Green Prefab [Booklet]

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Green Prefab is an International network of real estates, producers of prefab elements, designers, engineers, universities, research centres and building contractors who work to innovate and bring …

Green Prefab is an International network of real estates, producers of prefab elements, designers, engineers, universities, research centres and building contractors who work to innovate and bring architecture towards a model of industrial production.

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www.greenprefab.com

© 2011 Collaboratorio Green Prefab

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  • 1. a production by Our mission statement To offer an integrated and collaborative system to international real estate operators, that brings together all of the prefabricated building industry’s processes from building conception to end-user. Our vision That everyone can live and work in modern, ecological and affordable buildings. Our core values To establish new networks and relationships. To produce innovative architecture. To protect the environment.
  • 2. who we are Headquarters at the Scientific Park Main developer of the Green Prefab VEGA in Venice Italy network Based on a community of 10,000 Partner of MACE, a European Commission architects (www.architecture.it) funded project
  • 3. who we are For two years Collaboratorio has been developing the Green Prefab network, in order to produce a new generation of buildings basedCollaboratorio is a company based in Venice (Italy) with on a process led by software management facilities and factoryheadquarters at the Scientific Park VEGA, Venice Gateway for production. Green Prefab will significantly impact the world scenarioScience and Technology for the promotion of innovative business concerning architecture and building construction processes andenterprises (see Appendix 1). Collaboratorio is a new word that will become a reference point for the growing community active instands for “Laboratory for Collaboration”. these domains.The first pilot case is going to be built in China under the participation of Chinese and international private and publicThe company focuses on new trends in contemporary architecture, stakeholders.with expertise in industrial prefabricated buildings, new ecologicalmaterials, renewable energy, energy savings, building automation, Collaboratorio is a member of the Italian Chapter within theinteraction design, and digital tools for architectural design. International Alliance for Interoperability, producing the ifc Industry Foundation Classes (see Appendix 5) interoperableSince 2000 Collaboratorio has been producing the standard. The ifc is the interoperable standard adoptedwww.architecture.it Internet portal (see Appendix 3). The web in Green Prefab.station is a reference point for a large group of young innovativearchitects and promotes daily new emerging values in architecture.Currently the network is based on a community composed of morethan 10,000 architects. Within that network Collaboratorio curatesresearch projects, exhibitions, international symposia, architectural who we are nottrips, and training courses involving international partners.Collaboratorio was present at the International Exhibition “Biennale We are neither a real-estate company, nor an architectural firm;di Architettura di Venezia” in 2000, 2002, 2006 (see Appendix 2) neither a building contractor, nor an industrial supplier.and will be present again in 2008. Green Prefab would like to set up, with your participation andWith www.architecture.it, Collaboratorio is now an official partner suggestions, a Chinese network comprising the above professionsof the mace (Metadata for Architectural Content in Europe, see in order to innovate and improve the building process. In thisAppendix 4), a project partly funded by the European Union, way Green Prefab wants to innovate the building constructionwhich is going to integrate in a single common web collector domain, using state of the art and innovative digital tools, to givewebsite a huge amount of metadata coming from academic people buildings of high quality, which are more comfortable,research centers, digital public and private archives, and the more environmentally responsive, more energy efficient, moremost famous European websites. sustainable, and more intelligent. 
  • 4. global and local scenarios Global and local needs create new trends in the Real Estate world market how can we protect how can we share different how can we support the fragile eco-system cultural models to live national economies of the World? together peacefully? in the global market? environmental economical social Climate change 75% of the population in New balance of power Global pollution big cities by 2050 Convergence of digital and Fossil fuel Multicultural influences physical Water supply Global cities Rhizome economy Building construction = 35% Web revolution waste of global resources New life styles
  • 5. global and local scenarios Some global initiatives are striving to work out these problems. One of them is the Kyoto Protocol (a protocol ratified by 172 nations onWe have been working in the field of architecture and construction 11 December 1997), which has the objective of reducing Greenhousefor several years, and we can say that we are at this time living in gases, that cause climate change, and of finding a solution for thea revolutionary period. Green Prefab was set up because moreover aforementioned global problems. As a consequence, new rules willthe world is facing rapidly changing circumstances and needs. be soon taken in order to avoid these problems, and they will surely affect the way we live, work, and, -above all- produce.We believe that there are three major questions for the world,each of which relate to the phenomenon of Globalization: The buildings construction sector is very well known waster> how can we protect the fragile eco-system of the World? (because of its inefficiencies) as one which wastes of global> how can we share different cultural models to live together resources, it employs: from 30% to 40 % of the natural and energypeacefully? resources in the post-industrial countries. When we refer to the> how can we support national economies in the global market? building construction sector we mean not only the construction phase, but also the production of building materials, landThese issues push new trends in the Real Estate world market occupation, building management and building use.and produce new goals for the final users. We have to find answersto environmental, social and economical questions if we are to lead Globally, according to the Worldwatch Institute, constructioninnovations in this sector. activity consumes or is responsible for: 16-17% of fresh water withdrawal;New environmental problems create new issues. There are several 20% of virgin timber harvest;environmental problems that can not be neglected or postponed 30% of raw material consuption;if we want our world to survive. The following is a short list of the 25% of chlorofluorocarbon emission;problems at stake in the global scenario: 40% of global CO2 emission;> climate change; 50% of material extracted from the earth’s crust;> global warning; 20% of municipal solid waste destined for local landfill> increasing global pollution; (450 million tons of waste derives from the building> presence of lead in gasoline; construction and demolition).> fossil fuel; (cit. from G.C.Magnoli, Verso un ambiente costruito sostenibile> water supply; (Towards a sustainable built environment), P.R.IS.M.A. Project> soil erosion; Final Report, 2005, pp. 41; 83. PRISMA is a project, co-funded> destruction of tropical rainforest. by the European Community, devoted to innovation in building construction sector) 
  • 6. We are a node of a web-based community that is producing and New encouraging technologies are now emerging: eco-friendlymapping new values in architecture worldwide: a new sensitivity building materials, building automation systems, software fortoward the natural environment; new styles of life; new attitudes designing and supporting product life cycle of the building and thetowards consumption. New architectural forms follow all these Web as place for information and collaboration.things. In the new generation of architects there is a remarkablegrowing interest in renewable energy, energy saving, the reduction However the new emerging values and these technological toolspollution and human health, but also in faster and cheaper ways to today are not integrated.build and provide accommodation.There are social and economical issues that are developing, aswell. During the next few years there will be a great deal of people mapping new valuesconcentrated in big cities, especially in developing countries likeChina, who need houses and other buildings. Building industry has Green Prefab has been monitoring and mapping new emergingto be ready for new requests of places to live and work in, and it will values and needs in the architectural domain for years; among them:face the problem of how to provide a large amount of good buildings Sustainability, recyclability (of materials ad buildings), buildingin a short time for millions of people, most of whom are not wealthy. automation systems, domotics, enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy (in particular in theFinally, there is another ongoing social change: even common building sector), renewable forms of energy, encouragement ofpeople are increasingly aware of the aforementioned problems, appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policieswhich threat the survival of humankind itself, and are looking for and measures more environment-friendly (to limit or reducesolutions at an individual scale. In the developed countries, people emissions of greenhouse), greener and more efficient productionwant to live and work in, and, above all, buy, buildings that are processes, reduction or phasing out of market and productionenvironment-friendly, made up of natural, recyclable, and ecological imperfections, green architecture, green buildings, prefabmaterials, energy sufficient and performative, and from a individual architecture, modular building, affordable building, environmentalpoint of view people want to live in houses that they can personalize architecture, low maintenance, high-tech materials, materials withor change along their unique life. high performances, light materials, alternative energy, ecology, industrial process, innovation, interactive architecture, building lifeNeedless to say, the building industry has to change and innovate, in cycle management, new materials, modern style, prefabrication,order to become more efficient and, therefore, environment-friendly. renewable resources, technological transfer.The building industry has to make a great leap forward! Below the eco-friendly checklist compiled by James Wines in his seminal book, Green Architecture, became a reference for whoever has an environmental attitude:
  • 7. mapping new values New sensitivity New styles New commercial values towards the natural and forms for life environmentenvironmental economical social Recycling (of materials Building automation systems Greener and more efficient and buildings) production processes Domotics Renewable and alternative Prefabrication forms of energy High-tech materials Affordable buildings Reforms promoting more Ecology environmental friendly policies Low maintenance Interactive and intelligent Green buildings architecture Building life cycle management Modern styles Technological transfers 
  • 8. > use of recycled and renewable materials (“… guaranteeing using new toolsintelligent choices which have recycling potentials as a resultof their production and technology); Green Prefab is continuously monitoring the market looking for new> use of low-embodied-energy materials (“the objective here is tools, in particular digital tools, technologies, and materials that canto select construction materials with the attention to the entire affect, improve, and make more efficient the building constructionbiography of their production”); industry and its processes.> use of harvested lumber (“avoid all imported exotic woodas much as possible”); Nowadays there are several digital tools and materials on the market,> water catchment system; that can be effectively applied to the building construction domain:> low-maintenance;> recycling of buildings (“a commitment to salvaging existing > PLM softwares PLM (project life cycle management) is a suite ofstructures and sponsoring adaptive reuse may define the most integrated softwares that enables the control of a process where ainnovative are of architectural practice in the future”); lot of files of different formats are produced and have to be managed> reduction of ozone-depleting chemicals; by the various people involved. This suite of softwares makes it> preservation of the natural environment; possible to share, archive, and integrate the whole stream of files> energy efficiency (“This refers to an increased use of diverse in a collaborative and interoperable way, avoiding the loss of filessources of energy as passive solar, wind power, water power, etc.”) and overcoming the difficulties related to the management of a> a reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels, and the construction great deal of information related to a particular complex projectof architecture in response to regional climate and existing (such as, for example, the building process, that involves so manycontextual influences”); diverse operatives and so many different documents). But what is> solar orientation; mainly avoided is the loss of time and money because the processes> access to public transportation. are smoother and seamless. In brief, as Neil Gershenfeld wrote in his book “FAB”: “All the padding that architects, engineers, andPeople and politicians are increasingly sensitive to these issues contractors built into their schedules and budgets to cover theand want their working and living places more in tune to these unpredictability of their communications was removed, becausenew needs that will soon become requirements. Moreover, people they were all sharing the same computer files rather than generatingare looking for more efficient production processes, no one wants drawing at each stage”. And again, summarizing: “PLM provides ato pay for buildings, and products in general, which offer a low collaborative, consolidated environment in which multiple cross-performance and are of a sub-standard quality. disciplinary teams (such as, for example, Structural Analysis, Fluid Dynamics, NVH and Materials Research) can conduct and evaluateSuch new needs and requests can be very profitable for everyone simulations in support of product and/or process development.involved in the building market, who are willing to renew the old The collaborative nature of the environment promotes cross-building processes. functional insight, innovation, speed and quality in design”.
  • 9. using new tools 
  • 10. using new tools10
  • 11. > Engineering softwares and production tools Because the and tests phases, and for the great quality of manufactureddevelopment and tooling expenses for the production of a new components) is the sum of different fully integrated, industrialized,type of airplane or car can reach billions of dollars, sophisticated and prefabricated elements produced by specialized manufactures,engineering softwares have been developed in these fields, so that in their own factories (even from different countries), that provideit is possible to carry a design from conception, through simulated the pieces that are then assembled in the supply chain. By meanstesting, all the way to production, without ever appearing on paper. of industrial prefabrication it is possible to manage and master aThis new generation of 3D softwares is now applied in the building highly complex process such as the construction of a ship. Greenconstruction sector in order to enable designers to test every single Prefab is learning from these domains and is striving to transformaspect (structural, lighting, piping, bioclimatic, etc.) of a building the building construction field from an Arts&Crafts process to anbefore the construction phase; in this way many flaws, typical of bad industrial and prefabricated one;designing and engineering, can be avoided. After the engineeringphase, all the files are electronically transmitted to the companies > New products for the building industry The market is supplyingthat fabricate the components. Steel frames and skins, for example, new materials, such as composites and plastic-wood, that can beare cut and bent to shape under computer control, and then used in the building construction industry even if they were notassembled on the job site like a giant “Lego”. The mix of engineering originally intended for architecture. These new materials are lighterdesign and production tools into the building construction process than wood or concrete or steel, but in some cases, much morechallenges the whole division of labour between designing and performative, resistant, energy efficient, recyclable, and reusable.constructing a building. Once the designer has made a model, hecan push a button to transmit the design all the way through the > Building automation system or domotics Advanced technologyconstruction process. The real creative work is done by his hands; provides instruments that can constantly check the performancethe rest is relatively automated. In this way it is possible to realize and behavior of a building, allowing the owner to use it at its best.buildings in a very effective and efficient way, guaranteeing great In particular, these systems save the owner money both because hesavings for everyone involved in the process. can intervene (before it is too late) where the building shows faults, and because he can check the energy performance and optimize it> Prefab and industrialized production processes Green Prefab is depending on the way he is using the building. Domotics allow theprompting a technology transfer from aerospace, automotive, and owner to supervise his building along its life cycle. The buildingnaval industries toward the building construction domain. Green automation tools manage the different uses of the building, checkingPrefab realized that, in these sectors, more complex than building the maintenance program and safety of zones and materials in realconstruction, production is very efficient and effective because time, suggesting better use in order to achieve comfort and saveit is based on prefabrication. A ship, for example, which is, more energy. Those tools are based on interactive sensors, between theor less, as complex as a building (both for the number of people building and the external environment and the between building andinvolved during the design, calculation, construction, verifications, the inhabitants, and are able to express artificial intelligent responses. 11
  • 12. merging new values and new tools There are several phases in the building process proposed by Green prefab; all the phases are managed by a collaborative digitalGreen Prefab realized that it is possible to accomplish these new platform capable of joining the stakeholders of the building processvalues and issues only through the renovation and optimization of around a common real time decision making suite.the building industry process (more efficient and effective) by means The digital platform is composed of a group of technical softwares,of new digital tools. Green Prefab main aim is to integrate the above already available on the market, inserted as clusters around thementioned values and tools into a single operative platform. collaborative system. Each piece of software performs specific tasks in the codified phases of: digitalization, design, engineering,The keypoint of Green Prefab is a dedicated digital suite provided normative, production, construction, and maintenance.by Collaboratorio. Green Prefab is growing as an international network of selectedWe imported a class of product life cycle management processes Real Estates, building enterprises, prefab producers, designers,acquired from aerospace, automotive and naval disciplines, into academies, and research centers working to innovate contemporaryGreen Prefab. The idea reproduces innovative design tools managed architecture towards an industrial model.by few world known architectural firms (such as, for example, FrankGehry Associates or Norman Foster + Partners), and brings them into Green Prefab buildings will be ecologically correct,medium or small firms which would not otherwise be able to afford experimental with materials and interactive automation, very fastand handle such resources (in terms of specialists, professionals, to build, cheaper, cost effective, and, of course, will have a highoutfits, equipments, catalogues, and softwares). architectural value.All the stakeholders of the building industry, investors at first, willtake huge benefits from this optimized and renovated process. So, how does Green Prefab work?1
  • 13. merging new values and new tools �� Bui� � � l� i�� dn ��te �� �� a �Est gC al�� �o� t - Re � n �� ��� c �$ ra ��� r to � �� ��� �� digital master � ����� model � ���� ��i�� l�er � �� p Des � � �� up ign � ��� S �� al Te�� ���ri �ust am nd I��� � Engi ����neering T�am ����� � �e�� �technology stakeholders sharingtransfer master model 1
  • 14. phase 1: databaseDigitalization phase, the first phase in Green Prefab, consistsof the enrichment of the database which contains a set of digitalprefab elements, the ones that are essential to design any kindof building. The set of elements was defined by an internationalbuilding construction standard that Green Prefab adopted, i.e.the CI/SfB -that stands for Construction Index/Samarbetskommittenfor Byggnadsfragor- a Scandinavian system of classification thatwas originally set up in 1959 and specifically designed for theconstruction sector.Each prefab element is provided by suppliers which are partnersof Green Prefab consortium; every element uploaded in thedatabase has a standard digital format capable of describing all itscharacteristics (dimensional and mechanical).The set of prefab elements are compatible. They are reproducedin a digital catalogue in different cad formats, designers can manageand integrate in their software of choice.Main stakeholders involved:Real-Estate, Industrial suppliers, Engineering TeamSoftware in use: 3D CAD, Tools1
  • 15. phase 1 databaseprefab elements database(under development with VEGA MDMproject with Massimo Colomban +Favero e Milan Engineering)CI/SfB classification systemdigital catalogue1 Ground and foundation2 Building elements (primary)3 Building elements (secondary)4 Building elements (finishes)5 Services (piped ducted)6 Services (electrical)7 Fixed furniture8 Fixed furniture (special) 1
  • 16. phase 2: designThe second phase concerns design conception. Designers can usetheir usual 3D design tools or adopt the suggested concept cadsoftware, provided by Green Prefab for free.The software actually adopted for this phase is: Sketch-up. It is easyto understand and user friendly, and implements the same basicuseful features and commands of the best known and widely usedsoftwares. The software helps designers conceive their own project,providing a full integration with an interoperable database of prefabelements. The softwares is capable of suggesting whether and howdifferent elements can be combined together in order to design theentire building. Otherwise the designers can choose to use their ownfavourite software.The design delivered by such a process is a virtual building, whichGreen Prefab calls “the master model”, which is made up of differentprefab pieces that you can imagine as a sort of “Lego”.Main stakeholders involved: Real-Estate, Design TeamSoftware in use: 3D CAD, Sketchup by Google1
  • 17. phase 2 designRaw definition of the master modelusing the database catalogue 1
  • 18. phase 3: engineering and testing All these tests are done in order to avoid any kind of fault (faults = waste of time and loss of money) and to check theThe third phase is the engineering one. The master model is checked viability of the design.by means of the suite of technical softwares provided by GreenPrefab. The third phase output is a master model (a file or a set of files) –a sort of digital mock up of the building– which contains the wholeThe expert engineers review the master model, in an integrated amount of formal and technical information. In fact, the masterand collaborative way. Green Prefab provides an integrated software model is the building itself, albeit in a digital format.that covers the following areas:> the form; immersive rendering tools available in Green Prefab use The rendering tools available in Green Prefab use specializedspecialized softwares, available on the market, to check the position softwares (widely available) to make renderings, animations, andof the prefab elements, make renderings, animations, and 3D 3D virtual world integrations, so that the stakeholders can view orvirtual world integrations, so that the stakeholders can view or walk walk through the building before its construction, in order to checkthrough the building before its construction; the viability of the design. The system derives from the 3D master> structural; to calculate the physical performance; model all the technical designs for approvals and production. Those piping and plumbing; to define the position of every single pipe interfaces are available through the web or in housing solutions.of the building;> electrical; to design electrical plants; In general, Green Prefab, in this phase, uses a large suite of> energy; to calculate the energy performances of the building; softwares, plugins and digital tools. The main softwares are> heating and ventilation; to design heating and ventilation plants; Archicad by Graphisoft and Digital project by Gehry Technologies.> lighting; to verify how natural and artificial light affectsthe building; In order to guarantee the possibility to exchange files of different> production and realization; to simulate the production and formats without loosing any information, the IFC (Industryconstruction activities; Foundation Classes) format is adopted into the system.> computation of cost; connected to the database of costs. The IFC standard (whose codes are free and developed by an open source community) is the leading emerging internationalAfter these verifications the master model is delivered to the interoperable standard and it is already implemented by the mostdesigner so that he can verify whether it is consistent to his very commonly used cad softwares in the world.original idea. If the design has undergone any modification thedesigner can correct it and send this new release to the engineers Main stakeholders involved:for new technical tests, and the process restarts. Real-Estate, Design Team, Engineering Team Software in use: 3D CAD, IFC, Tools, Digital Project by Gehry Technologies, Plug-in, Archicad by Graphisoft1
  • 19. phase 3 engineering and testingFormStructuralPiping and plumbingElectricalEnergyHeating and ventilationLightingProduction and realizationComputation of costs 1
  • 20. phase 4: executive outputThree different kind of documents are extracted from the finalmaster model:> the 2D documents requested to accomplish the city regulationand norms;> the detailed drawings of each prefab element to be producedby Green Prefab suppliers;> the detailed drawings for each non-prefab element (GehryTechnologies is the software used for this task by Green Prefab).Main stakeholders involved:Real-Estate, Design Team, Engineering TeamSoftware in use: 3D CAD, Tools, Plug-in0
  • 21. phase 4 executive outputFour different kindsof documents are extractedfrom the final master model:2D documentscity regulations and normsStandard elementsnumber of piecesNon-standard elementsdetailed drawingsProduction and realizationscheduling 1
  • 22. phase 5: production off-siteThe detailed digital drawings, extracted from the final master model,are sent to suppliers or directly to supplier’s computer controlledmachines, via a cad/cam communication system, which carry out thephysical fabrication of each single piece off site (at the factories).In this way there are no uncertainties for suppliers because theydo not have to interpret anything; they receive any specificationwith the precision required by a machine rather than the ambiguityaccepted by a person. As mentioned earlier, a lot of hindrancescan be avoided because all the people involved in this process(designers, engineers, suppliers, and contractors) are sharing thesame computer file rather than generating drawings at each stage.This method of working has already proved faster and cheaper thantraditional one. Furthermore the quality of every prefab element ismanufactured and controlled by specialized and skilled labour.Main stakeholders involved:Real-Estate, Industrial suppliers, Engineering TeamSoftware in use: 3D CAD, Tools, Plug-in
  • 23. phase 5 production off-siteStandard elementsproduction of elementsand macro-componentsNon-standard elementsproduction of elementsand macro-components 
  • 24. phase 6: realization on-siteWhen all prefab elements are ready, they are combined in macro-components off site and then sent to the building site, where theyare assembled by contractors. The building site has to be prepared(excavations and foundations have to be carried out) before startingthe assembling phase and laying down macro prefab components.There are several advantages, determined by prefabrication, in thiskind of building site: the number of contractors, subcontractors,and workers is reduced to the minimum; the impact of constructionat the building site is lowered by minimizing the staging area;on-site waste generation is reduced simply because most of theconstruction is taking place elsewhere (off site, at the factories).Furthermore, it is much easier to control waste streams in a factory,where waste can be easily separated for recycling at the pointof creation on an assembly line, than at a building site wherematerial separation is often difficult to achieve.Main stakeholders involved: Real-Estate, Building contractor,Industrial suppliers, Design Team, Engineering TeamSoftware in use: 3D CAD, Tools, Plug-in
  • 25. phase 6 realization on-siteExcavation and foundationAssemblingof prefab macro-components 
  • 26. phase 7: use Finally, as Kieran Timberlake states, “prefabrication lends itself to recycling of the buildings themselves as well, till its dismantling,Building automation tools (or domotics) manage the different uses since factory-built elements are more easily removed andof the building, checking the maintenance program and safety of interchanged and components can be designed with whole lifezones and materials in real time, suggesting better use in order to cycle costs taken into account. One can imagine a trade in usedachieve comfort and save energy. house modules, which might offer an alternative to families whoThese tools are based on interactive sensors, between building and find their basic housing needs changing but who do not necessarilyexternal environment and between building and inhabitants, able to want to buy a new home. This would be a sea change in the wayexpress artificial intelligent reactions. Domotics work by recording that consumers view houses which are generally perceived by thevarious aspects of the building’s use during its everyday life. public as both static and complete. There have been attempts to investigate type of scalability in the earlier part of the century,Another important aspect related to a prefab building is the although with an emphasis on easy expansion rather than easypossibility of changing some elements or enlarging any construction. contraction. Our cultural inability to contract when necessary, thePrefabrication guarantees the opportunity of rapidly substituting way that natural systems do when placed under stress, often leadsor adjoining elements because each piece is interchangeable with to poor distribution of available resources”.those contained in the database and the digital master model letsanyone know any feature and characteristic of the building. Main stakeholders involved: User, Real-Estate, Industrial suppliers, Engineering Team Software in use: Tools, Plug-in
  • 27. phase 7 useBuilding automation toolsmaintenance, safety,comfort, energy savingDismantlingrecycling of buildingelements 
  • 28. summarizing general advantages design). Therefore, the quality of each prefab element, and as a consequence the overall building, is accurately checked inThe building process implemented by Green Prefab has several the supply/production chain; > highly manufactured processesadvantages from the different points of view of the involved guarantee a quick and punctual delivery of each prefab elementstakeholders. with the result that each building will be completed on time; > specialized factory workers guarantee the quality of theValues from the view point of promoters, investors and contractors: prefab element and the final products; > off-site manufactured> high control of total costs in the pre-building phase, with processes guarantee the reduction of waste on site; > the impacta reduction of uncertainties during the production phases of construction at the building site is lowered by minimizing theand money saving; > the massive industrial production of prefab staging area; > reduced presence of machineries and plants on theelements reduce the final cost of the buildings; > drastic reduction construction site assures general savings as far as the equipmentof construction phases and delivering time, so the investors and rental is concerned; > workplaces are safer and more comfortablecontractors can save money; > production of ecological buildings, for workers. Therefore the number of accidents among workers canwith high performances in energy saving and pollution control, be reduced. A general saving in insurance premiums will follow;and contemporary looking style. > Green Prefab provides for each building a comprehensive manual on how to use the building and the instructions on how the userAlso the testing phase, led by engineers and experts, avoids design can obtain the best performance; > each building has advancedfaults, which guarantees the quality of the products, and the automation systems that check the behavior and the aging of theviability of the buildings; > production is perfectly integrated with building in order to advise the users whether there are interventionsthe design phase, each supplier (who adheres to Green Prefab) is and restorations to do, even suggest better or new behaviors; >specialized in the production of that particular prefab element; buildings use natural and renewable energies; > some buildings> each element is an industrial product, manufactured off-site as can be energy self-sufficient and they could even supply energyin many other fields (aeronautic, automotive, naval, and industrial to the public grid.
  • 29. Below some advantages for the other stakeholders From the viewpoint of prefab element producers: Green Prefab usually chooses industrial products already on theSome advantages from the viewpoint of architects: market, so the industrial supplier does not need to create newEach designer can concentrate on the creative phase of conception, products; > The company’s brand goes together with otherconsidering costs, engineering and technological issues resolved by excellent brands and gives reciprocal prominence towards anthe system of Green Prefab. The designer has a complete catalogue innovative building product, with a good marketing result;of prefab pieces to use and an external team of coordinated > The order that Green Prefab sends to the factory can be digitallyprofessionals that can carry out the engineering of the project just managed with automatic machines and they are preciselyby sharing the 3D digital model inside the software interface. quantified; > The industrial supplier can access to new marketplaces.The designer knows that he uses prefab elements which aretotally integrated, have a controlled origin, respond to quality andenergy standards, use high quality materials, are eco-friendly and From the viewpoint of end user:partially recyclable; > The architects can visualize the project in Lower costs led by the industrialized mass production of elements;a 3D immersive simulation, exploring different solutions in real- > Money saving thank to the buildings good energy performances;time, achieving rapid feedback on total and partial cost forecasts, > Fast delivery of the building; > Each building has a certificate ofstructural tests, bioclimatic simulations, in a way that could not be warranty like any industrial product; > Intervention for substitutionotherwise achieved. of elements if needed. 
  • 30. roles and advantages Master Model stakeholders $ Real-Estate Design Team Engineering Industrial Building User Team Supplier contractor invests designs engineering provides assembles gives feedback action and controls and testing prefab elements and plants control engineering integrated additional less waste lower costs advantages of total cost queries quickly tools orders of materials good energy reduction resolved marketing greater safety performances of final cost 3D simulation benefits for workers certificate fast delivery faster delivery of guarantee time pay % free free pay a fee free pay less access0
  • 31. roles of the stakeholders In brief, one of the most important differences in comparison with old building processes is that every person becomes part of a wellIt has to be clearly stated that each person involved in Green Prefab organized and integrated network.will maintain his own role. So, Real Estates invest; designers design;engineers engineer; suppliers manufacture and supply prefab How can somebody join the Green Prefab network?elements; contractors realize buildings. Green Prefab mainly targets these groups of active stakeholders: promoters; investors; contractors; designers; prefab elementsGreen Prefab: suppliers; end users. Promoters, investors, and contractors, have> creates and sets up the network of people involved an exclusive in the usage of Green Prefab for their regional area ofin the building process; activity, and they participate financially in the development of the> maintains the database (that means: programming the database, digital platform. Prefab suppliers and all technical designers (suchdrawing, up-loading, archiving each prefab elements in the as structural engineers, bioclimatic technicians, lighting specialists,database; implementing and keeping the database up to date; etc.) have a direct and formalized contract with Green Prefab andfinding and integrating new prefab elements); they are certified in the use of the system. Architectural designers> masters and updates the suite of softwares; are free to use the system. All stakeholders will receive specific> coordinates the engineers involved during calculation training courses on how to use the system.and testing phases;> checks the production and supply of prefab elementsand takes care of relationships with suppliers;> supervises building construction on site;> takes care of the building life cycle management. 1
  • 32. Green Prefab is creating a global network for China We have spent two years testing possible frameworks, business models, global marketing strategies, different software solutions, and various selections of partners; and now we are open to business in China.
  • 33. Green Prefab is creating a global network for ChinaGreen Prefab has carried out tests on possible frameworks, businessmodels, global marketing strategies, different software solutions,and selections of partners for two years. We are now exploringcommercial possibilities for Green Prefab and we are in the processof creating a first operative network specifically devoted to builda pilot building case in China.We are currently negotiating with Real Estates, general contractors,architects and engineers, academic and research centers.We are always ready to discuss in detail the whole Green Prefabsystem and explore opportunities for business partnerships.We are selecting our partners among several respectable Chineseenterprises with innovative efforts in the building industryand solid support to environmental and social values.Our next marketplaces will be the U.S.A. and the Northern Europe. 
  • 34. The Scientific Park where Collaboratorio is settledvega (Venice Gateway for Science and Technologies)vega is the Venice City of Technology and Innovation, linkingUniversities, Centers of Excellence and the manufacturing sectorin order to sharpen the competitive edge of the companies in thenational and international markets.vega is the first scientific-technology park in Italy, with 200companies and over 2000 people employed. The aim of Vegais the redevelopment of 2000 hectares of the industrial area ofPorto Marghera, one of the largest in all of Europe. Vega Parklies within the lagoon ecosystem and it is linked to the sites ofVenice University, lies close to an extensive industrial zone and islocated right at the economic heart of North-East of Italy extendingto the metropolitan area of the Veneto Region. These are idealconditions for fostering opportunities for trade and entrepreneurialdevelopment.Vega Park is considered a new European model of environmentalrehabilitation and it is the first Science and Technology Parkin Italy to have achieved certification of its integrated Quality-Environmental Management System, recognized at internationallevel (ISO 9001 – ISO 14001).www.vegapark.ve.it
  • 35. The Internet portal produced by Collaboratorio and it appears among the top positions in results not sponsored by Google and by other search engines. Furthermore, it can rely on awww.architecture.it is an architecture portal visited by over 50,000 large number of stable links originating from external sites.designers monthly. It is based on a search engine that offers freeaccess to a database made up of over 10,000 manually compiled Among the strong points of www.architecture.it:reviews regarding architects’ web sites, architectural events, design > it is one of the first search engines for architecture on the web;competitions, new hardware and software solutions. > it has a staff of experts publishing over 200 news items monthly; > it provides free, timely, daily updates;The staff at www.architecture.it is dedicated to making a daily > it adopts a strict stand on selection criteria in terms of informationselection of information regarding contemporary architecture, quality provided;orientating readers towards innovation, research, and the use > it communicates constantly with its readers.of new technologies. For this reason www.architecture.it fosterscommunication with a qualified community of architects and Activities in progress to be operative from 2008:engineers, who reliably surf the website every day. > opening a web 2.0 database with built architecture resources; > full translation into English;The editorial platform for www.architecture.it has been active since > replication of the web 2.0 database in other countries2000 and currently makes up one of the principal international (China, U.S.A.).nodes of the web thanks to the richness of its database and thefrequency with which it is updated. The portal has a high page rank www.architecture.it 
  • 36. The European co-founded Project with Collaboratorio as a partner The project, reaching a substantial mass of digital content, will significantly impact the EU scenario concerning architecture andmace (Metadata for Architectural Contents in Europe) cultural heritage, and will certainly become a landmark for further community activities in these domains.mace, a European Initiative, is aimed at improving architecturaleducation, by integrating and connecting vast amounts of content The initiative will develop and use several types of metadata forfrom diverse repositories, including past European projects and tagging contents: traditional content metadata and ontologies,existing architectural design communities. context metadata, competence metadata and learning process metadata, usage related metadata, and metadata acquired throughmace, with the creation of innovative e-learning tools, will provide social (e.g. recommendations by peer users or blog entries).the community with services such as finding, acquiring, using anddiscussing contents that previously had limited accessibility to Close relationships with universities and professionals ensure thatsmall groups. user expectations are met, adapting proposed solutions to the real needs of the community. Since these users are distributed acrossThe project is built around several other successful projects: countries in Europe, the project will have a multicultural anddynamo, incom, winds, ariadne. In addition, the project is aimed multilingual approach, designing, and deploying working solutionsat identifying and adding alternative repositories in Europe. to allow the sharing of contents across borders.The consortium includes three content partners, who have accessto a large number of content providers, including architects anduniversities dealing with architecture and design. www.mace-project.eu
  • 37. The interoperable standard classification adopted The classification system chosen by Green Prefabby Green Prefab CI/Sfb classificationifc (Industry Foundation Classes) Information Model (1) Ground and foundationThe ifc specification is a neutral data format to describe, exchange, (11) ground shapesand share information typically used within the building and facility (12) ditches, ducts, drainsmanagement industry sector. The ifc specification is developed and (13) retaining walls, soil supportsmaintained by the iai (International Alliance for Interoperability) (14) roads, paths, hard surfacesas part of its mission buildingSMART. The iai also facilitates the (15) soft surfaces, lawns, planted areasimplementation and adaptation of ifc. (16) substructures generally, other than (17) and (18) (17) pile foundationsThe iai does not produce software. However some of its members (18) pad foundations, footings, foundation beamsdo develop software applications that are compliant with the iaispecifications. Some of these developments are already on the (2) Building elements (primary)market, and some of them are at the pre-competitive stage only. (21) walls, external wallsThere are many products that fall between the two extremes. These (22) partitions, partition screenssoftware products cover a wide area of aec/fm domains: Design, (23) floorsStructural engineering, hvac design, Thermal analysis, Code (24) stairs, ladderschecking, Quantity take-off, Cost estimation, etc. They come with (25) ceilingsa wide range of varieties that can be used for different purposes. (26) flat roofs, terraces, balconies (27) roofs (inclined)ifc improves communication, productivity, delivery time, cost, (28) building elements above roofand quality throughout the whole building life cycle. It provides auniversal basis for process improvement and information sharing (3) Building elements (secondary)in the construction and facilities management industries. It makes (31) windowspossible a collective knowledge of the global construction and (32) doorsfacilities management. (33) additions to floors, floating floors, etc. (34) handrails and balustrades for stairsCollaboratorio is a proud member of the Italian Chapter of iai. (35) gates, barred openings, etc. (36) terrace lights, balcony balustrades, parapets, etc. (37) roof lights, roof trap doorways, etc.www.iai-international.org (38) eaves, gutters, downpipes, roof walkways, etc. 
  • 38. (7) Fixed furniture (commonly used)(4) Building elements (finishes) (71) furnishing of entrances, etc.: racks, etc. (41) external wall finishes (75) furnishing of laundries and related rooms (42) internal wall finishes (72) furnishing of rooms generally (43) floor finishes (73) furnishing of kitchens and related rooms (44) stair finishes (74) furnishing of toilets, baths, dressing rooms (45) ceiling finishes (76) furnishing of rooms for cleaning and storing (46) roof finishes (77) furnishing of secondary spaces (45) plints, mouldings, fillets, window sills, etc. (46) terrace finishes (8) Fixed furniture (special for schools, hospitals, etc. (47) roof coverings to be used as needed) (48) completions (sheet metal, etc.) to roof coverings (9) Site elements and site finishes other than those mentioned in group (1) (to be used as needed)(5) Services (mainly piped ducted) (50) accessories (51) culverts - chutes (52) services - drainage (53) services - water (54) services - gas, compressed air (55) services - space cooling (57) services - space heating (58) services - ventilation(6) Services (mainly electrical) (60) accessories (63) services - power, lighting (64) services - telecommunication (66) services - lifts, escalators (68) services - lightning conductors
  • 39. Green Prefab coordinatorsMr. Furio Barzon (1972)Founder of Collaboratorio, Venice (Italy)Mr. Renzo Taffarello (1960)Owner of tea Taffarello Engineering & AssociatesShanghai, Shanghai (China)For further information in Europe please contact:Collaboratorioc/o vega - Parco Scientifico Tecnologico di Veneziavia delle Industrie 15, 30175 Venezia Marghera, Italyt. +39 041 5093450 f. +39 041 5093711email: contatto@collaboratorio.comFor further information in Asia please contact:tea Shanghai Representative OfficeRoom 815, Huai Hai China Tower885, Renmin Lu200010 Shanghai - Chinat. +86 021 63556531 - f. +86 021 63556530mobile +86 135 64519061email: paola.cervellini@tea-net.itwww.greenprefab.com
  • 40. This paper aims to provide further information about “Green Prefab”. It has beendelivered only to a selected number of people we are very eager to involve in thisproject. We greatly appreciate your preliminary interest in “Green Prefab” and welook forward to hearing from you.is a Creative Commons Attribution - No Derivate Work 2.5 China MainlandYou are free to copy, distribute, and transmit the work, under the followingconditions: you must attribute the work as specified by the author or licensor(but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.