The Case study has 3 levels in the mark scheme. It is worth 9 marks + 3 for SPaG. 12 altogether!
-If you don't name an actual example you can not get beyond level 1. (1-3 marks)
-To access level 2 you must make a point and develop it (3 of them for top level 2). Remember to answer
both parts of the question (4-6 marks)
-For level 3, answers are described, explained and have numerous place specific details. (7-9 marks)
Where possible mention SEE- Social, Economic, Environmental.
Use paragraphs and key terms. There are 3 marks available for good SPaG.
What do I need to know?
A river valley and it’s landforms
River flooding (causes, effects and management) in a MEDC
River flooding (causes, effects and management) in a LEDC
A coastal area and its landforms
Coastal management along one stretch of coastline
-The Dorset Coast
-Seaford to Birling Gap, East Sussex
A strategy to influence population change.
International Migration from one country to another.
Migration within one country (regional migration).
-China’s One Child Policy
-Mexico to the USA
-Rural to Urban Migration in Brazil
Urban Change/ regeneration
Change in shopping provisions.
-London Docklands and Greenwich
-Bluewater Shopping Centre
An aid project in a LEDC
Factors that affect the location of a type of economic activity in a LEDC
-South East Brazil
Factors that affect the location of a type of economic activity in a
(Just choose one to revise………….)
-Primary= Wheat Farming in the Canadian
-Secondary= Car Manufacturing in the EU
-Tertiary= City of London
-Quaternary= Silocon Valley, Ottawa
MNC investment in a specific area and in an international context
A development where conflicts exist between economic development
and environmental damage
-The Pearl Delta- China
Example you have studied
85 miles in
Upper Course: High Force Waterfalla famous waterfall at the upper course
of the River Tees
It drains an
-Long history of flash flooding
-Cow green reservoir, controls
water supply for industries along the
-Straighten the river for easier
navigation during the industrial
Flood protection schemes in Yarn
-Source high in the Pennines (893m
above sea level)
-High run off as steep V shaped
valleys of impermeable rock
-High rainfall – good water supply
-High Force waterfall – tallest in
England 21 metres high
-Gorges, rapids and potholes at Low
-Very urbanised and large populations. Eg Yarn
-Important wildlife seals &
migratory birds also SSSI
-Ox bow lakes
-Large oil, gas and petrochemical industries (as flat
-Natural Levees formed due to silt build up
-Mouth is in the North sea
-Wide Mudflat and Tees estuary (tidal)
-Huge water sports complex Tees Barrage
-Clear widening and
-Meanders cut off in the 19th
-Sides become less steep
Characteristics of Mozambique
-South East Africa, bordered by the Indian
-The floods happened in February 2000
-Life expectancy before the flood was only
about 47 years.
90% of the people of Mozambique have to
live on less that $1 a day (about 60p).
-83% of people work in agriculture.
Short term causes:
-3 days of heavy rain at the start of Jan 2000.
-5 weeks of almost continuous rainfall from
the middle of Jan.
--Cyclone Eline struck Mozambique on 22
Long term causes:
-Grasslands in the upper course of the rivers
are being destroyed. These grasslands are
like sponges, so without them more water
gets into the rivers.
-Massive urbanisation in S.Africa means more
water gets into the upper courses of the rivers
that end up in Mozambique.
One of the main
rivers affected was
-$30 million was needed to repair the
roads, $6 million for railways and $4
million for the electricity supply.
-1 million people lost their
-Thousands of people
-The flood survivors had to
go to refugee camps
without much food or water
and with poor sanitation, so
diseases spread quickly.
-The flood destroyed fertile
Response and management
-Mozambique are an LEDC. GDP is 195 th
in the world. Money is spent on schools
and hospitals as these tend to be more
urgent that flooding.
-Rivers begin in other countries so they
can’t always control what they do in the
-The European Union has given money to
start a flood warning system. They have
sensors to measure rainfall in the river
catchments so they can warn people by
radio and help them evacuate before a
Location: Seaford to Birling Gap, East Sussex, UK.
-Shingle is lost from Seaford’s beach due to the process of longshore drift carrying
material from west to east. This causes the beach to disappear and parts of the town are
susceptible to flooding during storm events.
Coastal Management in place and it’s sustainability:
Hard engineering: Between 1986 and 1987 a 9 million coastal management programme was put in to place by Southern
Water. One of the main developments was a terminal groyne; built towards the eastern end of Seaford’s beach to slow
down the process of longshore drift. The groyne traps sediment and helps to build up the width of the beach. Advantages:
Socially sustainable as it maintains the beach and helps to protect the town of Seaford from flooding. Disadvantage:
Environmental impacts are worsened elsewhere. For example, erosion is increased at Birling Gap because the groyne
traps much needed sediment and is starving the area of replenished material. In terms of economic sustainability it could
be considered to be quite cheap because of how long this groyne will last for and it does a good job of maintaining the
beach and protecting the town of Seaford from flooding. Conflict: Birling Gap is starved of material and the residents there
feel that this is unfair and want protection for their settlement.
Hard engineering: Rip rap is place in front of the cliffs at Seaford Head. These are big concrete boulders designed to
absorb wave energy and reduce erosion of the cliff. Economically sustainable because they are relatively cheap. Conflict:
Environmentalists think that the rip rap is an eyesore and intrudes on the natural landscape.
Soft engineering: Beach replenishment in Seaford- Twice a year a firm of contractors arrive to redistribute the shingle at
Seaford Bay. The process takes about 3 weeks and employs 6 earthmovers, two bulldozers and a digger. The contractors
move the material back from the east to the centre to replace the material that was carried by LSD. This creates a wide
beach to protect the town from flooding. Economically expensive as it is costing £100,000 each year to carry out, however
when you compare this with what the economic costs of the flooding would be this seems a cheap price to pay. Conflict:
Local people are unable to use parts of the beach whilst this is taking place and it could impact upon tourism. However this
is managed by carrying out the activity during the winter.
A case study of managing population change- China and
the one child policy
Background - Started – 1979 but the policy has
recently been relaxed in Nov 2013 and you can
now have a second child.
Reason for policy – concerns over the rapidly
growing population. (China has 1.3bn people)
Exceptions – twins. If you live in rural areas (the 2 nd
child helps on the farm)
Has it been successful – Yes. The population is
growing more slowly, but it is still growing.
However many religious and human rights groups
think it is wrong.
Should education of family planning play a
bigger part now?
Consequences of not keeping to it
Have to pay for education/ health care.
Gender Benefits of keeping to it–
Access to health care, education and housing.
Other effects of the law:
The elderly now have fewer young people to look
after them. Or the young have more people to look
after. Higher dependency ratio
Incidents of female infanticide have been recorded
(killing baby girls), and lots more selective
Gender imbalance – reportedly 120 boys to 100
What is the situation?
There is a 2000km border between USA and Mexico. 1 million+ Mexicans migrate to the USA each year.
Push Factors (reasons why people leave Mexico): Poor medical facilities (1800 per doctor), low paid jobs (GNP= $3,750),
Adult literacy rates 55%- poor education prospects, life expectancy 72 years, 40% unemployed.
Pull Factors (reasons why people are attracted to the USA): Excellent medical facilities (400 per doctor), well paid jobs
(GNP $24, 750), Adult literacy rates 99%- good education prospects, many jobs available for low paid workers such as
What are the
Consequences impacts on the USA?
•Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons
•Mexicans are seen as a drain on the USA economy
•Migrant workers keep wages low which affects Americans
•Cultural and racial issues
•Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages
•Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music
•The incidents of TB has been increasing greatly due to the increased migration
What are the impacts on Mexico?
•The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people
•Many men emigrate leaving a majority of women who have trouble finding marriage partners
•Young people tend to migrate leaving the old and the very young
•Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico
•Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
Management of this migration:
The USA has tried to limit the numbers coming across by constructing a physical barrier.
However, it is almost an impossible task of trying to cover the 2000km border. Most believe
it is unlikely it will ever be completed. The government provides patrols to limit the number
of people crossing the border.
Rural to Urban migration is occurring in North
East Brazil. People are pushed away from
the drought ridden area know as the
‘Caatinga’ such as Sao Francisco and Nova
Casa Nova and are being pulled to the big
cities in the south east such as Belo
Horizonte, Sao Paulo and Rio De Janeiro.
Impacts on the NE of Brazil (Caatinga)
•Young men and women leave the area in search of a better quality of life which they think can be found in the cities of the south east.
(Think push/pull factors!)
•They send money back to families in the countryside.
•The Caatinga area now has less young, energetic fit and healthy people to help farm the land and run the house.
•The young and elderley find life an even bigger struggle and cannot look after themselves as well.
Impacts on the SE of Brazil (Belo Horizonte, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo)
•Growth of slums (also known as favelas and shanty towns)
•Over 150,000 live in Rocinha
•The government cant supply basic services/ infrastructure to these slums – sewerage, water, electricity.
•40% of people live (in Rocinha) in slums that often built poorly and illegally, but are difficult to move on.
•Planning how land should be used is very difficult.
•Overcrowding of schools and other services.
How are they managing the situation?
•The self help scheme. Government subsidise (reduce the cost of) materials so residents can build more secure buildings with bricks, and
•Community schemes are set up so they help each other.
•Many of the settlements are 40-50km from the city centre – so transport needs to be improved.
•Attempting to solve the issue of who owns the land – if the people now own it, they will be more likely to invest and look after their home
(as they know they cant be evicted!)
•Electricity companies are supplying more energy efficient products – low energy light bulbs, efficient fridges etc to cut down energy bills.
Urban regeneration/ sustainable city
living - London Docklands and Greenwich
The problem –
Our environment is under pressure from all angles.
Cities are expanding all the time (urbanisation)
and we need to use the land we have more wisely
and in a green way.
Greenwich Millennium Village tries to help people
live more sustainably. It was build on old dock land
(reclaimed industrial land – Brownfield).
Sustainable means meeting the
needs of the present without
affecting future generations.
Key factsHomes there will use 80% less energy, 30% less water.
Wood to build the houses comes from sustainable forests.
They are designed to use sunlight to heat them up (more
glass/ south facing)
Public transport is easier with tube and bus services. Also
there are cycle paths.
All necessary services are provided locally (schools/ shops
etc) helping for a sustainable community.
It will not solve all the problems but it is a start at
trying to promote sustainable urban living. Lessons
will be learnt for the future.....
Change in shopping provisions: Out of town shopping centre- Bluewater, Kent
There has been major changes in the way we shop in the last 100 years.
1.Changes in transport- car ownership has increased so people can travel further for their shopping. This means there are fewer
smaller convenience stores in rural areas, but there are more out-of-town shopping centres. They are built out of town because
land is cheaper, there is more available and it is accessible with on-site parking.
2.Changing market forces- changes in supply and demand for goods and retail services. People now want a larger range of
goods at cheaper prices. Small, specialist shops can not meet this demand, but larger chain stores and out of town shopping
centres can- they have lots of different products under one roof at much cheaper prices.
3.Social habits have also changed- people have less time to shop for the things they really need (e.g. food) but want more leisure
time to shop (e.g. clothes). This means supermarkets have become more convenient as all types of food are stocked together.
Bluewater is a brownfield site. It was built in a former chalk quarry which was in use in
the 1960s-80s. Bluewater has over 14 hectares of retail space and nearly 1.5 hectares
for indoor leisure use. The rest of the site is occupied by parkland, lakes and car
Location: Kent, SE England. 35km from central London. The nearest towns are Dartford
Transport Links: 40 min from central London, Served by 60 buses per hour, good
motorway links such a mile away from the M25 and A2/M2, good rail links, free parking.
Bluewater has 25 million visitors per
year – it has a large threshold
Bluewater has 11 million people living
within one hours drive – so it has a
good catchment area and 59% are
better off “White Collar” workers.
Characteristics of Bluewater
Described as an economic success! Over 330 stores, parking for 13,000 cars, open until 9pm each
day, 3 anchor stores – John Lewis, M&S, House of Fraser, Café and Restaurants, 50 acres of
lakes and parkland, playgrounds and cycle ways, 12 screen cinema, crèche, safe, pleasant
environment, complete leisure experience – family day. Plans to expand with railway links to places
Impacts on shops in nearby towns such as Dartford and Gravesend
Dartford and Gravesend now described as ‘dead heart’ places. The number of shops have declined here and the CBDs have
suffered from competition. They moved to Bluewater where rent is cheaper and they can have more space. Customers also going
to Bluewater instead. They are fighting back by redeveloping their town centres and they released campaigns such as ‘Shop
Environmental impacts of Bluewater: increased congestion/accidents on the roads, light pollution, now acting as a growth pole by
attracting more hotels and local business, have attempted to blend in by planting trees around the former quarry.
Link Ethiopia are a non governmental
organisation. They have one office in London and
another two offices in the north (Gondar) and
south (Debrezeit) of Ethiopia.
Over 50% of children in rural Ethiopia do not access education or go to
school. Many have other responsibilities to fetch water.
To change lives through education. They do this by improving access to quality
education, encouraging mutual understanding and respect between different cultures.
The work of Link Ethiopia
Link Ethiopia set up, support and help manage links between U.K. schools and schools in
Ethiopia, in both the primary and secondary sectors. For example they facilitate letter
writing and shared curriculum activities. They will help schools to plan visits to Ethiopia.
Link Ethiopia offer a three-month Gap Ethiopia teaching placement to pre-university
students. Our volunteers are accommodated by local families and teach English
Communication Skills at secondary school level.
Many of the schools they work with in Ethiopia are under-resourced. Link Ethiopia
therefore aim to assist schools in identifying, implementing and managing projects to
improve the quality of the schooling they offer. This may involve basic necessities such as
clean running water, adequate classrooms, the training of teachers in computer skills, or
the management of libraries in larger schools. They work with schools in both rural and
urban areas and strive to enable all schools to deliver suitable education for the needs of
-Socially sustainable as students in
the UK and Ethiopia gain
knowledge of each others cultures.
-Link Ethiopia also employ local
people in Ethiopia who they train to
maintain the links between the
schools in Ethiopia and the UK.
They invest time in their local
community and this is socially
-Economically sustainablevolunteers can help young people
develop their English Language
skills at no cost to the schools. UK
students gain experience of
working within a different
-Education is now improving as
money is being invested in
•Good climate-warm rainfall, rich soil
•Coffee, beef, caccio, sugar cane
•Large deposit of gold, iron ore, bauxite
•Large deposits of oil and off-shore gas
•Lots of industry
Higher wages and better
quality of life
South East Brazil including Sao
Paulo, Rio de Janeiro Ports
•Sau Paulo largest financial centre in
•Headquarters of most domestic and
•Foreign and domestic investment in
•Government investment in South East to
promote growth to an N.I.C.
•Good road and rail networks/ports
•Has many MNCs
•Highest population density
•Highest education and skills
•Car manufacturing - Ford, GM, Toyota, VW, Fiat
•Large local market and ports for export
•Centre of research and development public and private
- Sáo Jose dos Campus
- Aerospace Technical Centre
- Specialists in aviation and outer space
A significant increase in economic growth can
lead to even more growth is more money
circulates in the economy.
Economic Core Region
The most highly developed region in a country
–good infrastructure/high levels of
Parts outside the core-lower level of economic
All other regions
•Lower quality of life
•Lower access to services, eg hospitals
•Poorer climate for farming
•Many younger people move to South East
for work and other opportunities
•This can leave aging populations in rural
New capital city Brazilia –located in interior
to try to encourage investment
Nike s the world's leading supplier of
sports footwear and equipment. The
company was founded in 1972. The
company name comes from the Greek
word for 'victory'. Nike does not make any
shoes or clothes itself but contracts out to
factories in LEDCs.
companies then act on their
own and re-subcontract their
operations in other Asian
countries that give low wages
and have no employment laws.
E.g. Vietnam, The Philippines
The average pay at
a Nike factory close
in Vietnam is $54 a
month, 3x higher
than other jobs.
In 1998 Nike changed the
requirements to 17 yrs
Negatives of Nike
- Child labour.
- Hazardous working conditions
- Below subsistence wages.
Yearly revenue of $19.2 billion (2009).
Products in 140 countries.
Contracts to 700 factories in 45
Employing 800.000 people in the supply
Children as young
as 10 making
shoes, clothing and
footballs in Pakistan
Measures taken by Nike,
Code of conduct.
Auditing tools and
Nike have hired independent auditors to make
sure that the company subcontractors are
living up to Nike’s code of conduct.
The Pearl Delta is in the Republic of
China in the low-lying area
surrounding the Pearl River estuary
where the Pearl River flows into the
South China Sea. It is one of the most
densely urbanised regions in the
world and one of the main hubs of
China's economic growth.
Much of the area is frequently
covered with a brown smog.
This has a strong effect on the
pollution levels in the delta.
In October 2009, Greenpeace released a report,
"Poisoning the Pearl River" that detailed the results of
a study it conducted. All samples they took contained
hazardous properties including heavy metals such as
beryllium, copper and manganese. These substances
are associated with a long list of health problems such as
cancer, endocrine disruption, renal failure and damage to the
nervous system as well being known to harm the environment.
The Pearl River Delta is notoriously
polluted, with sewage and
industrial waste. (Treatment
facilities are failing to keep up with
the growing population).
The Pearl River Delta has become
the world's workshop and is a
major manufacturing base for
products such as electronic products
(such as watches and clocks), toys,
garments and textiles, plastic
products, and a range of other goods.
Nearly five percent of the
world's goods were
produced in the Greater
Pearl River Delta in 2001.
Over 70,000 Hong Kong
companies have plants
In 2007, the World Bank approved a $96 million loan to
the Chinese government to reduce water pollution in the
Pearl River Delta. 7.1 billion was spent on the river by mid
2010 to clean up the river's sewage problems. The city
will build about 30 water treatment plants, which will treat
2.25 million tonnes of water per day. The program hopes
to cut down the amount of sewage in the area by 85%,
Mount St Helens is on the
plate boundary between the
Juan de Fuca plate and
North American plate. When
it erupted it permanently
changed the surrounding
200 homes, 47 bridges,
15 miles of railways and
185 miles of highway were
destroyed. U.S. President
Jimmy Carter surveyed the
damage and stated it
looked more desolate than
Mt St Helens was dormant for a long
time but small quakes from 1980
suggested that the magma was
moving. On March the 18th a quake
in the volcano of 4.2 on the Richter
scale signalled the volcanoes return
to activity. A large “bulge” on the
side of the volcano signified a build
up of magma. On May 18 at
earthquake centred directly below
the north slope triggered that part of
the mountain to slide this was on of
the largest landslides in history, it
moved at around 110 mph and it
covered about 24 square miles
*Large number of wildlife were killed by the
blast and the volcanic ash with nothing
surviving in the blast zone
* flooding resulting from blocked rivers
washed away road and rail bridges
* crops were ruined and livelihoods of
loggers were devastated with large areas of
trees being flattened like matchsticks
The worst-affected was the town of
Armero. It was virtually destroyed buried by mud and rubble swept down
on to it. The fatal eruption happened
during the night when most of the
town's 27,000 residents were in bed.
and ash from side of
-Lava erupted from
-Hot ash and rocks
pyroclastic flows of
clouds of gas and
-Rapid snow melting
causing floods to
sweep loose debris
and soil to create hot
lahars down the
An evacuation was ordered but
abandoned when the volcano
The Colombian government has appealed to
the United Nations for help.
However, rescue efforts are being hampered by
fallen bridges and impassable roads.
The L’Aquila earthquake struck this
medieval town on 6th April 2009.
L’Aquila is located in
central Italy. It is
situated between the
Eurasian and Adriatic
-10 000 unsafe buildings
-Historical sites destroyed
-Town partly sealed off
-Aftershocks hit for days after
-Visitors put off/Tourist jobs lost
-Families living in tents
-$14.2 billion to rebuild
Transport networks blocked
The earthquake happened due to the
building up of tension in a fault line
under the Apennine Mountains.
The response to the
Italian earthquake was
good. Italy is a wealthy
country in comparison
with Haiti. People could
do more to help
given tents to
Much of the damage can
be repaired because
buildings and possessions
were insured. Rebuilding
does not happen quickly,
however. Even one year
after the earthquake, a
‘red zone’ in the old centre
of L’Aquila was still sealed
off. It’s likely to be some
time before it is safe again.
L’Aquila residents free
minutes and banks
Within 48 hours,
Another 10 000
given rooms in
Others went to
stay with family
The country is located on a
conservative plate boundary
between the Caribbean
Plate and the North
3 Million people live in Port au Prince
with the majority living in slum
conditions after rapid urbanisation.
- 12th January 2010 an earthquake
measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale
-The focus was 13km underground
-The epicentre was 25km from the
-Haiti suffered a huge number of
The poorest country in the
western hemisphere. GDP is
143/227. 66% of the population
of Haiti earn less than £1 a
day with 56% of the population
classed as “extremely poor”
In early January 2010
the EU released €3 m in
-The number of people in relief
camps of tents since the quake was
-In July 2010, CNN returned to Portau-Prince and reported, "It looks like
the quake just happened
-A January 2012 Oxfam report said
that a half a million Haitians remained
-Only about 20% of aid has been
spent by the Haiti government as
they have no resources.
The European Council
and its member
announced more than
€429 million in aid.
The governments of the United States, Israel ,the
Dominican Republic, Canada, Brazil, Italy and
Cuba3 sent over 1,000 military and disaster relief
personnel each, with the United States being by
far the largest single contributor to the relief
• Strong winds up to 135mph
• • Storm surge of 7.6m
• Heavy rainfall
The primary impacts included
-140,000 were killed
-1700 schools were destroyed.
-200,000 farm animals were killed
-40% of food stores were
-Rice fields were flooded on the
The secondary impacts were that
-up to 3 million were made
-millions lost their livelihoods.
-Over 70% of households didn’t
have access to clean water and
this caused diseases.
-There was a shortage of food.
-1000’s of temples were destroyed
The cost of the damage
was $10 billion.
The impacts were also
greater in Burma than the
USA because many in
Burma depend on
farming (crops and
livestock) and much of this
was totally destroyed
Additionally, they do not
have flood defences and
their houses are poor
quality and easily destroyed.
The cyclone happened
on 2nd May 2008 at the
Irrawaddy delta in
The Government failed
to warn its people.
People were not
evacuated in time
As Burma is a poor country it
could not afford to plan,
predict and prepare like the
The emergency services
were ill prepared, had little
training or equipment and
lacked numbers. The
government refused to
accept foreign aid at first as
they said they could cope. Its
government is a military
dictator and they do not like
outsiders! Aid workers were
eventually allowed in, though
this was three weeks after the
Tropical storms have strong
winds and torrential rain. They are
circular in shape and can be
hundreds of km wide. They form
over tropical seas (27oC or
higher). Warm moist air rises and
condenses. This releases energy
which makes it grow really powerful.
They lose strength as they move
over land because their energy
source (warm water) is cut off.
The USA has a sophisticated
monitoring system to predict if
hurricanes will hit (satellites can
track them). This means people can
be evacuated. 80% were evacuated
before the storm hit, reducing the
death toll. Mississippi and Louisiana
declared states of emergency and
stockpiled supplies (food and
water). The coastguard, police, fire
services and army rescued over
50,000 people and they had access
to equipment such as helicopters.
Hurricane Katrina hit the
South East USA on 29th
August 2005 and cost a
staggering $300 billion.
Katrina was a category 4 storm.
Storm surges reached over 6 metres in
New Orleans was one of the worst affected
areas because it lies below sea level and is
protected by levees.
People sought refuge in the Superdome
stadium. Conditions were unhygienic, and
there was a shortage of food and water.
Looting was commonplace throughout the
city. Tension was high and many felt
vulnerable and unsafe.
Although the response was better than in
Burma the USA government received much
criticism. Some homeless families ended up
in sports stadia where conditions were
intolerable and fighting etc broke out as
tensions rose. There were accusations that as
it was ‘black poor people mostly affected’
the government didn’t care. Looting was
commonplace. Finally, flood defences that
were supposed to protect New Orleans failed
and this actually increased the damage as
flood water became trapped
The primary impacts
included 1800 were killed
and 300,000 homes were
destroyed. 3 million people
were left without electricity
and bridges including the I10 collapsed. Coastal
habitats were also damaged.
The secondary impacts
were tens of thousands
were made homeless and
230,000 jobs were lost
from business that were
damaged and destroyed.
Water supplies were
polluted with sewage,
chemicals and dead bodies.
The Sahel region of
Africa has been suffering
from drought on a regular
basis since the early
1980s. The area naturally
wet and dry seasons.
Drought is different from other
hazards unlike floods and tropical
storms it never kills people directly
Desertification – the turning of land, often through physical
processes and human mismanagement, into desert. A severe threat to
millions in the Sahel region of Africa.
In the Sahel, a
drought is declared
when there’s below
average rainfall for 2
years. The Sahel has
drought for most of
the last 30 years.
The result is crop failure, soil erosion, famine and
hunger: people are then less able to work when their need
is greatest. It becomes a vicious circle and can result in
many deaths, especially among infants and the elderly. In
Niger in 2004, the situation was made worse when a
plague of locusts consumed any remaining crops. In these
cases, people rely on food aid from the international
project is a
plants trees in
the area to
give food to
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