ul><li>Taking words from other languages </li></ul><ul><li>From other languages to English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol (Arabic), Boss (Dutch), Piano (Italian), Robot (Czech), Yogurt (Turkish), Tycoon (Japanese) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From English to other languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suupaamaaketto (Japanese) Stress, Weekend (French) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. … . Loan Translations <ul><li>Direct translation of elements of word into borrowing language </li></ul><ul><li>French term “Un gratteciel” to Scrape Sky in Egnlish, German “Ubermensch” to English superman, German Lehnwort to English loan word, English boy friend to Japanese boyifurendo and from there to Chinese nan pengyu which means male friend. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Compounding <ul><li>Common in German and English while less common in French and Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Joining two separate words to produce a new form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lehnword from German Lehn Wort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples from English: fingerprints, bookcase, wallpaper, textbook, waterbed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. … <ul><li>Process that forms new words from two or more independent words </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of words formed by the compounding process: </li></ul>girl + friend = girlfriend text + book = textbook
  10. 10. 4. Blending <ul><li>Combining two separate words to produce a new form by the fusion </li></ul><ul><li>By reduction of two words </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of one word and end of another (typical way) </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline and alcohol (gasohol), smoke and fog (smog), brunch </li></ul><ul><li>Telecast and Marathon (telethon), </li></ul><ul><li>Infotainment, Edutainment, Spanglish, Pinglish </li></ul>
  11. 11. … <ul><li>Process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another. </li></ul>mo tor + ho tel = motel cam era + re corder = camcorder
  12. 12. 5. Clipping <ul><li>Reduction of syllables in a word </li></ul><ul><li>Here reduction is clearly evident </li></ul><ul><li>Fax for facsimile, ad for advertisement, cab for cabriolet </li></ul><ul><li>Process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word. </li></ul>doct or doc dorm itory dorm
  13. 13. 6. Backformation <ul><li>Another special kind of reduction </li></ul><ul><li>A word of one type (may be noun) is reduced to another word of another type (may be verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Television became televise, donation became donate, option became emote, emotion became emote </li></ul><ul><li>(Nouns ending in –er) If there is noun, we can make verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpt from sculptor, edit from editor, work from worker </li></ul>
  14. 14. 7. Conversion <ul><li>Category change and functional shift </li></ul><ul><li>A very productive process </li></ul><ul><li>A noun becomes a verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butter, vacation, bottle, up, down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbs become nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guess, spy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs become nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To print out, to take over, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbs become adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See through, stand up </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. … <ul><li>Adjectives become verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty, empty, total </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjective become nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crazy, nasty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound nouns perform adjectival or verbal function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballpark: a ballpark figure or to ballpark an estimate of the cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound nouns to verbs (mastermind, microwave) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 8. Acronyms <ul><li>New words formed from the initial letters of a set of words </li></ul><ul><li>May remain alphabetism where pronunciation consists of a set of letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD (Compact Disk), VCR (Video Cassette recorder) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be pronounced as single word (Capitalized) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO, WAPDA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be pronounced as single word (Un-capitalized) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar (radio detecting and ranging), laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Names of organizations ex: Women Against Rape (WAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent innovations ex: ATM (automatic teller machine) </li></ul>
  17. 17. 9. Affixation <ul><li>Most common process (through affixes) </li></ul><ul><li>By means of large number of bits which are given separate listing in the dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixation: un-, dis- </li></ul><ul><li>Suffication: -ish, -ness </li></ul><ul><li>Infixation: Affix incorporated inside another word, Ex: Hallebloodylujah, Singabloodypore, passers-by and mothers-in-law, </li></ul>
  18. 18. … <ul><li>Process of forming words by adding affixes to morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>English uses only prefixes and suffixes </li></ul>sing + er = singer un + real = unreal
  19. 19. 10. Reduplication <ul><li>Process of forming new words either by doubling an entire word (total reduplication) or part of a word (partial reduplication) </li></ul><ul><li>English makes use of reduplication very sporadically </li></ul><ul><li>Total reduplication is extremely rare! </li></ul>partial reduplication Humpty - dumpty hocus - pocus