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  1. 1. Collette’s Revision PowerPoint! 1. Population 2. The EU 3. Weathering and Erosion 4. Coasts 5. River Landscapes 6. Natural Hazards 7. Settlement and migration 8. Farming
  2. 2. Population Key words • Density – The average number of people per square kilometre pop density = total pop / total land area (km2) • Population distribution – The way in which people are spread out over the world • Birth rate – number of births in a country per 1000 people • Death rate – number of deaths “ • Sustainable – Questioning whether the population is manageable for the future • Natural increase – birth rate – death rate • Growth rate – natural increased expressed as % • Migration – the movement of people • Dependency ratio – ratio of number of dependants to the number of employed people. (#dependants/total working pop)
  3. 3. Case studies China: • over populated – expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2045, 0ver 20% of the world’s population live in china • One child policy • Social effects – children have no brothers/sisters, no one to look after older generation, increase in abortions • Benefits – birth rate has fallen, children get better education/health care/housing, parents receive 10% income bonus • Disadvantages – farmers need workers, boys are needed more, human rights
  4. 4. Ageing population More pensions More Birth rate carers drops needed Fewer Death rate working Problems increases people with an ageing population Less More care money for homes education More Dependant medical on younger care people needed
  5. 5. QUESTIONS! • What is natural increase and how do you calculate it? • How does china attempt to decrease their population? • What are the social problem with this idea? • Give 4 problems with an ageing population
  6. 6. The EU! Key words • Membership • Economic market • European Economic Community
  7. 7. Why, who, when, where? • Why was the EU set up? To create a united trade union • Who’s in it? 27 countries • When was it set up? 1951, shortly after the end of the second world war • Where? The French minister originally came up with the idea in 1950 What are the EU benefits? Prevents wars, easier trade, united currency, larger market, less border control, fewer employment barriers, aid.
  8. 8. Case study – Italy, the North/South contrast The northern plain – Rome, Milan, Venice, industrial heartland, large employment, transport and communication links, successful agriculture (flat land, good oil, water supply), less extreme climate, rich. The south – steep slopes, extreme climate, think soils, farming is main employer, lack of raw materials, small settlements, unattractive, out migration, poor services. What is being done to help? Grants, laws (1986) passed to encourage companies, improved roads and communication, raw materials brought in, EU aid The fiat factory, melfi Fiat employed over 700 people, stopped migration, new roads built, only successful company in south, attracts young people, training, encourage more companies,
  9. 9. Case study – Lille North France • Industry used to be centre of Europe's heavy industry and manufacturing area, steel, textiles, coal, rich local supply of raw materials • Expanding economy, old industries now replaced with modern services • Lille received help from EU regional aid programme, £28 million financial aid • Developed new industries, connected to major cities, built of market • Agency for the promotion of the Lille area (APIM) – encourages new businesses
  10. 10. Trade • 40% of the world’s total trade • Internal trade • External trade is with mostly LEDC’s • Some countries have over 50% of their trade within the EU • Most imports from Asia
  11. 11. QUESTIONS! • When was the EU set up? • Why was it set up? • Give 5 benefits of joining the EU • Why does the south struggle for employment? (4 factors) • How is this being improved? • Where is Lille? • What does APIM stand for? • Who did Lille receive help from and why?
  12. 12. Weathering & erosion! Key words: • Physical weathering • Chemical weathering • Hydraulic action • Attrition • Corrosion (solution) • Abrasion • Hydrological cycle • Igneous rocks • Sedimentary rocks • Metamorphic rocks • Exfoliation • Freeze thaw • Pressure release • Deposition • Transportation • Traction • Suspension • Bed load • Salutation • Biological
  13. 13. What is weathering & erosion? Weathering – Physical and chemical The break up of rocks through physical or chemical causes which is undergone in one place. Physical causes = natural break down of rocks e.g. animals, plants, weather. Chemical causes = Changes made to the rock due to chemical occurrences in or around the rocks. E.g. acid rain, oxidation Erosion Erosion is the process of moving the weather material. This can be done by wind, animals, water, gravity etc. However this can only occur if weathering has taken place first.
  14. 14. Definitions Freeze thaw (physical) – Takes place in areas where temperature is around 0. Rocks become frozen and easily crumble. Pressure release (P) – Rocks are kept under pressure by the weight of overlying rocks, after release the rocks expand and crack. Exfoliation – Rock surfaces expand and contract when heated by the sun and then cooled at night. Bed load – material carried along river bed (heaver material) Traction – when larger stones are rolled along the river bed Salutation – small stones ‘hop’ along river bed Biological – where plants and animals break up rocks, e.g. animals burrowing or plants roots
  15. 15. The four types of erosion Hydraulic action – The force of water removes weathered material from rocks and cliff faces etc. This is because the waves trap air and compress it into the cracks of the rock. This causes the rock to become loose and bits break away. Attrition – Rocks transported along the river crash into each other causing some to break up into smaller pieces. The rocks also become more rounded and smooth, as they rub against each other. Corrosion (solution) – This term means the breaking down of rocks through chemical processes, for example salt water. This is especially frequent in stones such as chalk and limestone. Abrasion – This is where rocks travelling down stream rub against river banks or beds and become more smooth and rounded.
  16. 16. The hydrological cycle
  17. 17. Rock types Igneous - Formed from volcanic activity, they are the result of cooled magma or lava. They are crystalline in composition. Examples = granite/basalt Sedimentary – Formed through the deposition and composing of sediments from other rocks. Examples = chalk/limestone/sandstone Metamorphic – Originally igneous or sedimentary. In order to change they have undergone vast pressures, temperatures which changes their crystalline and chemical structure. Examples = marble/slate
  18. 18. QUESTIONS • What is erosion? • What is weathering? • What are the three rock types? • What are the four types of erosion? • Name two types of weathering • What is biological weathering? • Give 3 ways that water reaches the land (hydrological cycle)
  19. 19. Key words Coasts! • Fetch • Swash • Backwash • Constructive Waves • Destructive waves • Hydraulic action • Attrition • Abrasion • Corrosion • Longshore drift • Bay • Headland • Spit • Caves • Arches • Stacks • Tombolos Erosion features • Barrier beaches Deposition features (including beaches) • Deposition Processes of coastal erosion • Erosion Coastal transportation • Transportation • Soft engineering • Hard engineering
  20. 20. Key words Fetch – The maximum distance over which winds can blow Back Swash wash Constructive wave = This is where deposition and Hard engineering = rock transportation take place due to strong swash. armour, groynes, sea walls etc Destructive wave = This is where erosion take Soft engineering = beach place due to strong back wash. replenishment
  21. 21. Problems with Seaford’s coastline Harbour arm – Prevents transportation and deposition to the east of the coastline as it prevents longshore drift and causes a build up of shingle. This created thin beaches along Seaford which were liable to flooding and so the scheme took place to prevent this from happening anymore. The arm was originally built to prevent material from entering the port and blocking it up. Active erosion – due to this the cliffs are becoming ‘dead’ in some areas such as at the harbour arm. This is due to corrosion, chalk is at risk of being eroded by the chemicals in the sea, hydraulic action, has created wave cut notches, caves, arches, stacks, stumps etc. Biological weathering is also taking place. Therefore the cliffs needed to be protected and restored.
  22. 22. How to protect Seaford coastline and why: Groynes – To prevent longshore drift transporting material from the beach and depositing further East. This needs to be prevented because hard engineering takes place to replace material and the more lost the more needed, the more costly it is. Seawall – Originally built to prevent flooding. However when erosion damaged it , it was strengthened with rock armour. Dredging – 3 million tons of shingle were dredged along the beach during construction using a pipe. This was to rebuild the beach and stop storm beaches from being created and to disallow further flooding and erosion of the sea wall. In Oct 1987 the beach survived. Riprap – To stop further erosion to cliffs at splash point.
  23. 23. Features of Seaford’s Coastline • Active erosion taking place. Hydraulic action = wave cut notches, caves, stacks etc at friars bay. • Flint lines in cliff to show build up of material to form cliffs • Sand and gravel is material left from ice age • At friars bay there is a storm beach which can be proved by the steep slops of shingle and grass showing where the waves cannot reach • Animal and plant weathering - biological • Material at cliff tops slumps into fantails due to heavy rain • ‘Dead’ cliffs • Beach replenishment schemes • Soft and hard engineering • Man made shingle is a different colour • Material needed to strengthen beach (i.e. large granite rocks under shingle) was taken from a quarry in Italy • At splash point there is a cliff – gap – cliff which is where the original river mouth was BUT The schemes are very costly and some are an eye saw, therefore there are mixed views on the engineering: - Residents = stops area from being flooded and protects beach BUT can create an eye saw for the area, such as when it was being built a lot of engineering took place over a long period of time - Environmental agency = decided to agree to it as it protects wildlife and river ooze - Local council = very costly but attracts tourism to the area
  24. 24. QUESTIONS • What is a wave cut platform? • What is the difference between constructive and destructive waves? • What is formed first, a cave or an arch? • Name two problems with Seaford’s coast line • How was this solved? • What is the purpose of groynes? • Give two problems that arose from the coastal management at Seaford • Give 5 features of Seaford's coastline
  25. 25. Keywords River landscapes • Valley • Gorge • Meander • Mouth • Source • Cliff • Bed • Bank • Confluence • Tributary • Load • Transport • Erosion Case studies: • Deposition • Drainage basin Rivers – River tees, UK • Watershed • Upper course Yangtze river, China • Middle course • Lower course Flooding – UK 2007 floods Bangladesh floods
  26. 26. River system Source Valley Gorge Meander Mouth
  27. 27. River systems Tributary – a smaller river or stream that flows into a larger one Confluence – the place where two rivers or streams meet
  28. 28. Case studies Yangtze river: • China’s largest river •Collects water from a larger area than France, Germany, Italy and Spain put together • Drainage basin (above) = 1.9 million km2 • Three gorges dam • Near Hong Kong (drainage basin end about 250 km from HK) • Mouth at Shanghai
  29. 29. River Tees: •North East England, Pennine Hills • Gorges and waterfalls due to heavy erosion • Valleys steep, wet weather = bad for crops • Good sheep farming and forestry • Cow green reservoir • Lower course = settlements and farming due to warmer weather and flat land • Industrial towns such as Stockton • Over 120 km long
  30. 30. Questions! • What is a source? • In which stage do meanders occur? • What is a tributary? • What is a confluence? • What is china’s largest river called? • How big is the drainage basin? • Where is the river tees? • What is the area good for?
  31. 31. Natural hazards Key words Floods Relief Land-use Jet stream Flood hydrographs Cyclone Earthquake
  32. 32. Cyclone Nargis - Burma Cyclone = an area of low pressure around which winds blow counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
  33. 33. Causes, effects and aid Causes Effects No warning system 2.5 million homeless Aid LEDC – poor shelter Over 2 million without shelter during the storm • Refugee camps • Red cross aid – food, water, shelter Midday – everyone inside 130,000 dead • 1/3 without aid Tropical depression & Over 20,000 missing • Aid from other parts of monsoon season Asia approaching • Soldiers – rebuilding 7.6 Magnitude Major destruction Torrential rain
  34. 34. Kashmir, China and Kobe earthquake Kashmir China Kobe When? 8Th October 2005 When? May 12th 2008, When? Kobe Japan 2.30pm local time Where? Kashmir Pakistan Where? Sichuan province, Where? 1995 17th January China 5am Why? 7.6 on Richter scale Why? 7.9 on Richter scale Why? 7.2 on Richter scale epicentre – Osaka bay, Damage – 3.3 million Damage – 112,000 people Damage- 5000 killed, homeless, 87,000 dead, huge lived in epicentre, buildings 180,ooo homes destroyed, scale disaster, infrastructure full (people at work/school), 23,600 injured. Infrastructure ruined 70,000 killed and 180,000 badly damaged. missing. Tremors felt in Pakistan and Thailand. Aid – UN, aid from 8 Aid – frantic diggers, comm. Aid – emergency shelters, countries in Asia, US$1 and transp limited. Grants fires put out, food water Billion, tents, helicopters from Asia, landslides and supplies, rebuilding, new floods threaten help. monitoring equipment.
  35. 35. Earthquakes & Tectonics Conservative Constructive plate margins This is where two plates moving in Where two plates pull apart to allow alternate directions past each magma to rise which cools and forms a other and causes friction and new layer of crust. ‘jerks’ occur. No land is destroyed or created and no volcanoes occur. tectonics/plateboundaryrev3.shtml Destructive plate margin Subduction zone – Where two plates collide and one is forced below the other where it reaches the magma and melts. This then erupts as lava. Collision zone – Where two plates collide and the crusts crumple to form mountains.
  36. 36. Floods – UK 07’ floods & Mississippi UK floods Mississippi Where? Affected Tewksbury, Gloucester and Where? Mississippi USA Cheltenham in West UK When? Summer of 2007 When? Summer 1993 Causes – ‘La Nina effect’ N Atlantic jet stream usually Causes – Heavy rain in April 1993, Thunderstorms passes through UK but 2007 was different, anti- throughout June and July, flash floods occurred in July, cyclonic conditions, high pressure, torrential storms. 180mm of rain every few hours, levees were under tremendous pressure. Effects – 35,000 homes damaged, transport cut off, Effects – 43 deaths, 50,000 evacuees, 26000 km2 of crop damage, food prices rose, livestock killed, 11 land flooded, $2.5 billion loss of crops, Estimated people died, power cut off, health problems, overall damage $12 billion. An area larger than the British isles was affected by flooding. Too months for water to drain away, buildings ruined, cleaning up took months, sewages was washed in waterways causing threats of disease, stagnant water attracted mosquitoes and rats. Many people thought he attempted controlling of the river was to blame for the floods as it interfered with nature. Aid - £1 billion costs, search & rescue, refuge tents, Attempts to control river – after the 217 deaths of the RAF biggest peacetime rescue operation, 1927 flood over 300 dams and reservoirs were built along with strengthened natural levees to protect urban areas.
  37. 37. Questions! • What is a cyclone? • Give five causes of the cyclone is Burma • Give two ways that the area was helped by aid • When was the earthquake in china? (time included) • What was the Kashmir earthquake on the Richter scale? • How many deaths did the Kashmir earthquake cause? • What was the damage to Kobe after the earthquake? (4 things) • Give three ways for each earthquake that the area was helped by aid.
  38. 38. Settlement Case studies: -Brighton (CBD structure) - Glasgow (inner city redevelopment) - Mexico/USA (migration and LEDC urban growth) - Japan (MEDC urban growth) - Cairo (LEDC Urban growth)
  39. 39. Glasgow – Inner city redevelopment 1. Outskirts - E.g. Newton Means 7 miles south of central Glasgow. High quality housing, peaceful lifestyle. 2. green belt - golf courses, farms, reservoirs, attracts commuters, M77 attracted large shops. 3. planned industrial estates - E.g. Hillington, built in 1900’s to attract new businesses, now contain offices, warehouses, few businesses remain e.g., rolles Royce. 4. early housing scheme - E.g. Pollok, houses residents during war, estates, flats, small houses. 5. high quality housing - E.g. Moss park, commuter zone, good transport services, public spaces, expensive and private houses. 6. heavy industry - E.g. Govan now derelict and disused but used to be a thriving area. 7. inner city - E.g. The gorbals, heavy industry, high rise buildings, high crime rate, slum area. 8. central business district (CBD) – Heart of Glasgow, transport, employment, business, shopping centres. Become populated due to redevelopment.
  40. 40. History of Glasgow and city attractions History of Glasgow City attractions - Settlement began 800 years ago •River Clyde •Cathedral - River Clyde encouraged population growth •School of art (e.g. shipping industry) •Museums - Poor housing, crime and pollution took toll •Science centre in 20th century •Harbour - In 1960’s population plummeted as people •Pollok house moved to search for work •Garden festival. - GEAR & Glasgow's miles better campaigned for re development - Raised money to transform grimy city centre - Industry is now very basic and contain small businesses.
  41. 41. Mexico (LEDC) – USA migration case study Problems with urban growth : Problems in Mexico: - Sewage -Migration (rural to urban) - High birth rates (teenage pregnancies) - Unemployment - Falling death rates - Crime - Shanty towns - Poor education/healthcare - Lack of housing - Traffic Solutions: - Poverty - Debt -Rebuild shanty towns - Overpopulated - Encourage companies to invest and employ - Provide cheap healthcare and education - Improve or invest in public transport - Family planning (contraception)
  42. 42. Japan – Urban growth (MEDC) Tokyo • High population densities – 20,000 per sq m, highest population in the world • Transport problems – 2 million commuters, railways, buses, cars, taxis, subways. • High land values – demands for space in CBD ahs risen dramatically • Housing – Enough for each family but very small, close together, no gardens, wooden. • Climate – Hot and humid summers = typhoons • Crime – (low in Tokyo) new york has 20 murders, 240 muggings and 30 rapes to every 1 in Japan. • Lack of open space – high land prices and demand for space • Pollution – 4 million cars, 80,000 factories, noise, air, traffic, sewage • Natural disasters – Japan lies on destructive plate margin, coastal areas at risk of floods and tsunamis, money spent on buildings that can withstand disasters.
  43. 43. Cairo • Why did the city grow here? River Nile = trade • What has happened to old Cairo? Burnt and become slum area • Who built the imperial city? British • What is the new city like? Wide streets, shops, suburban houses, space • What did Cairo expand into? The river Nile and desert • How has growth become possible? Bridges, river had been made narrower and deeper • What is happening to the CBD? Growing westwards • What has happened to the farms? Become smaller or farmers have left • Where have the farmers moved to? Cairo city centre
  44. 44. Cairo continued • Which part do most immigrants move to and where are they forced to live? Slums, rooftops • Why are the apartments out of Cairo empty? Too far away & expensive • Why ahs the sewage system broken down? Too many people • What is the new sewage project called? Waste Water Project • What transport does Cairo now rely on? Road • How has Cairo attempted to aid traffic growth? Underground trains • How many commuters should this remove from the city? 140,000 • Major problems with growth in Cairo: - Debt - Sewages - Transport - Unemployment - Lack of houses - Slum areas and refugees
  45. 45. Questions! • Give an example of an inner city area in Glasgow and what the land use is here. • What does the CBD offer for people in Glasgow? • Give two city attraction in Glasgow • Give two facts about Glasgow's history • Give 4 problems in Mexico • Give 4 solutions to these • Where are the migrants migrating to? • What is the population density figures for Tokyo? • Why is it a problem that Japan lies on a destructive plate margin? • Why did Cairo grow in this area? • What is happening to the CBD? • How had Cairo attempted to help traffic problems? • Give 4 problems in Cairo.
  46. 46. Weather & Climate! Key Words Frontal rainfall Convectional rainfall Relief rainfall Low pressure High pressure Anticyclones Depressions Micro climates Weather Climate Isobars Synoptic chart Air masses – tropical maritime, polar maritime, polar continental, artic, tropical continental
  47. 47. Weather & Climate • Weather = Changes in the atmosphere from a day to day basis. • Climate = Expected patterns of weather over a long period of time • Micro climate = Describes the weather and climate in a relatively small area. E.g.: - Coastal – coastal areas are cooler due to sea breezes and water takes longer to warm up than land. - Urban – Urban areas are often warmer than rural areas because tarmac and concrete retain more heat than grass. - Mountain & valley – mountain areas are always cooler as they are more exposed to the atmosphere whereas valleys area sheltered by the mountains and vegetation. • Factors that affect microclimates: altitude, exposure, water, buildings & surfaces, coasts, vegetation.
  48. 48. Air rises because of higher ground Types of rainfall which forces it upwards. Relief rainfall partially explains high rainfall total in highland areas of the 1) Relief (orographic) rain UK. Rain falls Clouds form Drier air Rising air cools Higher ground Warm, moist, Sinking air – westerly air warming up flow EVAPORATION Sea
  49. 49. 2) Frontal rain Clouds and rain Lighter air forced to rise, cool and condense Cooler denser air from polar regions Warmer lighter, moist air from the tropics Ground level Air rises because air from the tropics equator and the poles meets and pushes each other upwards, the warm air then rises.
  50. 50. 3) Convectional rainfall Cumulonimbus clouds formed Condensation Cools Sun heats Heavy rain Hot air rises ground Air drawn in Ground level The warm air rises vertically because the sun heats the ground, It rises and cool until condensation point where thick cumulonimbus clouds are formed. The low pressure causes air to move to the centre where heavy rain fall occurs.
  51. 51. • An air mass is a large area of air Air masses which takes on the features of the area where it comes from 3 2 4 1 5
  52. 52. 1) Tropical maritime – very common, on winter arrives with depressions and moist cool weather. In summer, cloudy, sunny spells, warmer weather. 2) Polar maritime – arrives on north-westerly winds. In summer it brings wet, cool weather. In winter cold showery weather with snow. 3) Artic – This air mass brings cold northerly winds and snowy weather in the winter. 4) Polar continental – Brings air from over Europe. In summer there can be heat waves. In winter cold, dry, easterly winds. 5) Tropical continental – Very rare in winter. In summer causes hot, dry sunny weather for long period on light southerly winds.
  53. 53. Air pressure High pressure (anticyclones) – air descends and warms - no wind, rain, clouds - sunny, hot - Clockwise motion Low pressure (depressions) – Unsettled weather (wind, rain, cloud) - Form to the west of Britain (A. ocean) - Form when two air masses meet, warm moist tropical air meets cold dry polar air. - Anticlockwise motion - Isobars are closer together
  54. 54. Low pressure - depressions Sunny intervals Fair Prolonged rain Sunny and clear Depression moves eastwards
  55. 55. L= Low pressure H = High pressure
  56. 56. Questions! • Define weather • Define climate • What is a microclimate? • Give another name for low pressure • What happens when there is high pressure? • From which direction does polar-maritime come from? • What weather does tropical continental bring in the summer? • Explain convectional rain • Explain relief rainfall • Explain frontal rainfall • Give 3 things that affect microclimate
  57. 57. Economic systems and Key words development • Primary industry • Secondary industry • Farming • MEDC / LEDC • CAP • Technology •Industrial location • Multiplier effect • TNC’s • Industrial growth/ Industrial decline • HI –TECH industry • Footloose • Aid •Sustainability
  58. 58. Factors affecting farming 1. Temperature: is it too hot? Too cold? 10. Pests and disease: Do pesticides need to be used? 2. Precipitation: is the rainfall reliable? Is there enough? Too much? 11. Labour requirements: Enough workers? Too many? 3. Weather e.g. wind, sunshine: Enough sunlight for plant growth? Does the wind destroy crops? 12. Distance to market: Petrol costs too high? Unable to sell food? 4. Altitude: Is the land too low? Too cold higher up? 13. Nearby processing plants: Can crops and 5. Aspect (direction slope faces): Enough products be processed nearby? Travel costs heat/sunlight on this slope? 14. Government aid: Needs loans? What do they 6. Rock type: Is it permeable/Impermeable? need aid for? 7. Soil: Is it fertile? Too rocky? Too dry? 15. Price: Good demand for crops? Good or bad income? 8. Drainage: Does the soil retain moisture? Does the land flood easily? 16. International tariffs: Trade? 9. Irrigation: Is the land level? Liable to flood? Field are accessible for water?
  59. 59. Types of Types of farming industry Subsistence farming = Producing crops for your own Primary = Industries extract raw benefit materials directly from the earth or sea, for example Arable = the growing of crops farming, fishing, mining. Pastoral = The rearing of crops Secondary = Industries process and manufacture the primary Mixed = Crops and animal products for example ship buildings, furniture making. Commercial = growing crops and/or animals to sell Tertiary = Industries provide a Shifting = When farmers move from place to place service, for example health care, police, office Sedentary = Farming in a permanent area work, transport services. Intensive = numbers working on farm are high but Quaternary = Industries provide farm is small information and expertise. For example technology. Extensive = Large farm but small amount of workers
  60. 60. Quarrying in the peak district – case study for impacts of economic development Social advantages Economic advantages Environmental advantages Attractive to tourists Attractive to tourists Modern quarry companies are committed to environment protection Provides employment Provides employment 37,000 trees planted, £1 million landscaping costs Social disadvantages Economic disadvantages Environmental disadvantages Noise, air, and visual Damages to surrounding pollution environment May be extended – further damage Pollution
  61. 61. Vine house farm • Located in an area of flat, low lying land. The land is also well drained (relief and water supply maintains crop health) • Soil contains peat which contains nutrients • Climate (less rain than rest of Britain and lots of sunshine) is perfectly suited for arable farming • In 1950 farm had only 15 fields (118 ha) and nine workers (extensive farm) and now is an intensive farm with 640 ha and 1-7 men. • Larger demand for products now due to technology, marketing and communication benefits • Fertilizers and machinery now used instead of natural fertilizers and hand farming.
  62. 62. Impact of CAP on longleys farm, Hailsham • The farm: completely organic (no artificial chemicals, no chemical pesticides, only natural compost, permission to treat sick cow with vaccines) • CAP: Since 2000 it has encouraged farmers to work in a more environmentally sensitive way • Single farm payment (instead of money for produce): Prices are determined by market and can go up or down due to patterns of demand. • Impacts on Steve: £20,000 from SFP 9single farm payment) per year. This does not give a profit. • Steve has diversified into other methods to make money (esp. if dairy goes down): Milk round (300 customers), growing willow trees to make cricket bats, caravan parking, organic beef products, farmers market, allotments, farm shop, yoghurt and cream sales, selling land.
  63. 63. Is CAP fair to Europe? Rules should apply the same everywhere, but: - Some governments do not check farms regularly and so farmers claim money when they are not meeting the criteria. - Some governments protect their farms more than others. Due to increasing food shortages, farmers may not be urged to return to the ‘old ways’ and be less environmentally friendly, i.e. using more chemicals and land.
  64. 64. Costa Plastica – case study for economic change • The area: dry, mountainous, rain shadow part of mountains, 100mm of rain per year • Economy: Tourism and film making offers little injection of money • Costa Plastica: Due to little water, farming is difficult but due to the new drip feed irrigation and the use of polythene canopies agriculture had changed dramatically. • Benefits of Costa plastica: drip feed allows little waste and water s fed directly to plants. Plastic canopies retain perfect temperatures. Large demands for a variety of food, offers employment (also in surrounding industry e.g. canopy production), land made usable. • The disadvantages: Draining water supplies, encourages illegal immigrants to move into area, migrant workers live in appalling conditions, land prices risen, increase in crime, alcohol and drugs due to poor quality of life for workers, land covered in plastic, some canopies were cheap and have fallen apart, old canopies left to become an eye sore, lots of rubbish produced.
  65. 65. Japanese farming – case study for farming in an MEDC • Pressures: loss of land to industry, no government support, more competition from LEDC’s • Changes: Hydroponics (no soil), faster growing period, smaller machinery • Impacts: less young people work in farming, aging population in rural areas, farmers attracted to industry • Other changes: education for young people on farming farmers guaranteed same working hours and conditions as other industries, industrial relocation financial support
  66. 66. Factors affecting industrial location • Physical factors: accessibility, climate, land, power, attractive environment, raw materials • Socio-economic factors: Communications, government policy, labour supply, markets, inertia (where industries stay in one place but the reasons for it being there have gone), economies of sale (cheaper to produce products in bulk), agglomeration (similar industries move to the same place)
  67. 67. Factors affecting industrial location Toyota, Derby – case study • Location: Junction of A38 & A50, SE of new close farm and W of Findern. Approx. 5 miles SW of Derby and approx. 5 miles NE of Burton. • Surrounding area: Flat, rural, Greenfield site, few towns and villages nearby, Midlands airport, golf courses, away from River Trent. • Benefits of this location: flat means the factory can expand, golf courses offer entertainment for employees and nice views, Midlands airport and good road links means raw material and products can be imported or exported cheaply and easily and clients can fly in, flooding is not a risk as the factory is not near the River Trent.
  68. 68. South Wales – Case study for industrial decline and growth • During 1930’s ‘The Valleys’ in S Wales were dependant upon the coal mines and almost everyone was employed there from this settlement. Area is now derelict because mines are closed, services lost money and moved away. SPIRAL OF DECLINE. • Port Talbot is experiencing economic growth because the area thrive son imports and exports of heavy raw materials, steelworks and industry due to flat land. SPIRAL OF GROWTH. • M4 growth corridor E of Port Talbot and Cardiff and Newport. Last 20 years it has attracted Hi-tech industry. The area offers good transport links to Cardiff and Newport as well as major cities such as London and Manchester, it is also near ports and airports. This means export and imports of good is easy and cheap and the area is highly accessibly for clients. Area attracts agglomeration 9spiral of growth) and nearby graduates from Universities in Cardiff. £2.5 billion from welsh development agency and EU regional aid to improve infrastructure and advertising.
  69. 69. How governments affect industrial location • Planning controls • Decentralise government offices • Enterprise zones • Urban development corporations • Attract investment from large overseas companies All of these have the same aims: create new permanent jobs, generate local incomes, create a spiral of growth, bring a multiplier effect to the local community.
  70. 70. Multi and transnational corporations Bosch, south Wales – case study This is a multinational corporation because it had companies all over the world, such as Mexico, Australia, UK, South Africa, China, Spain, Germany (HQ) and Brazil. It also produces over 8 types of products (kitchen appliances, Power tools, fuel pumps, car radios, lawn mowers, mobile phones) and has a very well known logo. Branch we study is located in Miskin, South Wales. - Transport : close to M4 and ten miles form Cardiff, Near airports. - Space: room to expand, Greenfield site - Labour supply: High quality local workforce, good training facilities and nearby colleges/universities. - Grants: Government support from the Welsh Development Agency
  71. 71. Industrial development in LEDC’s (NIC’s) Pepsi in Brazil – case study Why did Pepsi go to brazil? Can offer a better quality of life here for the employed because there is a large scale of employment. Also, these jobs are of low wage which saves Pepsi money. The land is also cheap and can be developed on. The headquarters are also nearby in USA. The location of the factory 100km to the North of Sao Paulo in the city of Judai, approx. 200km off the coast. Brazil is location in South America, neighboroughing Paraguay and Argentina. Is Pepsi good for LEDC’s? Yes -offers better quality of life -Help close the gap betwene rich and poor -Creates a new market -Encourages multiplier effect No - Sweat shop? - Factory is an eye sore
  72. 72. The itaipu dam – case study for industry in LEDC’s • Location: Banks or America's largest river – the Paraná River. South western border of Brazil, and south western border of Paraguay. Edge of tropic rainforest and equator. • Climate: High annual rainfall, no sohortage fo water. • River system: provides dam with reliable source. • Low population: Few people were affect by relocation. • Demand for electricity: The dam reduces petrol used by Paraguay and Brazil for electricity. They need a hige amount of electricity because they are developing countries FOR MORE SEE SHEET.
  73. 73. Impacts of TNC’s on LEDC’s Advantages: Jobs, training provides new skills, multiplier effect (new jobs = more spending), investment improves services, new resources will be developed, TNC’s pay taxes, trade increased, better working conditions, links with other countries formed. Disadvantages: Higher paid jobs are not for locals, leakage effect, TNC use power to influence government, factories cause pollution, finished products are of little use to locals, not appropriate technology. Cheap labour.
  74. 74. Ecotourism Lushoto in NE Brazil • North east Tanzania in Usambara Mountains, which are on the coast of the Indian ocean. Tanzania is south of Uganda and Kenya and north of Zambia • Mountains are becoming popular with tourists because of the scenery, walking, relaxing atmosphere. • Cultural Tourism Programme. This is sustainable because benefits local people by being culturally and environmentally sensitive. They work with local people to develop the area. • Ecotourism = when tourists visit and area to see the culture and nature. They do not damage local ecosystems and benefit the community.
  75. 75. Lushoto continued • Better than normal tourism because this can have the following affects: -Disrupt the environment form large amount so people visiting -Profits rarely reach local people -employees are poorly trained and paid -Construction ruins local facilities -Local people could be relocated • Eco tourism has the following benefits: - Employs local people - Communities receive funding - Tourist numbers have increased - Building of facilities such as schools - Tree planting - Projects started - Conserves local area