Collette’s Revision PowerPoint!
2. The EU
3. Weathering and Erosion
5. River Landscapes
6. Natural Hazards
7. Settlement and migration
• Density – The average number of people per square kilometre
pop density = total pop / total land area (km2)
• Population distribution – The way in which people are spread out
over the world
• Birth rate – number of births in a country per 1000 people
• Death rate – number of deaths “
• Sustainable – Questioning whether the population is manageable
for the future
• Natural increase – birth rate – death rate
• Growth rate – natural increased expressed as %
• Migration – the movement of people
• Dependency ratio – ratio of number of dependants to the number
of employed people. (#dependants/total working pop)
• over populated – expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2045, 0ver
20% of the world’s population live in china
• One child policy
• Social effects – children have no brothers/sisters, no one to
look after older generation, increase in abortions
• Benefits – birth rate has fallen, children get better
education/health care/housing, parents receive 10% income
• Disadvantages – farmers need workers, boys are needed
more, human rights
working Problems increases
• What is natural increase and how do you
• How does china attempt to decrease their
• What are the social problem with this idea?
• Give 4 problems with an ageing population
• Economic market
• European Economic Community
Why, who, when, where?
• Why was the EU set up? To create a united trade union
• Who’s in it? 27 countries
• When was it set up? 1951, shortly after the end of the second
• Where? The French minister originally came up with the idea
What are the EU benefits?
Prevents wars, easier trade, united currency, larger market, less border
control, fewer employment barriers, aid.
Case study – Italy, the North/South
The northern plain – Rome, Milan, Venice, industrial heartland, large
employment, transport and communication links, successful agriculture
(flat land, good oil, water supply), less extreme climate, rich.
The south – steep slopes, extreme climate, think soils, farming is main
employer, lack of raw materials, small settlements, unattractive, out
migration, poor services.
What is being done to help?
Grants, laws (1986) passed to encourage companies, improved roads and
communication, raw materials brought in, EU aid
The fiat factory, melfi
Fiat employed over 700 people, stopped migration, new roads built, only
successful company in south, attracts young people, training, encourage
Case study – Lille North France
• Industry used to be centre of Europe's heavy industry
and manufacturing area, steel, textiles, coal, rich local
supply of raw materials
• Expanding economy, old industries now replaced with
• Lille received help from EU regional aid programme, £28
million financial aid
• Developed new industries, connected to major
cities, built of market
• Agency for the promotion of the Lille area (APIM) –
encourages new businesses
• 40% of the world’s total trade
• Internal trade
• External trade is with mostly LEDC’s
• Some countries have over 50% of their trade
within the EU
• Most imports from Asia
• When was the EU set up?
• Why was it set up?
• Give 5 benefits of joining the EU
• Why does the south struggle for employment? (4
• How is this being improved?
• Where is Lille?
• What does APIM stand for?
• Who did Lille receive help from and why?
What is weathering & erosion?
Weathering – Physical and chemical
The break up of rocks through physical or chemical causes which is
undergone in one place.
Physical causes = natural break down of rocks e.g. animals, plants,
Chemical causes = Changes made to the rock due to chemical
occurrences in or around the rocks. E.g. acid rain, oxidation
Erosion is the process of moving the weather material. This can be
done by wind, animals, water, gravity etc. However this can only
occur if weathering has taken place first.
Freeze thaw (physical) – Takes place in areas where temperature
is around 0. Rocks become frozen and easily crumble.
Pressure release (P) – Rocks are kept under pressure by the
weight of overlying rocks, after release the rocks expand and
Exfoliation – Rock surfaces expand and contract when heated by
the sun and then cooled at night.
Bed load – material carried along river bed (heaver material)
Traction – when larger stones are rolled along the river bed
Salutation – small stones ‘hop’ along river bed
Biological – where plants and animals break up rocks, e.g.
animals burrowing or plants roots
The four types of erosion
Hydraulic action – The force of water removes weathered
material from rocks and cliff faces etc. This is because the
waves trap air and compress it into the cracks of the rock. This
causes the rock to become loose and bits break away.
Attrition – Rocks transported along the river crash into each
other causing some to break up into smaller pieces. The rocks
also become more rounded and smooth, as they rub against
Corrosion (solution) – This term means the breaking down of
rocks through chemical processes, for example salt water. This
is especially frequent in stones such as chalk and limestone.
Abrasion – This is where rocks travelling down stream rub
against river banks or beds and become more smooth and
Igneous - Formed from volcanic activity, they are the result
of cooled magma or lava. They are crystalline in
composition. Examples = granite/basalt
Sedimentary – Formed through the deposition and
composing of sediments from other rocks. Examples =
Metamorphic – Originally igneous or sedimentary. In order
to change they have undergone vast
pressures, temperatures which changes their crystalline
and chemical structure. Examples = marble/slate
• What is erosion?
• What is weathering?
• What are the three rock types?
• What are the four types of erosion?
• Name two types of weathering
• What is biological weathering?
• Give 3 ways that water reaches the land
Fetch – The maximum
distance over which
winds can blow
Constructive wave = This is where deposition and Hard engineering = rock
transportation take place due to strong swash. armour, groynes, sea walls
Destructive wave = This is where erosion take Soft engineering = beach
place due to strong back wash. replenishment
Problems with Seaford’s coastline
Harbour arm – Prevents transportation and deposition to the east of the
coastline as it prevents longshore drift and causes a build up of shingle.
This created thin beaches along Seaford which were liable to flooding and
so the scheme took place to prevent this from happening anymore. The
arm was originally built to prevent material from entering the port and
blocking it up.
Active erosion – due to this the cliffs are becoming ‘dead’ in some areas
such as at the harbour arm. This is due to corrosion, chalk is at risk of being
eroded by the chemicals in the sea, hydraulic action, has created wave cut
notches, caves, arches, stacks, stumps etc. Biological weathering is also
taking place. Therefore the cliffs needed to be protected and restored.
How to protect Seaford coastline and why:
Groynes – To prevent longshore drift transporting material from the beach and
depositing further East. This needs to be prevented because hard engineering takes
place to replace material and the more lost the more needed, the more costly it is.
Seawall – Originally built to prevent flooding. However when erosion damaged it , it was
strengthened with rock armour.
Dredging – 3 million tons of shingle were dredged along the beach during construction
using a pipe. This was to rebuild the beach and stop storm beaches from being
created and to disallow further flooding and erosion of the sea wall. In Oct 1987 the
Riprap – To stop further erosion to cliffs at splash point.
Features of Seaford’s Coastline
• Active erosion taking place. Hydraulic action = wave cut notches, caves, stacks etc at friars bay.
• Flint lines in cliff to show build up of material to form cliffs
• Sand and gravel is material left from ice age
• At friars bay there is a storm beach which can be proved by the steep slops of shingle and grass
showing where the waves cannot reach
• Animal and plant weathering - biological
• Material at cliff tops slumps into fantails due to heavy rain
• ‘Dead’ cliffs
• Beach replenishment schemes
• Soft and hard engineering
• Man made shingle is a different colour
• Material needed to strengthen beach (i.e. large granite rocks under shingle) was taken from a
quarry in Italy
• At splash point there is a cliff – gap – cliff which is where the original river mouth was
The schemes are very costly and some are an eye saw, therefore there are mixed views on the
- Residents = stops area from being flooded and protects beach BUT can create an eye saw for the
area, such as when it was being built a lot of engineering took place over a long period of time
- Environmental agency = decided to agree to it as it protects wildlife and river ooze
- Local council = very costly but attracts tourism to the area
• What is a wave cut platform?
• What is the difference between constructive and
• What is formed first, a cave or an arch?
• Name two problems with Seaford’s coast line
• How was this solved?
• What is the purpose of groynes?
• Give two problems that arose from the coastal
management at Seaford
• Give 5 features of Seaford's coastline
Keywords River landscapes
• Drainage basin Rivers – River tees, UK
• Upper course Yangtze river, China
• Middle course
• Lower course
Flooding – UK 2007 floods
Tributary – a
smaller river or
flows into a
the place where
two rivers or
• China’s largest river
•Collects water from a larger area than
France, Germany, Italy and Spain put
• Drainage basin (above) = 1.9 million
• Three gorges dam
• Near Hong Kong (drainage basin end
about 250 km from HK)
• Mouth at Shanghai
•North East England, Pennine Hills
• Gorges and waterfalls due to heavy
• Valleys steep, wet weather = bad for
• Good sheep farming and forestry
• Cow green reservoir
• Lower course = settlements and farming
due to warmer weather and flat land
• Industrial towns such as Stockton
• Over 120 km long
• What is a source?
• In which stage do meanders occur?
• What is a tributary?
• What is a confluence?
• What is china’s largest river called?
• How big is the drainage basin?
• Where is the river tees?
• What is the area good for?
Cyclone Nargis - Burma
Cyclone = an area of low
pressure around which winds
blow counter clockwise in
the northern hemisphere
and clockwise in the
Causes, effects and aid
No warning system 2.5 million homeless
LEDC – poor shelter Over 2 million without
shelter during the storm • Refugee camps
• Red cross aid – food,
Midday – everyone inside 130,000 dead
• 1/3 without aid
Tropical depression & Over 20,000 missing • Aid from other parts of
monsoon season Asia
approaching • Soldiers – rebuilding
7.6 Magnitude Major destruction
Kashmir, China and Kobe earthquake
Kashmir China Kobe
When? 8Th October 2005 When? May 12th 2008, When? Kobe Japan
2.30pm local time
Where? Kashmir Pakistan Where? Sichuan province, Where? 1995 17th January
Why? 7.6 on Richter scale Why? 7.9 on Richter scale Why? 7.2 on Richter scale
epicentre – Osaka bay,
Damage – 3.3 million Damage – 112,000 people Damage- 5000 killed,
homeless, 87,000 dead, huge lived in epicentre, buildings 180,ooo homes destroyed,
scale disaster, infrastructure full (people at work/school), 23,600 injured. Infrastructure
ruined 70,000 killed and 180,000 badly damaged.
missing. Tremors felt in
Pakistan and Thailand.
Aid – UN, aid from 8 Aid – frantic diggers, comm. Aid – emergency shelters,
countries in Asia, US$1 and transp limited. Grants fires put out, food water
Billion, tents, helicopters from Asia, landslides and supplies, rebuilding, new
floods threaten help. monitoring equipment.
Earthquakes & Tectonics
Constructive plate margins
This is where two plates moving in
Where two plates pull apart to allow alternate directions past each
magma to rise which cools and forms a other and causes friction and
new layer of crust. ‘jerks’ occur. No land is destroyed
or created and no volcanoes occur.
Destructive plate margin
Subduction zone – Where two plates collide and one is
forced below the other where it reaches the magma and
melts. This then erupts as lava.
Collision zone – Where two plates collide and the crusts
crumple to form mountains.
Floods – UK 07’ floods & Mississippi
UK floods Mississippi
Where? Affected Tewksbury, Gloucester and Where? Mississippi USA
Cheltenham in West UK
When? Summer of 2007 When? Summer 1993
Causes – ‘La Nina effect’ N Atlantic jet stream usually Causes – Heavy rain in April 1993, Thunderstorms
passes through UK but 2007 was different, anti- throughout June and July, flash floods occurred in July,
cyclonic conditions, high pressure, torrential storms. 180mm of rain every few hours, levees were under
Effects – 35,000 homes damaged, transport cut off, Effects – 43 deaths, 50,000 evacuees, 26000 km2 of
crop damage, food prices rose, livestock killed, 11 land flooded, $2.5 billion loss of crops, Estimated
people died, power cut off, health problems, overall damage $12 billion. An area larger than the
British isles was affected by flooding. Too months for
water to drain away, buildings ruined, cleaning up took
months, sewages was washed in waterways causing
threats of disease, stagnant water attracted
mosquitoes and rats. Many people thought he
attempted controlling of the river was to blame for the
floods as it interfered with nature.
Aid - £1 billion costs, search & rescue, refuge tents, Attempts to control river – after the 217 deaths of the
RAF biggest peacetime rescue operation, 1927 flood over 300 dams and reservoirs were built
along with strengthened natural levees to protect
• What is a cyclone?
• Give five causes of the cyclone is Burma
• Give two ways that the area was helped by aid
• When was the earthquake in china? (time included)
• What was the Kashmir earthquake on the Richter
• How many deaths did the Kashmir earthquake cause?
• What was the damage to Kobe after the earthquake?
• Give three ways for each earthquake that the area was
helped by aid.
-Brighton (CBD structure)
- Glasgow (inner city
- Mexico/USA (migration and LEDC
- Japan (MEDC urban growth)
- Cairo (LEDC Urban growth)
Glasgow – Inner city redevelopment
1. Outskirts - E.g. Newton Means 7 miles south of central Glasgow. High quality
housing, peaceful lifestyle.
2. green belt - golf courses, farms, reservoirs, attracts commuters, M77 attracted
3. planned industrial estates - E.g. Hillington, built in 1900’s to attract new
businesses, now contain offices, warehouses, few businesses remain e.g., rolles Royce.
4. early housing scheme - E.g. Pollok, houses residents during war, estates, flats,
5. high quality housing - E.g. Moss park, commuter zone, good transport services,
public spaces, expensive and private houses.
6. heavy industry - E.g. Govan now derelict and disused but used to be a thriving
7. inner city - E.g. The gorbals, heavy industry, high rise buildings, high crime rate,
8. central business district (CBD) – Heart of Glasgow, transport, employment,
business, shopping centres. Become populated due to redevelopment.
History of Glasgow and city attractions
History of Glasgow City attractions
- Settlement began 800 years ago •River Clyde
- River Clyde encouraged population growth •School of art
(e.g. shipping industry) •Museums
- Poor housing, crime and pollution took toll •Science centre
in 20th century •Harbour
- In 1960’s population plummeted as people •Pollok house
moved to search for work •Garden festival.
- GEAR & Glasgow's miles better
campaigned for re development
- Raised money to transform grimy city
- Industry is now very basic and contain
Mexico (LEDC) – USA migration case
Problems with urban growth :
Problems in Mexico:
- Sewage -Migration (rural to urban)
- High birth rates (teenage pregnancies)
- Unemployment - Falling death rates
- Crime - Shanty towns
- Poor education/healthcare
- Lack of housing
- Debt -Rebuild shanty towns
- Overpopulated - Encourage companies to invest and employ
- Provide cheap healthcare and education
- Improve or invest in public transport
- Family planning (contraception)
Japan – Urban growth (MEDC)
• High population densities – 20,000 per sq m, highest population in the world
• Transport problems – 2 million commuters, railways, buses, cars, taxis, subways.
• High land values – demands for space in CBD ahs risen dramatically
• Housing – Enough for each family but very small, close together, no
• Climate – Hot and humid summers = typhoons
• Crime – (low in Tokyo) new york has 20 murders, 240 muggings and 30 rapes to
every 1 in Japan.
• Lack of open space – high land prices and demand for space
• Pollution – 4 million cars, 80,000 factories, noise, air, traffic, sewage
• Natural disasters – Japan lies on destructive plate margin, coastal areas at risk of
floods and tsunamis, money spent on buildings that can withstand disasters.
• Why did the city grow here?
River Nile = trade
• What has happened to old Cairo?
Burnt and become slum area
• Who built the imperial city?
• What is the new city like?
Wide streets, shops, suburban houses, space
• What did Cairo expand into?
The river Nile and desert
• How has growth become possible?
Bridges, river had been made narrower and
• What is happening to the CBD? Growing
• What has happened to the farms?
Become smaller or farmers have left
• Where have the farmers moved to?
Cairo city centre
• Which part do most immigrants move to and where are they forced to live?
• Why are the apartments out of Cairo empty?
Too far away & expensive
• Why ahs the sewage system broken down?
Too many people
• What is the new sewage project called?
Waste Water Project
• What transport does Cairo now rely on?
• How has Cairo attempted to aid traffic growth?
• How many commuters should this remove from the city?
• Major problems with growth in Cairo:
- Lack of houses
- Slum areas and refugees
• Give an example of an inner city area in Glasgow and what the land use is
• What does the CBD offer for people in Glasgow?
• Give two city attraction in Glasgow
• Give two facts about Glasgow's history
• Give 4 problems in Mexico
• Give 4 solutions to these
• Where are the migrants migrating to?
• What is the population density figures for Tokyo?
• Why is it a problem that Japan lies on a destructive plate margin?
• Why did Cairo grow in this area?
• What is happening to the CBD?
• How had Cairo attempted to help traffic problems?
• Give 4 problems in Cairo.
Weather & Climate
• Weather = Changes in the atmosphere from a day to day basis.
• Climate = Expected patterns of weather over a long period of
• Micro climate = Describes the weather and climate in a relatively
small area. E.g.:
- Coastal – coastal areas are cooler due to sea breezes and water
takes longer to warm up than land.
- Urban – Urban areas are often warmer than rural areas because
tarmac and concrete retain more heat than grass.
- Mountain & valley – mountain areas are always cooler as they
are more exposed to the atmosphere whereas valleys area
sheltered by the mountains and vegetation.
• Factors that affect microclimates: altitude, exposure, water,
buildings & surfaces, coasts, vegetation.
Air rises because of higher ground
Types of rainfall which forces it upwards.
Relief rainfall partially explains high
rainfall total in highland areas of the
1) Relief (orographic) rain UK.
form Drier air
Warm, moist, Sinking air –
westerly air warming up
2) Frontal rain Clouds and rain
Lighter air forced
to rise, cool and
Cooler denser air from
air from the
Air rises because air from the tropics equator and the poles meets and pushes
each other upwards, the warm air then rises.
3) Convectional rainfall
Heavy rain Hot air rises ground
Air drawn in
The warm air rises vertically because the sun heats the ground, It rises
and cool until condensation point where thick cumulonimbus clouds are
formed. The low pressure causes air to move to the centre where heavy
rain fall occurs.
• An air mass is a large area of air
Air masses which takes on the features of
the area where it comes from
1) Tropical maritime – very common, on winter arrives with
depressions and moist cool weather. In
summer, cloudy, sunny spells, warmer weather.
2) Polar maritime – arrives on north-westerly winds. In summer
it brings wet, cool weather. In winter cold showery weather
3) Artic – This air mass brings cold northerly winds and snowy
weather in the winter.
4) Polar continental – Brings air from over Europe. In summer
there can be heat waves. In winter cold, dry, easterly winds.
5) Tropical continental – Very rare in winter. In summer causes
hot, dry sunny weather for long period on light southerly
High pressure (anticyclones) – air descends and warms
- no wind, rain, clouds
- sunny, hot
- Clockwise motion
Low pressure (depressions) – Unsettled weather (wind, rain, cloud)
- Form to the west of Britain (A. ocean)
- Form when two air masses meet,
warm moist tropical air meets cold
dry polar air.
- Anticlockwise motion
- Isobars are closer together
• Define weather
• Define climate
• What is a microclimate?
• Give another name for low pressure
• What happens when there is high pressure?
• From which direction does polar-maritime come from?
• What weather does tropical continental bring in the
• Explain convectional rain
• Explain relief rainfall
• Explain frontal rainfall
• Give 3 things that affect microclimate
Key words development
• Primary industry
• Secondary industry
• MEDC / LEDC
• Multiplier effect
• Industrial growth/ Industrial
• HI –TECH industry
Factors affecting farming
1. Temperature: is it too hot? Too cold? 10. Pests and disease: Do pesticides need to be
2. Precipitation: is the rainfall reliable? Is there
enough? Too much? 11. Labour requirements: Enough workers? Too
3. Weather e.g. wind, sunshine: Enough sunlight for
plant growth? Does the wind destroy crops? 12. Distance to market: Petrol costs too high? Unable
to sell food?
4. Altitude: Is the land too low? Too cold higher up?
13. Nearby processing plants: Can crops and
5. Aspect (direction slope faces): Enough products be processed nearby? Travel costs
heat/sunlight on this slope?
14. Government aid: Needs loans? What do they
6. Rock type: Is it permeable/Impermeable? need aid for?
7. Soil: Is it fertile? Too rocky? Too dry? 15. Price: Good demand for crops? Good or bad
8. Drainage: Does the soil retain moisture? Does the
land flood easily? 16. International tariffs: Trade?
9. Irrigation: Is the land level? Liable to flood? Field
are accessible for water?
Types of Types of farming
Subsistence farming = Producing crops for your own
Primary = Industries extract raw
materials directly from the earth
or sea, for example
Arable = the growing of crops
farming, fishing, mining.
Pastoral = The rearing of crops
Secondary = Industries process
and manufacture the primary
Mixed = Crops and animal
products for example ship
buildings, furniture making.
Commercial = growing crops and/or animals to sell
Tertiary = Industries provide a
Shifting = When farmers move from place to place
service, for example health
care, police, office
Sedentary = Farming in a permanent area
work, transport services.
Intensive = numbers working on farm are high but
Quaternary = Industries provide
farm is small
information and expertise. For
Extensive = Large farm but small amount of workers
Quarrying in the peak district – case study for impacts of
Social advantages Economic advantages Environmental advantages
Attractive to tourists Attractive to tourists Modern quarry companies
are committed to
Provides employment Provides employment 37,000 trees planted, £1
million landscaping costs
Social disadvantages Economic disadvantages Environmental
Noise, air, and visual Damages to surrounding
May be extended – further
Vine house farm
• Located in an area of flat, low lying land. The land is also well
drained (relief and water supply maintains crop health)
• Soil contains peat which contains nutrients
• Climate (less rain than rest of Britain and lots of sunshine) is
perfectly suited for arable farming
• In 1950 farm had only 15 fields (118 ha) and nine workers
(extensive farm) and now is an intensive farm with 640 ha and 1-7
• Larger demand for products now due to technology, marketing and
• Fertilizers and machinery now used instead of natural fertilizers and
Impact of CAP on longleys
• The farm: completely organic (no artificial chemicals, no chemical
pesticides, only natural compost, permission to treat sick cow with vaccines)
• CAP: Since 2000 it has encouraged farmers to work in a more
environmentally sensitive way
• Single farm payment (instead of money for produce): Prices are determined
by market and can go up or down due to patterns of demand.
• Impacts on Steve: £20,000 from SFP 9single farm payment) per year. This
does not give a profit.
• Steve has diversified into other methods to make money (esp. if dairy goes
down): Milk round (300 customers), growing willow trees to make cricket
bats, caravan parking, organic beef products, farmers
market, allotments, farm shop, yoghurt and cream sales, selling land.
Is CAP fair to Europe?
Rules should apply the same everywhere, but:
- Some governments do not check farms regularly and
so farmers claim money when they are not meeting
- Some governments protect their farms more than
Due to increasing food shortages, farmers may not be
urged to return to the ‘old ways’ and be less
environmentally friendly, i.e. using more chemicals and
Costa Plastica – case study for
• The area: dry, mountainous, rain shadow part of mountains, 100mm of rain
• Economy: Tourism and film making offers little injection of money
• Costa Plastica: Due to little water, farming is difficult but due to the new
drip feed irrigation and the use of polythene canopies agriculture had
• Benefits of Costa plastica: drip feed allows little waste and water s fed
directly to plants. Plastic canopies retain perfect temperatures. Large
demands for a variety of food, offers employment (also in surrounding
industry e.g. canopy production), land made usable.
• The disadvantages: Draining water supplies, encourages illegal immigrants
to move into area, migrant workers live in appalling conditions, land prices
risen, increase in crime, alcohol and drugs due to poor quality of life for
workers, land covered in plastic, some canopies were cheap and have fallen
apart, old canopies left to become an eye sore, lots of rubbish produced.
Japanese farming – case study
for farming in an MEDC
• Pressures: loss of land to industry, no government
support, more competition from LEDC’s
• Changes: Hydroponics (no soil), faster growing period,
• Impacts: less young people work in farming, aging
population in rural areas, farmers attracted to industry
• Other changes: education for young people on farming
farmers guaranteed same working hours and conditions
as other industries, industrial relocation financial support
Factors affecting industrial location
• Physical factors: accessibility, climate, land,
power, attractive environment, raw materials
• Socio-economic factors: Communications,
government policy, labour supply, markets,
inertia (where industries stay in one place but
the reasons for it being there have gone),
economies of sale (cheaper to produce
products in bulk), agglomeration (similar
industries move to the same place)
Factors affecting industrial location
Toyota, Derby – case study
• Location: Junction of A38 & A50, SE of new close farm and
W of Findern. Approx. 5 miles SW of Derby and approx. 5
miles NE of Burton.
• Surrounding area: Flat, rural, Greenfield site, few towns
and villages nearby, Midlands airport, golf courses, away
from River Trent.
• Benefits of this location: flat means the factory can
expand, golf courses offer entertainment for employees
and nice views, Midlands airport and good road links
means raw material and products can be imported or
exported cheaply and easily and clients can fly in, flooding
is not a risk as the factory is not near the River Trent.
South Wales – Case study for
industrial decline and growth
• During 1930’s ‘The Valleys’ in S Wales were dependant upon the coal mines
and almost everyone was employed there from this settlement. Area is
now derelict because mines are closed, services lost money and moved
away. SPIRAL OF DECLINE.
• Port Talbot is experiencing economic growth because the area thrive son
imports and exports of heavy raw materials, steelworks and industry due to
flat land. SPIRAL OF GROWTH.
• M4 growth corridor E of Port Talbot and Cardiff and Newport. Last 20 years
it has attracted Hi-tech industry. The area offers good transport links to
Cardiff and Newport as well as major cities such as London and
Manchester, it is also near ports and airports. This means export and
imports of good is easy and cheap and the area is highly accessibly for
clients. Area attracts agglomeration 9spiral of growth) and nearby
graduates from Universities in Cardiff. £2.5 billion from welsh development
agency and EU regional aid to improve infrastructure and advertising.
How governments affect industrial
• Planning controls
• Decentralise government offices
• Enterprise zones
• Urban development corporations
• Attract investment from large overseas companies
All of these have the same aims: create new permanent
jobs, generate local incomes, create a spiral of growth,
bring a multiplier effect to the local community.
Multi and transnational corporations
Bosch, south Wales – case study
This is a multinational corporation because it had companies all over the
world, such as Mexico, Australia, UK, South Africa, China, Spain, Germany
(HQ) and Brazil. It also produces over 8 types of products (kitchen
appliances, Power tools, fuel pumps, car radios, lawn mowers, mobile
phones) and has a very well known logo.
Branch we study is located in Miskin, South Wales.
- Transport : close to M4 and ten miles form Cardiff, Near airports.
- Space: room to expand, Greenfield site
- Labour supply: High quality local workforce, good training facilities and
- Grants: Government support from the Welsh Development Agency
Industrial development in LEDC’s (NIC’s)
Pepsi in Brazil – case study
Why did Pepsi go to brazil?
Can offer a better quality of life here for the employed because there is a large scale of employment. Also,
these jobs are of low wage which saves Pepsi money. The land is also cheap and can be developed on.
The headquarters are also nearby in USA.
The location of the factory
100km to the North of Sao Paulo in the city of Judai, approx. 200km off the coast. Brazil is location in
South America, neighboroughing Paraguay and Argentina.
Is Pepsi good for LEDC’s?
Yes -offers better quality of life
-Help close the gap betwene rich and poor
-Creates a new market
-Encourages multiplier effect
No - Sweat shop?
- Factory is an eye sore
The itaipu dam – case study for
industry in LEDC’s
• Location: Banks or America's largest river – the Paraná
River. South western border of Brazil, and south western
border of Paraguay. Edge of tropic rainforest and equator.
• Climate: High annual rainfall, no sohortage fo water.
• River system: provides dam with reliable source.
• Low population: Few people were affect by relocation.
• Demand for electricity: The dam reduces petrol used by
Paraguay and Brazil for electricity. They need a hige amount
of electricity because they are developing countries
FOR MORE SEE SHEET.
Impacts of TNC’s on LEDC’s
Advantages: Jobs, training provides new skills, multiplier
effect (new jobs = more spending), investment
improves services, new resources will be developed,
TNC’s pay taxes, trade increased, better working
conditions, links with other countries formed.
Disadvantages: Higher paid jobs are not for locals,
leakage effect, TNC use power to influence
government, factories cause pollution, finished
products are of little use to locals, not appropriate
technology. Cheap labour.
Lushoto in NE Brazil
• North east Tanzania in Usambara Mountains, which are on the
coast of the Indian ocean. Tanzania is south of Uganda and
Kenya and north of Zambia
• Mountains are becoming popular with tourists because of the
scenery, walking, relaxing atmosphere.
• Cultural Tourism Programme. This is sustainable because
benefits local people by being culturally and environmentally
sensitive. They work with local people to develop the area.
• Ecotourism = when tourists visit and area to see the culture and
nature. They do not damage local ecosystems and benefit the
• Better than normal tourism because this can have the following affects:
-Disrupt the environment form large amount so people visiting
-Profits rarely reach local people
-employees are poorly trained and paid
-Construction ruins local facilities
-Local people could be relocated
• Eco tourism has the following benefits:
- Employs local people
- Communities receive funding
- Tourist numbers have increased
- Building of facilities such as schools
- Tree planting
- Projects started
- Conserves local area